Accepted Name - Basionymum / Basionym - Synonyms - Ind. loc. [Indicatio locotypica (type locality)] - Lectotypus [Lectotype] - Designated by - Host - Comments - Chromosomatic number - Ic. [Images] - Distribution - Specimens Examined - References - Authors - Cite us

ISSN: 2386-9666 - Last Updated: 7 October 2020


Accepted Name:

Orobanche cumana Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 58 (1825)

Synonyms:

Homotypic synonyms:

Orobanche arenaria M. Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 2: 83 (1808), non Orobanche arenaria Borkh. in Neues Mag. Bot. 1: 6 (1794) (Reichenbach 1829: 45; Schultz 1830: 495; Steudel 1841: 30; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 80[75]; Tzvelev 1981 [2001]: 451 "The type of O. arenaria Bieb. ... is the type of O. cumana Wallr.). Ind. loc.: "Habitat in arenâ mobili deserti astracanensis atque cumani" (Marschall von Bieberstein 1808: 83)

Orobanche comana [orthographic variant (Koch 1849: 670)]

Orobanche cernua subsp. cumana (Wallr.) Soó in Feddes Repert. 83: 187 (1972). Syn.: = Orobanche cernua subsp. parviflora Kotov, Sov. Bot. 4: 90 (1935) (Art.11.2. A name has no priority outside the rank)

Orobanche cernua var. cumana (Wallr.) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr., Orobanchac.: 128 (1930) ["Var. δ cumana"]. Syn.: = Orobanche cernua var. bicolor (C.A. Mey.) Reut. in DC., Prodr. 11: 32 (1847) (Art.11.2. A name has no priority outside the rank)

Orobanche cernua f. cumana (Wallr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 143 t. 2 f. 33(3) (1890) ["Formae ... 4. (Orobanche cumana Wallroth")]

inicio / top of page

Heterotypic synonyms:

= Orobanche bicolor C.A. Mey. in Ledeb., Fl. Altaica 2: 458 (1830). Syn.: Orobanche cernua var. bicolor (C.A. Mey.) Reut. in DC., Prodr. 11: 32 (1847); = Orobanche cumana Wallr. (1825) (Beck 1930: 128; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 80[75]). Ind. loc.: "Hab. in deserto soongoro - kirghisico [Dzungaria - Kashgar] occidentali hinc inde locis argillosis, nec non in locis sabulosis ad ripam rivuli Tschaganka versus radicem montis Tschingistau [Eastern Kazakhstan / Kazakstan] (M.)" (Meyer 1830: 458); "Hab. in deserto soongoro - kirghisico occidentali hinc inde in locis argillosis atque in locis sabulosis ad ripam rivuli Tschaganka versus radicem montis Tschingistau [Eastern Kazakhstan / Kazakstan]" (Ledebour, Icon. Pl. 4: 25. 1833; "Sibiriae altaicae deserto soongoro - kirghisico! (Fl. Alt., Karel. et Kiril)"; Ledebour, Fl. Ross. 3: 321. 1841-1853). Ic.: Ledebour, Icon. Pl. 4: t. 390 (1833). Obs. Collections of S.G.Karelin from Middle Asia (LE). Herbarium Specimens: "1801. 1803. Orobanche bicolor C.A.M. / In praeruptis arenosis ad fl. Lepsa in Songoria [Dzungaria]; — in salsis inter Usunbulak et Gorkoi piket. / leg. Karelin et Kiriloff a. 1841 / Soc. Imp. Nat. Gur. Mosqu." (MNHN-P-P02968094 - P 02968094.jpg - gbif.org/occurrence/437439676; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2015); idem (CVH 10263; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2016); "Ledebour // Orobanche bicolor / C.A. Meyer / Altai" (CVH 10263; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2016)

= Orobanche nicotianae Wight, Ill. Ind. Bot. 2: 179[178-180], t. 158 (1850) (Hooker 1884: 326). Ind. loc.: "The plant selected to illustrate the order is extensively distributed in Southern India, in those districts where Tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanaceae)] is largely cultivated, and is a most abundant injurious weed. In Coimbatore [Kovai / Koyamuttur / Koyambattur / Koimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India] it is in full perfection in March and April, when the Tobacco crops are approaching matury". "The Deccan; common in and destructive of tobacco crops, Wight." (Hooker 1884: 326). Types: 1. "R. W. / Orobanche s. n. / nicotianae m. / Coimbatore January 1848". 2. "Bombay Herbarium of the late N.A. Dalzell. Presented by Mrs. Dalzell, April 1878". 3. "Orobanche cernua Loefl. var. desertorum Beck / Flora of Madras / Det. J.S. Gamble / 1922". 4. "See true interesting account of its / growth on Tobacco in Wight Spec. heilth [?].! / E.S.G [?]". 5. "= Wight on t. 158 / CB. Clarke" (K 000061383 - kew.org/herbcatimg/665232.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2016); 1. "Peninsula Indiae Orientalis / No. / 2408 / Orobanche / Herb. Wight / Distributed at the Royal Gardens, Kew. 1866-7". 2. "Coimbatore January / 1848". 3. "Orobanche cernua Loefl. var. desertorum Beck / Flora of Madras / Det. J.S. Gamble / 1922". 4. "Herbarium Hookerianum / 1867" (K 000061384 - kew.org/herbcatimg/665233.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2016)

? = Orobanche glaucantha Trautv. in Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 1: 26[-27] (1871) (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 72[67], sub O. glaucantha). Ind. loc.: "In Sibiria orientali, prope pag. Ust-Balei [near Irkutsk, Irkutsk Oblast, Russia / Россия], in declivibus ad fl. Angara (Tschekanowski)". Obs. "tota glaberrima" (see Orobanche cumana Wallr. 1825). "Note. Despite the complete absence of pubescence, this species is extremely close in every other respect to O. coerulescens Steph., although representing its glabrous variant." (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 73[68], sub O. glaucantha). "Glabrous" (Lee & al. 2016, sub O. coerulescens)

= Orobanche sabulosa Steven ex Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 143 (1890) ["in schedulis!"], nom. illeg. Ind. loc.: "provinciis caucasicis [pr. Stawropol (Stavropol / Stauropolis, Stavropol Krai, Russia)] (C.A. Meyer), ad fl. Terek [Terek River, Caucasus]! (Steven pl. exs.)]..." (Ledebour 1841-1853: 322, sub O. cumana)

= Orobanche sarmatica Kotov, Fl. URSR 10: 454, f. 8 (1961) (Tzvelev 1981: 329[451]; ipni.org/n/662674-1). Ind. loc.: "near Yevpatoriya [Yevpatoria / Eupatoria / Євпато́рія / Евпато́рия, Yevpatoria municipality], Crimea [Crimea / Krym], UA, (KW)" (Schlauer & al. 2003)

inicio / top of page

= Orobanche cernua subsp. parviflora Kotov, Sov. Bot. 4: 90 (1935) (Tzvelev 1981: 329[451]). Syn.: = Orobanche cernua subsp. cumana (Wallr.) Soó in Feddes Repert. 83: 187 (1972) (Art.11.2. A name has no priority outside the rank)

= Orobanche cernua subsp. rajahmundrica Teryokhin in Adv. Paras. Pl. Res.: 246 (1996) (Schlauer & al. 2003) [Weed Broomrapes: 15 (1997), without type. (ipni.org/n/993025-1)] [in Novost Sist. Vysš. Rast. 33: 210 (2001) (ipni.org/n/20000358-1; Domina & Raab-Straube 2010)]. Ind. loc.: "Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India, C.A. Raju s.n. (LE)" (Schlauer & al. 2003); "India (Andhra Pradesh), E. Teryokhin, 1 Mar 1994 isotype LE" (ipni.org/n/20000358-1). Obs. Dhanapal 1996: 13, sub O. cernua

= Orobanche cernua subsp. cumana (Wallr.) Soó in Feddes Repert. 83(3): 187 (1972) view IPNI entry

inicio / top of page

= Orobanche cernua var. bicolor (C.A. Mey.) Reut. in DC., Prodr. 11: 32 (1847) ["β. bicolor"]. Syn.: Orobanche bicolor C.A. Mey. in Ledeb., Fl. Altaica 2: 458 (1830) (Ledebour 1841-1853: 321); = Orobanche cernua var. cumana (Wallr.) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr., Orobanchac.: 128 (1930) (Art.11.2. A name has no priority outside the rank)

= Orobanche cernua var. taurica (Beck) Tzvelev in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 46: 214 (2015). Syn.: Orobanche cernua var. cumana f. taurica Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr., Orobanchac.: 128 (1930)

= Orobanche cumana var. helianthi Tzvelev in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 46: 214[-215] (2015). Type: "Тип (typus varietatis): «Близ ст. Верблюд, Се-веро-Кавказской железн [North Caucasus Railway]. дороги, Ростовская селекционная станция [Rostov Oblast / Росто́вская о́бласть, Southern Federal District / Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг], на Helianthus annuus L., 26 VII 1949, № 65, И. В. Новопокровский» (LE, cum 2 iso)."

inicio / top of page

= Orobanche cernua var. cumana f. densior Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr., Orobanchac.: 128 (1930) ["Forma 4. densior"]. Ind. loc.: "Hinc inde cum varietate"

= Orobanche cernua var. cumana f. holosepala Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr., Orobanchac.: 128 (1930). Ind. loc.: "Shungurei [Songaria / Soogaria / Zhungaria / Dzungaria, Kazakhstan / Kazakstan]: bei Alakulj (Bienert)"

= Orobanche cernua var. cumana f. taurica Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr., Orobanchac.: 128 (1930) ["Forma 7. taurica"]. Syn.: Orobanche cernua var. taurica (Beck) Tzvelev in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 46: 214 (2015). Ind. loc.: "In der Krim [Crimea / Krym] bei Oreanda [Yalta Municipality] (V. Golde! in Herb. Petersburg. [LE] unter O. alba)". Typus: "«In der Krim bei Oreanda [Yalta Municipality], V. Golde» — W)" (Tzvelev 2015: 214). Herbarium Specimens: 1. "O. alba 5.". 2. "O. arenaria M.B. / Tauria litorea". 3. "O. cumana !B / mea Wallroth". 4. "208 W" (B-W 11600 200; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017, type of O. cernua var. cumana f. taurica?)

= Orobanche cernua var. cumana f. tenuisepala (Beck) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr., Orobanchac.: 128 (1930) ["Forma 6. tenuisepala"]. Syn.: Orobanche cernua f. tenuisepala Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 143 (1890)

= Orobanche cernua f. tenuisepala Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 143 (1890) ["Formae ... 5. (Orobanche) tenuisepala"]. Ind. loc.: "Turkestania: ... in planitie Kickdan ad montes Gasi Machik et prope Gomut [Tajikistan / Tayikistán] (f. 5 leg. Regel)" (Beck 1890: 145)

= Orobanche cernua var. cumana f. valens Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr., Orobanchac.: 128 (1930) ["Forma 4*. valens"]. Ind. loc.: "Mesopotamien: bei Tell Halaf [Tell Halaf, Al Hasakah, Syria] in der Steppe bei Haus, im Mai (Kohkl! in der Expedition Frh. v. Oppenheim)"

inicio / top of page

Misapplied names:

Orobanche cernua auct. pl., non Orobanche cernua L. in Loefl., Iter Hispan.: 152 (1758) [e.g., "O. cérnua Pall. ind. taur." (Meyer 1830: 458, sub O. bicolor; Don 1838: 631; Steudel 1841: 230, "sec. Meyer")]

inicio / top of page


Ind. loc.: "Habitat in arenâ mobili deserti astracanensis atque cumani" (Marschall von Bieberstein 1808: 83, sub O. arenaria). "In arena mobili deserti astracanici et cumani" (Wallroth 1825: 58). «Sands in the lower reaches of the Volga [Во́лга] and on the Kuma [Кума́] rivers ("In arena mobili deserti astracanici et cumani"). ... "O. arenaria M. In arena mobili ad Wolgam versus Astrachan [Province of Astrakhan / Astrakhan Oblast, Russia] lecta, 1803"» (Tzvelev 1981: 329[451]).

Typus / Type: LE. «The type of O. arenaria Bieb., preserved in Leningrad [LE] with the label "O. arenaria M. In arena mobili ad Wolgam versus Astrachan lecta, 1803" is the type of O. cumana Wallr.» (Tzvelev 1981: 329[451]; Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 52); "Lectotypus (Цвелёв 1981: 329 = типус О. arenaria M. Bieb.): «In arena mobili ad Wolgam versus Astrachan lecta, 1803» (LE)." (Tzvelev 2015: 214); "Orob. arenaria M. Bieb. / ad radices Xanthii strumarii / ad Wolgam / Claus // Regio Caspica. / Claus. Herb. Al. de Bunge." (MNHN-P-P02968103 - P 02968103.jpg - hb. E. Cosson - gbif.org/occurrence/437611250; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2012 [type?])

Designated by: Tzvelev in Flora of Russia: 451 [329] (1981) (Tzvelev 2015: 214).

Host: Parasitic on Compositae (Asteraceae) [e.g., Artemisia sp.] and Solanaceae species [e.g., Nicotiana sp.]. In Europe and other parts of the world is parasitic on various cultivated plants (e.g., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), aubergine (Solanum melongena L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 80[75]; Labrousse & al. 2001; Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 52; Annotated Checklist of Host Plants of Orobanchaceae, accessed Aug 2009).

"According to Morozov (1947), the first reports of broomrape in sunflower came from Saratov Oblast in Russia and date back to the 1890s" (Škorić & al. 2010: 64). "Helianthus annuus L. (4 [O. cernua f. cumana] s. Litwinoff)" (Beck 1890: 143); "Helianthus annuus L. (δ [O. cernua var. cumana] s. Grintescu, Litwinoff, Alexeenko, A. Malzew in Bull. angew. Bot. St. Petersb. VI. [1913] 111-120 et Th. Sazyperow, I. c. 251-261 e literatura)" (Beck 1930: 123).

N. B. "The wild sunflower is native to North America but commercialization of the plant took place in Russia ... Sunflower became very popular as a cultivated plant in the 18th century. Most of the credit is given to Peter the Great. The plant was initially used as an ornamental, but by 1769 literature mentions sunflower cultivated by oil production. By 1830, the manufacture of sunflower oil was done on a commercial scale" (2015 National Sunflower Association).

Comments:

Ttaxonomic and morphological observations: Orobanche cumana is a polymorphous species. It is provisionally considered by us to be an independent species very closely allied to O. cernua, although the differences between these two species can not always be easily expressed (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 75; Tzvelev 1981: 451; Pujadas & Velasco 2000). We can easily distinguish these taxa when comparing typical specimens (e.g., when comparing specimens of O. cumana growing on cultivated plants) but this is not easy when the specimens are less typical. On the other hand, we believe the indumentum staminal (glabrous / hairy) are of no value in differentiating the two taxa (e.g., O. cernua from loc. class. has hairy stamens) as some authors think (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 75[95-96]; Tzvelev 1981: 450-451). "The form of [O. cernua] subsp. cumana parasitizing sunflower ... result of anthropogenic activity, which, in any case, cannot be considered as type subspecies cumana." (Tzvelev 1981: 451; Tzvelev 2015: 215, type of O. cumana var. helianthi).

"The Orobanche cernua populations attacking sunflower seem to be unable to attack tobacco and vice versa (Musselman, 1994). According to some authors (cf. Ter Borg, 1994), they should be taxonomically distinguished either as separate subspecies or as two species, indicating the sunflower broomrape as O. cumana Wallr." (Dhanapal 1996: 10, sub O. cernua).

Phylogenetic relationships: Carlón & al. in Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 3: 61 f. 4 ["Phylogenetic relationships"], 64 (2005); Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 6: 13 f. 2 [phylogenetic relationships] (2008).

"Orobanche grenieri groups with other accessions of O. cernua s. l., but while different races of O. cernua from a wide geographical area (from Spain to Australia) have nearly identical ITS sequences, that of O. grenieri is unexpectedly pronouncedly different ... This is in stark contrast to the nearly complete lack of differentiation on the sequence level among taxa traditionally recognized as separate, most importantly O. cumana" (Carlón & al. 2005: 59). "Orobanche species characterization using plastid sequences as molecular markers revealed that O. cumana contains at least two distinct rbcL sequences: one similar in size to the truncated rbcL pseudogene from O. cernua, a closely related species, and another with a size comparable to that of rbcL plastid genes from autotrophic plants" (Delavault & Thalouarn 2002).

Chromosomatic number: n = 19 (Palomeque & Sañudo 1981, sub O. cernua [Granada]), 2n = 38 (Schneeweiss & al. 2004, sub O. cernua var. cumana); 2n = 24 (Žukov 1939, sub O. cumana; Tzvelev 1981: 451, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana).

Ic.: a, Reichenbach 1829: 45, t. 691 f. 926 ["Caucaso: Blume, ex herb. cl.Trevirani"] f. 927 ["Specimen Wallrothianum"]; b, Beck 1890: t. 2 f. 33(3); c, Beck 1930: 113 f. 13; d, Ledebour 1833: t. 390, sub O. bicolor C.A. Mey.); e, habit and corolla ["with host plant Artemisia sp." (Tzvelev in Flora of Russia: 437 t. 41 f. 4. 1981; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev. Flora SSSR 23: t. 5 f. 3. 1958; Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: t. 2 f. 33(3). 1890; Moscow State University Herbarium (MW); f, sheet (Almendros, Cuenca); g, habit (sub var. cumana on its host Artemisia meyeriana (Asteraceae); Georgia, May 2001 by G. Schneeweiss. SIUC, accessed Mar 2006); h, habit (sub O. cernua. Parasitizing sunflower. Bulgaria, by L.J. Musselman. SIUC, accessed Mar 2006).

Distribution: Afghanistan, Algeria [unconfirmed], Armenia, Australia [unconfirmed], Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, China, France, Georgia, Greece, Hungary, India [sub O. nicotianae Wight], Iran, Iraq, Israel and Palestinian territories, Kazakhstan, Krym [O. cernua var. cumana f. taurica], Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Pakistan, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Syria [O. cernua var. cumana f. valens], Tajikistan, Tunisa, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Ukranie and Uzbekistan. "General distribution: Central Europe (southern part), Mediterranean, Balkans-Asia Minor, Armenia-Kurdistan, Iran, Dzhungaria-Kashgaria, Mongolia" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 80[75], sub O. cumana); Eurasian distribution (Domina & Raab-Straube 2010, sub O. cumana, accessed Jul 2010). Area and zones of severity of Sunflower Broomrape by Yakutkin & Budrevskaya 2006 in AgroAtlas. Cabi.org 37745#REF-DDB-133811, accessed Sep 2020). "Cartographie des principales zones de culture de tournesol infestées par l’orobanche [France]" in http://www.lgseeds.fr, accessed Dec 2014; "Orobanche cumana Wallr. se distribuye de forma natural desde Asia Central hasta el sudeste de Europa, dónde parasita especies silvestres de la familia Asteraceae ... Esta especie, conocida como jopo del girasol (Helianthus annuus L.), es también una importante mala hierba parásita de este cultivo, dónde fue observada por primera vez parasitando girasol en Rusia en la década de 1890. Orobanche cumana está presente en los cultivos de girasol en muchos países de todo el mundo, especialmente en el centro y este de Europa, España, Turquía, Israel, Rusia, Ucrania, Irán, Kazajstán, China, Francia y Túnez" (Pineda Martos 2014, sub O. cumana). Iberian distribution.

inicio / top of page



Specimens examined and literature records.

Afghanistan / Afganistán / Афганистан (cabi.org/isc/datasheet/108351)

Afghanistan (Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

inicio / top of page

Algeria / الجزائر‎ / Argelia / Algérie / Algerien [unconfirmed]

"Also in northern Africa" (Kreutz 1995: 88, sub O. cumana).

inicio / top of page

Armenia / Hayastan / Armenien / Армения (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 80[75], sub O. cumana; Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 52 f. 35, 53, sub O. cumana)

"Caucas. [Caucasus]" (Steudel 1841: 30, sub O. cumana); "Caucasi" (Reuter 1847: 33, sub O. cumana); t. 691 f. 926 ["Caucaso: Blume, ex herb. cl.Trevirani"] (Reichenbach 1829: 45); "in Caucaso a Blume lectae herbarii Treviraniani" (Reichenbach 1862: 107); "Armenia-Kurdistan" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 80[75], sub O. cumana); Армения, 6.06.1931. Собр. Карягин И.И. [Karyagin I.I.] (MW 0723469; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018).

inicio / top of page

Azerbaijan / Azerbaiyán / Azərbaycan / Азербайджан (Koch 1849: 670, sub O. comana; Beck 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana; Karjagin 1957)

"In Tatarisch [Tatarstan / Республика Татарстан, Russia]-Grusien [Georgia] und Schirwan [Shirvan, Azerbaijan] auf Beifuss [Artemisia], 500-800' hoch." (Koch 1849: 670, sub O. comana); "Territorium Caucasi: f. 4 (! Helenendorf [Goygol / Xanlar / Chanlar / Elenendorf] prope Jelisawetpol [Ganja / Gəncə / Yelizavetpol]...)" (Beck 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana).

Elisabethpol Governorate / Elizavetpol Governorate / Елизаветпольская губерния: "... / 350. Orobanche cumana Wallr. / ... / Prov. Elisabethpol, distr. Araesch. In semideserto Boz, ad / radices Artemisiarum. / 16.29. V. 1908 Leg. A. Schelkownikow et G. Woronow. / Determ. G. Woronow" (MW 0723472; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014).

Şirvan / Shirvan: "Orobanche cumana Wallr. / insula Swatoi [Shirvan] m. Caspii / leg. Al. Brnhns. // Herb. Al. de Bunge" (MNHN-P-P02968107 - P 02968107.jpg - hb. E. Cosson - gbif.org/occurrence/438609611; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014); "Orobanche cumana Wallr. / In insula Sswätoi [Shirvan] maris Caspii / leg. Al. Brnhns." (MW 0723471; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018).

Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic / Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası (Karjagin 1957)

inicio / top of page

Australia / Australien [unconfirmed] (see O. cernua L.)

Australia (Carter & Cooke 1994: 586 "potential agricultural weeds in southern Australia"; Kreutz 1995: 88; Škorić & al. 2010: 64).

inicio / top of page

Bangladesh / Bangladés / Bangladesch [East Pakistan] (Shaha & Mian 2013, sub O. cernua, "district of Jessore, Kushtia, Pabna and Rajshahi" ... "attacked sunflower, tomato and tobacco")

inicio / top of page

Belarus / Bielorrusia / Biélorussie / Weißrussland / Rusia blanca / Белоруссия / Рэспубліка Беларусь / Республика Беларусь (cabi.org/isc/datasheet/37745)

inicio / top of page

Bulgaria / България / Bulgarie / Bulgarien (Beck 1930: 123, sub O. cernua var. cumana; Petrov, 1968; Encheva & Shindrova 1994: 621; Shindrova 2006, sub O. cumana; Shindrova & Penchev 2012, sub O. cumana; Pineda-Martos & al. 2014; Molinero-Ruiz & al. 2015: 5, sub O. cumana)

Burgas Province / Област Бургас / Oblast Burgas: "Figure 2: Details of population CUMBUL-1 of Orobanche cumana parasitizing Artemisia maritima in Burgas, Bulgaria." (Pineda-Martos & al. 2014: 4).

Varna Province / Област Варна / Oblast Varna: "Bulgarien: bei Varna (nach Davidoff, Prinoss za izont. fl. Varn. XXI [1905]), in der Stara Plan, bei Dragoman in 800 m Seehöhe (F.A. Novak!)" (Beck 1930: 123, sub O. cernua var. cumana); A new physiological race of broomrape ... observed in Varna ... wild host (Artemisia maritima L. [A. maritima auct. non L. = A. santonicum L.])... (Petrov 1968; Encheva & Shindrova 1994: 621).

Bulgaria (Petrov 1970; Greuter & al. 1989: 258, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana; Encheva & Shindrova 1994: 619, "From its first appearance in 1935 ["in the norteast of Bulgaria"] the parasite has been the constant companion of sunflower ... According to Knyazkov (1950), the severest attacks were recorded in the northeast of Bulgaria (the regions of Varna, Shumen, Provadia"; Shindrova 1994: 145 f. 1; Gagne 1998; Shindrova 2006); "Parasitizing sunflower in Bulgaria" (Musselman, sub O. cernua. SIUC, accessed Mar 2006); "La costa del Mar Negro en el este de Bulgaria es una de las principales áreas naturales de distribución de O. cumana, dónde esta especie se encuentra principalmente parasitando Artemisia maritima L. [Artemisia santonicum L. (A. maritima subsp. monogyna (Waldst. & Kit.) Hegi; A. maritima var. boschniakiana Besser; A. maritima auct. pl.)]" (Pineda Martos 2014, sub O. cumana). "Orobanche cumana growing in the wild on Artemisia maritima in the Black Sea Coast of Bulgaria" (Velasco & al. 2016: 6, f. 5, sub O. cumana).

inicio / top of page

China / Chine / Китай / 中国 (Beck 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana; Beck 1930: 125, sub O. cernua var. cumana; Tzvelev 1981: 451, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana; Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana; CVH O. cumana, accessed May 2018; Wu & al. 2013: 57, sub O. cumana; Molinero-Ruiz & al. 2015: 5, sub O. cumana)

"Ku pei Ku (f. 4 leg. Wawra)" (Beck 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana; Beck 1930: 125, sub O. cernua var. cumana; Tzvelev 1981: 451, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana), "Dzhungaria-Kashgaria" [Dzungaria - Kashgar, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region]; "Gansu, Hebei, W Jilin, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Xinjiang" (Zhang & Tzvelev, 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana); China (Fernández Escobar & al. 2009).

Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region / Nei Mongol Autonomous Region / 内蒙古自治区: "Flora of China / Field No. H. 3839 / Date Aug. 12, 1933 / Paiyennopo, Ordos [Muu-us / Bad Water Desert / 鄂尔多斯沙漠], Mongolia / Altitude 1400 m / Sand flat / ... / Flower purple ... / Collector W.Y. Hsia" (PE 01463751; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); Dengkou County / 磴口县 (HIMC 0034719; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018).

Liaoning Province / 辽宁省: "Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) is a holoparasitic phanerogam which causes severe damage to tobacco in Liaoning province" (Wu & al. 2013: 57, sub O. cumana).

Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region / 宁夏回族自治区: Zhongwei / 中卫市 (IFP 13202002w0003; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018).

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region / 新疆维吾尔自治区: Zhaosu County [Mongolküre County] (IBSC 0547755; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018).

inicio / top of page

France / Francia / Frankreich (Kreutz 1995: 88, sub O. cumana; O. cumana in http://www.agro.basf.fr, accessed Dec 2014; Molinero-Ruiz & al. 2015: 5, sub O. cumana)

"northward to southern France" (Kreutz 1995: 88, sub O. cumana); "Orobanche cumana est spécifique du tournesol ... Un phénomène nouveau en France ... Sa présence en France est avérée depuis 2009 dans l’Ouest et le Sud-Ouest (Vendée, Poitou-Charentes, Tarn-et-Garonne, Haute-Garonne), avec des niveaux d’infestation ponctuellement forts." (O. cumana in agro.basf.fr, accessed Dec 2014).

inicio / top of page

Georgia / Sakartvelo / Грузия

"Caucas. [Caucasus]" (Steudel 1841: 30, sub O. cumana); "Caucasi" (Reuter 1847: 32, sub O. cumana); "ad fl. Terek [Terek River]! (Steven pl. exs.)]..." (Ledebour 1841-1853: 322, sub O. cumana); "In Tatarisch [Tatarstan / Республика Татарстан, Russia]-Grusien [Georgia] und Schirwan [Shirvan, Azerbaijan] auf Beifuss [Artemisia], 500-800' hoch." (Koch 1849: 670, sub O. comana); "Territorium Caucasi: f. 4 (... Tatuni, Tiflis [Tbilisi])" (Beck 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana); "bei Tiflis [Tbilisi], Tatuni δ" (Beck 1930: 124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "AY209231: Georgia, small lake close to Kumisi S of Tbilisi, 500 m, on Artemisia meyeriana (Asteraceae), G. Schneeweiss & AT (WU: S&T 6609)" (Carlón & al. 2005: 59, sub O. cernua var. cumana); Georgia, May 2001 by G. Schneeweiss, sub var. cumana on its host Artemisia meyeriana [Asteraceae]. SIUC, accessed Mar 2006).

inicio / top of page

Greece / Grecia / Ελλάδα / Hellas

Crete / Creta / Κρήτη: "Cr" (Greuter & al. 1989: 258, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana); "Kriti with Karpathos, Kasos & Gavdhos" (Domina & Raab-Straube 2010, sub O. cumana).

North Aegean / Περιφέρεια Βορείου Αιγαίου

Lesbos / Lesvos / Λέσβος: "North Aegean, Aegean, GR", 39°08'04.8"N 25°55'53.5"E. On Helianthus annuus, 12 Aug 2020 (iNaturalist.org/observations/56485865 - gbif.org/occurrence/2851090746 by σαββας ζαφειριου [Savvas Zafeiriou] in iNaturalist.org; accessed Oct 2020).

inicio / top of page

Hungary / Hungría / Magyarország (Barina & al. 2005, sub O. cernua; Molinero-Ruiz & al. 2015: 5, sub O. cumana)

Central Hungary / Közép-Magyarország: "Hungary, Abony [Pest County] / subhalofilní trávník / 15 August 2008" (photo 169232 [biolib.cz/en/image/id169232/] et det. Pavel Novák in 1999-2016 BioLib, accessed Dec 2016).

Central Transdanubia / Közép-Dunántúl: "Herbarium Musei Hist.-Nat. Hung. (BP) / 7081  Duplum / Orobanche cumana Wallr. / Comit. Komárom-Esztergom; Leányvár: Falu feletti-dülö; / ad domos, in radice: Helianthus annuus / 20.08.2004 / 47.683720, 18.768630 / 220 m.s.m. Z. Barina" (PE 01917657 and PE 01917977; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2020).

Northern Hungary / Észak-Magyaroszág

Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County / Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén megye: "Dr. Z. Kárpáti: Plantae Hungariae Exsiccatae / Orobanche cumana Wallr. / Comit. Zemplén. In monte Nagykopasz supra pagum / Tokaj: parasitica in Helianthemi annii. /  8.IX.1951. alt. cca 300 m.s.m." (science.mnhn.fr...clf170339 - CLF 170339.jpg - gbif.org/occurrence/1437901235; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018).

N. B. "Orobanche cernua Loefl. treated at species level is absent from the Hungarian botanical literature; only O. cumana Wallr. is recorded as an agricultural weed ... While O. cumana has been known as a weed of sunflower cultures in Hungary for more than 50 years (Boros 1950), O. cernua has not been recognised until now ... Up to now 13 populations of O. cernua became known from the lowlands of Hungary (Table 1) ... Orobanche cumana grows exclusively in sunflower cultures in Hungary, as in Spain [O. cumana var. helianthi] ... To our present-day knowledge Orobanche cernua is a rare but characteristic plant of Hungarian salt communities ... In Hungary its only host plant may be Artemisia santonicum L. Grulich and Feráková (1999) mention O. cernua subsp. cumana as being parasitic on Artemisia santonicum ... Moreover, according to Lazarov and Andrejev (1968) and Petrov (1970) Artemisia maritima L. (= A. santonicum L.) could be the host plant which promoted the spreading of O. cumana to Central Europe [see Bulgaria]" (Barina & al. 2005: 5, sub O. cernua).

inicio / top of page

India / Indien / Индия / 印度 (Wight 1850: 178, loc. class. of O. nicotianae Wight Hooker 1884: 326; Dhanapal 1996: 13, sub O. cernua; Schlauer & al. 2003, loc. class. of O. cernua subsp. rajahmundrica)

Andhra Pradesh: "tobacco crop in Andhra Pradesh" (Krishnamurthy & Nagarajan 1981: 235, sub O. cernua); "Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry [Rajamahendravaram], Andhra Pradesh, India, C.A. Raju s.n. (LE)" (Schlauer & al. 2003, loc. class. of O. cernua subsp. rajahmundrica); "One of the worst phanerogramous parasites of crop plants known. Occurs on tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanaceae)] in many areas in India. Known by different names in different parts of India such as 'malle1 in Andhra Pradesh and 'tokra' in North India" (photo by Integrated Pest and Diseases Management Expert Advisory System, accessed Dec 2010).

Cachemire: "R. de Cachemyr / Voyage de V. Jacquemont aux Indes Orient." (MNHN-P-P02968095 - P 02968095.jpg - Gbif.org/occurrence/437439675; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2015); "Orobanche indica ... / 77. Voyage de V. Jacquemont aux Indes Orient." (MNHN-P-P02968090 - P 02968090.jpg - Gbif.org/occurrence/439104453; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2015 [cf.]).

Tamil Nadu: 1. "R. W. / Orobanche s. n. / nicotianae m. / Coimbatore January 1848". 2. "Bombay Herbarium of the late N.A. Dalzell. Presented by Mrs. Dalzell, April 1878". 3. "Orobanche cernua Loefl. var. desertorum Beck / Flora of Madras / Det. J.S. Gamble / 1922". 4. "See true interesting account of its / growth on Tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanaceae)] in Wight Spec. heilth [?].! / E.S.G [?]". 5. "= Wight on t. 158 / CB. Clarke" (K 000061383 - kew.org/herbcatimg/665232.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2016, type of O. nicotianae Wight); 1. "Peninsula Indiae Orientalis / No. / 2408 / Orobanche / Herb. Wight / Distributed at the Royal Gardens, Kew. 1866-7". 2. " Coimbatore January / 1848". 3. "Orobanche cernua Loefl. var. desertorum Beck / Flora of Madras / Det. J.S. Gamble / 1922". 4. "Herbarium Hookerianum / 1867" (K 000061384 - kew.org/herbcatimg/665233.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2016, type of O. nicotianae Wight); "The plant selected to illustrate the order is extensively distributed in Southern India, in those districts where Tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum L.] is largely cultivated, and is a most abundant injurious weed. In Coimbatore [Kovai / Koyamuttur / Koyambattur / Koimbatore] it is in full perfection in March and April, when the Tobacco crops are approaching matury" (Wight 1850: 178, loc. class. of O. nicotianae Wight); "The Deccan; common in and destructive of tobacco crops [Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanaceae)], Wight." (Hooker 1884: 326).

N.B. "Orobanche cernua is appearing in all the tobacco growing areas in India (Krishnamurthy et al., 1977)" (Dhanapal 1996: 12, sub O. cernua). "Fig. 3. Distribution of Orobanche cernua in India" (Dhanapal 1996: 13, sub O. cernua).

inicio / top of page

Iran / Irán / Persia / Persien (Beck 1930: 124, sub O. cernua var. cumana; Gilli 1976: 297, sub O. cernua var. cumana f. holosepala; Gilli 1976: 297, sub O. cernua var. cumana f. tenuisepala)

Hamadan / Hamedān Province: "Persia: W: Ham.: Aq Bolagh-e Aqdaq, 2000 m, Rioux & Golv. AB-392" (Gilli 1976: 297, sub O. cernua var. cumana f. tenuisepala).

North Khorasan Province: "E: Khor.: 30 km W. Bojnurd versus Shahabad, 800 m, Rech. 55552" (Gilli 1976: 297, sub O. cernua var. cumana f. holosepala).

West Azerbaijan Province: "bei Urumia [Urmia / Orumieh, West Azerbaijan Province] auf schotterigen Hügeln auf Sonchus und bei Dise-samek, im Juli 1884 (J.A. Knapp δ)" (Beck 1930: 124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "Persia: W: Azerb.: Khvoy [Khoy / Khoi / Khuy, West Azerbaijan Province], Assadi in Rech. 44380" (Gilli 1976: 297, sub O. cernua var. cumana f. holosepala).

Iran (Tzvelev 1981: 451, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana).

inicio / top of page

Iraq / Irak (Beck 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana; Beck 1930: 124, sub O. cernua var. cumana)

"C. Haussknecht. Iter Syriaco-Armeniacum 1867. / Orobanche cernua L. / ad radici Artemisiae ... in deserto / Singarae [Singar] / die 6 Mai // 1870 no. 21" (MNHN-P-P02968091 - P 02968091.jpg - Gbif.org/occurrence/438438053; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2015); "Syria: in deserto Singarae [Singar]..." (f. 4 leg. Haussknecht!)" (Beck 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana); "Wüste Singara [Singar]" (Beck 1930: 124, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

inicio / top of page

Israel and Palestinian territories [Palestine / Palaestina]

Israel: Israel (Joel 1988; Ish-Shalom-Gordon & al. 1993; Eizenberg & al. 2004); "Bet-Dagan Experimental Station (coastal plain) ... Kibbutz Hasolelim (lower Galilee)" (Ish-Shalom-Gordon & al. 1994); "with host (Helianthus annuus), Bet She'an, Haré Gilboa [Mount Gilboa] (Is), 22-5-1984" (Kreutz 1995: 91, sub O. cumana!); "Kibbutz Bet Hashita Valley [Beit HaShita, Gilboa Regional Council] of Jesrael [on Helianthus annuus L.]" (photos invasive.org...imgnum=0686013, invasive.org...imgnum=0686017 and forestryimages.org...imgnum=0686017 by R. Jacobsohn, Agricultural Research Organization - Invasive.Org - Forestry Images; accessed Jan 2011).

Palestine / Palestina: "Hosts: ... irrigated vegetable crops in Lower Jordan Valley and Arava Valley [Arabah / HaArava / Wādī'Araba / Aravah, Great Rift Valley]" (Feinbrun-Dothan 1978: 213, sub O. cernua).

inicio / top of page

Italy / Italia / Italien [unconfirmed] (Pignatti 1982, sub O. cernua Loefl. "raram. Helianthus"; Kreutz 1995: 88, sub O. cumana; Conti & al. 2005; Bartolucci & al. 2018: 255, sub O. cumana)

"southern Italy" (Kreutz 1995: 88, sub O. cumana).

inicio / top of page

Jordan / اَلأُرْدُنّ / Al-'Urdunn / Jordanie / Jordania / Jordanien

"Hosts: ... irrigated vegetable crops in Lower Jordan Valley and Arava Valley [Arabah / HaArava / Wādī'Araba / Aravah, Great Rift Valley]" (Feinbrun-Dothan 1978: 213, sub O. cernua); Al-Khateeb & al. 2003.

inicio / top of page

Kazakhstan / Қазақстан / Qazaqstan / Казахстан / Kazajistán / 哈萨克斯坦 (Ledebour 1833: 25, t. 390, loc. class. of O. bicolor C.A. Mey.; Ledebour 1841-1853: 322, sub O. cumana; Reuter 1847: 32, sub O. cernua var. bicolor; Beck 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana; Beck 1930: 125, sub O. cernua var. cumana; Antonova 2014, sub O. cumana; Molinero-Ruiz & al. 2015: 4, sub O. cumana)

"Hab. in deserto soongoro - kirghisico [Soongoro-Kirghisici (Dzungaria - Kashgar)] occidentali hinc inde in locis argillosis atque in locis sabulosis ad ripam rivuli Tschaganka [Tschuganka] versus radicem montis Tschingistau [Tschingistan] [Eastern Kazakhstan / Kazakstan]" (Ledebour 1833: 25, t. 390, loc. class. of O. bicolor C.A. Mey.; Reuter 1847: 32, sub O. cernua var. bicolor); "Sibiriae altaicae deserto soongoro - kirghisico! (Fl. Alt., Karel. et Kiril [Karel. et Kiril Enum. pl. Fl. alt. No. 675])" (Ledebour 1841-1853: 321, sub O. bicolor); "Native of Altaia, in the Soongarian desert, in argillaceous and sandy soil, on the banks of the river Tschunganka, towards the foor of Mount Tschingistan" (Don 1838: 631, sub O. bicolor); "Sibir. alt. [Altaic Siberia]" (Steudel 1841: 230, sub O. bicolor); "1801. 1803. Orobanche bicolor C.A.M. / In praeruptis arenosis ad fl. Lepsa [Lepsy River] in Songoria [Dzungaria]; — in salsis inter Usunbulak et Gorkoi piket. / leg. Karelin et Kiriloff a. 1841 / Soc. Imp. Nat. Gur. Mosqu." (MNHN-P-P02968094 - P 02968094.jpg - gbif.org/occurrence/437439676; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2015); idem (CVH 10263; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja, Dec. 2016); "Ledebour // Orobanche bicolor  / C.A. Meyer / Altai" (CVH 10263; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2016); "ad flum. Lepsa [Lepsy River] in Soongaria, in salsis inter Usunbulak et Gorkoipiket (Karelin et Kiriloff!") (Reuter 1847: 32, sub O. cernua var. bicolor); "Orobanche cumana / Alatan [Alatau / Ala-Too / Алатау / Ала-Тоо / Алатау, North East of Kazakhstan] / Schrenk // In deserto Kirghisico vel in montibus / Tarbagatai [Tarbagatai Mountains] aut Ala-Tan Cl. Schrenk, 1840 / Herb. Al. de Bunge" (MNHN-P-P02968108 - P 02968108.jpg - hb. E. Cosson - gbif.org/occurrence/437943947; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014); "Orobanche cumana Warrl. / Soongoria / Habui ab Annesikob [?]" (MNHN-P-P02968105 - P 02968105.jpg - hb. E. Drake - gbif.org/occurrence/438276971; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014); "Orobanche arenaria M. Bieb. / Songaria [?] Claus. 47 // Herb. Al. de Bunge" (MNHN-P-P02968107 - P 02968107.jpg - hb. E. Cosson - gbif.org/occurrence/438609611; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014); "Siberia altaica: in deserto soongoro - kirghisico [Soongoro-Kirghisici, East Kazakhstan Region] m. Alatau! (Schrenk pl. exs.)" (Ledebour 1841-1853: 322, sub O. cumana); "Songhoria: f. 4 ad fl. Lepsa [Lepsy River] inter Usunbulak et Gorkoi picket (Karelin et Kiriloff), inter Kocksu et Karatul, prope Tarba-gatai, Alakul et Saduk et prope Dschisdy-King (leg. Schrenk)" (Beck 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana); "Shungurei: bei Alakulj (Bienert)" [Songaria / Soogaria / Zhungaria / Dzungaria]" (Beck 1930: 128, loc. class. of O. cernua var. cumana f. holosepala); "Turkestan / Türkistan" (Beck 1930: 125, sub O. cernua var. cumana); Kazakhstan (Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

East Kazakhstan Region / Шығыс Қазақстан облысы / Восточно-Казахстанская область: "Semipalatinskiy [Semey / Semeı / Семей / Semipalatinsk / Семипалатинск / Alash-kala / Алаш-қала]", 50°25'43.2"N 80°17'03.9"E, 10 Aug 2020 (iNaturalist.org/observations/56342878 by Сергей Богданов [Sergey Bogdanov] in iNaturalist.org; accessed Oct 2020).

inicio / top of page

Kyrgyzstan / Kirguistán / Кыргызстан / Киргизия (Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana)

Kyrgyzstan (Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "Цветущее растение (форма, лишённая синего пигмента). Киргизия, Чуйская обл [Chui region], северный склон Киргизского хр. 25 июня 2009 г." (photo id/225740 by Александр Науменко, 2014; растение определил(а) Холгер Улихin in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2014).

inicio / top of page

Moldova / Moldavia / Молдавия (Reuter 1847: 32, sub O. cumana; Reichenbach 1862: 107, sub O. cumana; Molinero-Ruiz & al. 2015: 4, sub O. cumana; Duca & al. 2018, sub O. cumana)

"Bessarabia" (Reuter 1847: 32, sub O. cumana); "Podolia [Podilia / Podillya / Поділля / Подолье] australi a Bessero indicata" (Reichenbach 1862: 107, sub O. cumana); Moldova (Sharova 1968); "Ju" (Greuter & al. 1989: 258, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana); "in 1981, 230 flowers of the parasite were registered on one plant in Komrat [Conrat, Gagauzia] district of Moldova in some sunflower fields" (Yakutkin 2003-2009). "The first documents that attest to the presence of broomrape in Moldova date back to 1863 just after the start of the sunflower crop in 1840. At the beginning of 1970s, a new broomrape race, called Moldovan race or race C, was identified for the first time by Sharova (Sharova, 1977). Furthermore, a short historical investigation revealed the appearance of new physiological races of O. cumana in the Eastern part of Europe (former USSR) between 1970 and 1980 and only later the parasite migrated to Western Europe (Antonova, 2014). This data demonstrates co-evolution of the broomrape with its host, sunflower." (Duca & al. 2018, sub O. cumana).

Transnistria / Transdniestria / Pridnestrovie / Приднестровье / Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic / Приднестровская Молдавская Республика

"Цветущее растение. Приднестровье, Слободзейский р-н [Transnistria, Slobodzeya district], поле подсолнечника [sunflower field]. 17.07.2019" (photo id/628293 by Алексей Кобак [Alexey Kobak] 2019; растение определил(а) Наталья Смурова [Natalya Smurova] in Plantarium, accessed Oct 2020).

inicio / top of page

Mongolia / Монгол улс / 蒙古国 (Beck 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana; Beck 1930: 125, sub O. cernua var. cumana; Tzvelev 1981: 451, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana; Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana)

"Mongolia: f. 4: Oasis Nija 1500 m, Oasis Keria, in decliv. N. Thianschan, prope Zaidam (leg. Przewalski)" (Beck 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana; Beck 1930: 125, sub O. cernua var. cumana; Mongolia (Tzvelev 1981: 451, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana; Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

inicio / top of page

Morocco / المغرب‎, / Marruecos / Marokko (Nabloussi & al. 2018: 457, sub O. cumana)

Rabat-Salé-Kénitra Region

Kénitra Province: "It was not until 2016 that sunflower broomrape was observed for the first time in Morocco, when some sunflower fields were heavily infested with this parasite in the area of Souk Al Arbaa (34°41′N, 5°59′W, 37 m above sea level), in the province of Kenitra ... the name of the Souk Al Arbaa (Province of Kenitra) population is proposed as race GKE" (Nabloussi & al. 2018: 457, sub O. cumana).

"Also in northern Africa" (Kreutz 1995: 88 [unconfirmed]).

inicio / top of page

Nepal / 尼泊尔 (Dhanapal 1996: 14, sub O. cernua; Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana)

Nepal (Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

N.B. "In Nepal, Orobanche cernua was reported attacking tobacco by Sahu and Sinha (1983)" (Dhanapal 1996: 14, sub O. cernua).

inicio / top of page

Pakistan / Pakistán / Paquistán (Jafri, O. cernua [s.l.] in Flora of Pakistan Online - efloras.org, "Orobanche cumana Walk. is a smaller form, c. 6.5 mm tall ... but insertion of stamens in the middle of corolla-tube is very distinctive. A fairly common. taxon from hills to plains in our area."; accessed Jan 2017)

Punjab Province: "C-7 Campbellpur Dist. [Attock Dist.]: parasitic on tobacco and Petunia species, flowers blue, April 1934, R.R. Stewart 13788 (RAW)" (Jafri, O. cernua in Flora of Pakistan Online - efloras.org; accessed Jan 2017).

inicio / top of page

Portugal (González-Cantón & al. 2019, sub O. cumana)

Baixo Alentejo (BAl): "In June 2017, broomrape was observed in a sunflower field near Serpa (37°55′N, 7°31′W, 198 m above sea level), in the Alentejo region" (González-Cantón & al. 2019, sub O. cumana).

inicio / top of page

Romania / Rumania / România (Beck 1930: 123, sub O. cernua var. cumana; Vrânceanu & al. 1980; Pacureanu-Joita & al., 1998; Gagne 1998; Dicu & al. 2011, sub O. cumana; Molinero-Ruiz & al. 2015: 4, sub O. cumana)

Sud-Est: "Rumänien: δ Lacul sarat bei Braila [Brăila County], im August (Prodan) und in der Dobrudscha [Dobruja]: δ bei Cerna voda [Cernavodă, Constanța County], Tschirghial [Techirghiol, Constanța County], im Juli (Prodan)" (Beck 1930: 123, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "Buzău", Lipia, 45°07'13.9"N 26°44'27.2"E, 13 jul 2016 (iNaturalist.org/observations/3671086 by Ioana Mita in iNaturalist.org; accessed Oct 2020).

Sud-Vest Oltenia: "Hortus Botanicus Universitatis Craiovensis / Craiova Republica Socialista Romania / Flora Olteniae Exsiccata / 1014. Orobanche cumana Wallr. / ... / Oltenia [Lesser Wallachia], dist. Dolj. Habitat ad radices planta hospitae / Helianthus annuus, prope vicum Ghindeni. Alt. cca. 130 m.s.m. / 15.VII.1966. / Leg. et det. M. Paun" (PE 01463803; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2020).

inicio / top of page

Russia / Rusia / Россия / 俄罗斯 (Wallroth 1825: 58, loc. class. of O. cumana; Ledebour 1841-1853: 322, sub O. cumana; Reuter 1847: 32, sub O. cumana; Beck 1890: 144, sub O. cernua f. cumana; Beck 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 80[75], sub O. cumana; Antonova 2014, sub O. cumana; Molinero-Ruiz & al. 2015: 4, sub O. cumana)

"Hab. in Rossia australi [ad Tanain (Henning), pr. Astrachan (M. a Bieb.), in deserto caspio (Tauscher ex (M. a Bieb.)] et cumanensi (M. a Bieb.) et provinciis caucasicis [pr. Stawropol (Stavropol / Stauropolis)] (C.A. Meyer), ad fl. Terek [Terek River, loc. class. of O. sabulosa Steven]! (Steven pl. exs.)]..." (Ledebour 1841-1853: 322, sub O. cumana); "In Tatarisch [Tatarstan, Russia]-Grusien [Georgia] und Schirwan [Shirvan, Azerbaijan] auf Beifuss [Artemisia], 500-800' hoch." (Koch 1849: 670, sub O. comana); "Rossia: f. 4 ... Gub. Astrachan (! Astrachan, Bogdo; Sarepta), Gub. Saratow (! Kamyschin), Gub. Simbirsk (! Syssan), Gub. Perm! in montibus Uralensibus!, Gub. Orenburg!" (Beck 1890: 144, sub O. cernua f. cumana); " im Gub. Astrachan [Astrakhan Oblast]: bei Astrachan, Bogdo, Sarepta [now part of Volgograd, Volgograd Oblast], Dolban an der Mündung der Wolga [Astrakhan Oblast] auf Artemisia maritima [Artemisia santonicum L. (A. maritima var. boschniakiana Besser) ?], im Juni (Paczoski δ)" (Beck 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); «Sands in the lower reaches of the Volga and on the Kuma rivers ("In arena mobili deserti astracanici et cumani"). ... "O. arenaria M. In arena mobili ad Wolgam versus Astrachan lecta, 1803"» [Astrakhan Oblast] (Tzvelev 1981: 451, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana); Russia (Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana). "Растения на ракушечной косе. Ейский полуостров, коса Долгая [Yeisk Peninsula, Spit, Krasnodar Krai / Краснода́рский край / Krasnodarsky kray]. 07.06.2012. / Андрей Любченко [Andrei Lyubchenko] 2012 ... Цветущее растение, паразитирующее на дурнишнике [parasitizing Xanthium sp.]. Астраханская обл., Камызякский р-н [Astrakhan Oblast, Kamyzyaksky district], с. Чаган, берег р. Чаган. 11.08.2011. / Владимир Папченков [Vladimir Papchenkov], 2012; растение определил(а) Андрей Ковальчук [Andriy Kovalchuk] ... Цветущее растение, паразитирующее на Artemisia scoparia Waldst. et Kit. [A. scoparioides Grossh.], на травертиновом склоне. Ставропольский край, Пятигорск, гора Машук [Stavropol / Stauropolis, Pyatigorsk, Mashuk Mount]. 27.07.2008 / Сергей Банкетов [Sergey Banquetov], 2011 ... Цветущее растение (паразитирует на Helianthus annuus). Север Кубани, станица шкуринская [North of Kuban, Shkurinskaya village, Krasnodar Krai / Краснода́рский край / Krasnodarsky kray], поле с подсолнечником. 22.07.2011 / Андрей Любченко [Andrei Lyubchenko] 2011" (photos in plantarium.ru/page/view/item/25913.html - Plantarium, accessed Sep 2012).

North Caucasian Federal District / Се́веро-Кавка́зский федера́льный о́круг / Severo-Kavkazsky federalny okrug

Daghestan / Republic of Dagestan / Респу́блика Дагеста́н: "Daghestan [Republic of Dagestan]: bei Tezir jurt im Mai (Lipsky δ, £); im Distr. Dargi bei Ametherk, bei 1170 m Seehöhe, im Juli (Alexeenko δ)" (Beck 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

Kabardino-Balkar Republic / Кабардино-Балкарская Республика: Orobanche cumana Wallr., Кабардино-Балкарская АССР (Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic), 15.VII.70[1970], Собр. Н. Кириллина [Coll. N. Kirillina] (MW 0723467; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018 [the hairy specimens seem to correspond to O. coerulescens]); Orobanche cumana?, Кабардино-Балкария, 9.07.1932. Собр. Арсеньев В.А. [Arseniev V.A.] (MW 0723466; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018).

Republic of North Ossetia-Alania / Республика Северная Осетия-Алания / Республикӕ Цӕгат Ирыстон-Алани: O. cumana Wallr., Северо-Осетинская АССР, Алагирское ущелье, А.М. Амирханов [A.M. Amirkhanov] (MW 0723468; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018 [the sheet contains three specimens, the left specimen appears to correspond to P. arenaria and the two specimens from right to O. cumana])

Stavropol Krai / Ставропо́льский край: "Novo-Alexandrovskaia [Novoalexandrovsk] / 17 Mai 40 // Herb. Al. de Bunge" (MNHN-P-P02968107 - P 02968107.jpg - hb. E. Cosson - gbif.org/occurrence/438609611; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014); "prope Stauropolim" [Stavropol / Stauropolis] (Reuter 1847: 32, sub O. cumana); "Caucasus ad Stavropol (Stawropol / Stauropolis)] (C.A. Mey!)" (Boissier 1879: 545, sub O. cumana); "im Distrikte Stawropol [Stavropol Krai] bei Stawropol (Lipsky δ), Sergjewskoje (Akinfiew δ)" (Beck 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "Соцветие (паразитирует на Artemisia scoparia Waldst. et Kit.). Ставропольский край, Пятигорск, гора Машук [Stavropol / Stauropolis, Pyatigorsk, Mashuk Mount]. 27.07.2008" (photos id/113081 and id/113082 by Сергей Банкетов [Sergey Banquetov] 2011; растение определил(а) Холгер Улих in Plantarium, accessed Sep 2012).

Siberian Federal District / Сиби́рский федера́льный о́круг / Sibirsky federalny okrug

Irkutsk Oblast / Ирку́тская о́бласть / Irkutskaya oblast: "Sibiria orienttali prope Ust Balei [Irkutsk Oblast]" (Trautvetter 1871: 26, loc. class. of O. glaucantha).

Southern Federal District / Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг

Astrakhan Oblast / Астраха́нская о́бласть / Astrakhanskaya oblast: "Habitat in arenâ mobili deserti astracanensis atque cumani" (Marschall von Bieberstein 1808: 83, sub O. arenaria); "In arena mobili deserti astracanici et cumani" (Wallroth 1825: 58, loc. class. of O. cumana); "O. arenaria M. In arena mobili ad Wolgam versus Astrachan lecta, 1803" (Tzvelev 1981: 329[451], LE type of O. cumana); "Orob. arenaria M. Bieb. / ad radices Xanthii strumarii [Xanthium strumarium L. (Compsitae)] / ad Wolgam / Claus // Regio Caspica. / Claus. Herb. Al. de Bunge." (MNHN-P-P02968103 - P 02968103.jpg - Hb. E. Cosson - gbif.org/occurrence/437611250; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2012 [type?]); "A. Becker pl. Wolga infer. [Astrakhan Oblast] Ed. R.F. Hohenacker. / 83. Orobanche cumana Wallr.-Beck / In radibus Artemisiae austriaca [Artemisia austriaca Jacq. (A. repens Willd.)], fragantis / et Xanthii strumarii [Xanthium strumarium L.], Juli. m." (MNHN-P-P02968104 - P 02968104.jpg - Hb. E. Cosson - gbif.org/occurrence/438276970; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2012); idem (Naturalis WAG.1141225 - WAG 1141225.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2020); "A. Becker pl. Wolga infer. [Astrakhan Oblast] Ed. R.F. Hohenacker. / 83. Orobanche" (Naturalis WAG.1141224 - WAG 1141225.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2020); "Orobanche cumana Wallr. / ... Xanthium strumarium / ad ostia Wolgae [Astrakhan Oblast] ... 12 Juni // Herb. Al. de Bunge" (MNHN-P-P02968106 - P 02968106.jpg - hb. E. Cosson - gbif.org/occurrence/437278575; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014); t. 691 f. 926 ["Caucaso: Blume, ex herb. cl.Trevirani"] f. 927 ["Specimen Wallrothianum"] (Reichenbach 1829: 45, sub O. cumana); "Астраханская обл., Камызякский р-н [Kamyzyaksky district], с. Чаган, берег р. Чаган. 11.08.2011" (photo id/123788 by Владимир Папченков [Vladimir Papchenkov] 2012; растение определил(а) Андрей Ковальчук [Andriy Kovalchuk] in Plantarium, accessed Sep 2012).

Krasnodar Krai / Краснода́рский край / Kuban: "in Ciskaukasien: im Gub. Kuban: auf der Halbinsel Taman (Lipsky δ, γ), bei Noworossisk an sandigen Stellen im Juli (Radde δ), bei Anapa (Lipsky δ)" (Beck 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); Краснодарский край (Krasnodar Krai), 26.06.1960. Собр. Смирнова [Coll. Smirnova] (MW 0723465; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018); Краснодарский край (Krasnodar Krai), 25.06.1993. Собр. А. Щербаков [Coll. A. Scherbakov] (MW 0723464; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018 [apparently on Lactuca serriola L. (see O. grenieri)]); ibidem (MW 0723463; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018 [apparently on Lactuca serriola L. (see O. grenieri)]); "Растения на ракушечной косе. Ейский полуостров [Yeysky District], коса Долгая. 07.06.2012." (photos id/137287, id/457484 et id/457483 by Андрей Любченко [Andrei Lyubchenko] in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2016); "Цветущее растение (паразитирует на Helianthus annuus). Север Кубани, станица Шкуринская [North of Kuban, Shkurinskaya village], поле с подсолнечником. 22.07.2011" (photos id/98748 and id/98749 by Андрей Любченко [Andrei Lyubchenko] 2011; растение определил(а) Андрей Ковальчук [Andriy Kovalchuk] in Plantarium, accessed Sep 2012).

Rostov Oblast / Росто́вская о́бласт: "Gub. der Donschen Kosaken: am Don [Rostov Oblast] bei Butajsk auf Xanthium spinosum [Xanthium spinosum L. (Compsitae)] (Paczoski δ) und bei Taganrog [Rostov Oblast] (Schmalhausen δ) im Kreise Ustj-Medwedizkaja und Taganrog (J. Novopokrovsky n. 746!) auf Helianthus annuus" (Beck 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); Rostov region (Antonova & al. 2012); "Тип (typus varietatis): «Близ ст. Верблюд, Се-веро-Кавказской железн [North Caucasus Railway]. дороги, Ростовская селекционная станция [Rostov Oblast / Росто́вская о́бласть], на Helianthus annuus L., 26 VII 1949, № 65, И. В. Новопокровский» (LE, cum 2 iso)." (Tzvelev 2015: 215, type of O. cumana var. helianthi).

Volgograd Oblast / Волгогра́дская о́бласть / Volgogradskaya oblast: "A. Becker. Plantae astrachanicae / Orobanche cumana Wallr. / Sarepta [Old Sarepta / Старая Сарепта, now part of Volgograd]. Junio" (MNHN-P-P02968103 - P 02968103.jpg - hb. E. Cosson - gbif.org/occurrence/437611250; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2012); "Orobanche cumana Wallr. / Rossia australis: Sarepta [Old Sarepta / Старая Сарепта, now part of Volgograd] Paras, supra rad. / Nicotianae rusticae [Nicotiana rustica L. (Solanaceae)]. M. Junii / 1883 leg. A. Becker // 105" (MNHN-P-P04410446 - P 04410446.jpg - gbif.org/occurrence/464833179; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2016); "Orobanche cumana Wallr. / Herb. Dr. a Kühlewein. / ad Nicot. Tabac. / Sarepta [Old Sarepta / Старая Сарепта, now part of Volgograd] / leg. A. Becker" (COI 00056874; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2020); "Sarepta / Rieder / Orobanches // Herb. Al. de Bunge" (MNHN-P-P02968108 - P 02968108.jpg - hb. E. Cosson - gbif.org/occurrence/437943947; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014); "Sarepta (in Xanthio strumario) Becker!" (Reichenbach 1862: 107, sub O. cumana); "Herbier de Ch. d'Alleizette / ... / Orobanche cumana Wallr. / Russie Méridionale Sarepta / Mai 1908" (science.mnhn.fr...clf170338 - CLF 170338.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018); "im Gub. Astrachan [Astrakhan Oblast]: bei Astrachan, Bogdo, Sarepta, Dolban an der Mündung der Wolga [Astrakhan Oblast] auf Artemisia maritima, im Juni (Paczoski δ)" (Beck 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

Volga (Privolzhsky) Federal District / Приво́лжский федера́льный о́круг / Privolzhsky federalny okrug

Orenburg Oblast / Оренбу́ргская о́бласть / Orenburgskaya oblast: "Gub. Orenburg [Orenburg Oblast]" (Beck 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "Оренбургская обл.", Oktyabrsky District / Октябрьский район, 52°13'32.0"N 55°16'32.0"E, 25 Jul 2020 (iNaturalist.org/observations/54280588 by artem2013 in iNaturalist.org; accessed Oct 2020).

Perm Krai / Пе́рмский край: "Gub. Perm [Perm Krai] und im Ural" (Beck 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

Saratov Oblast / Сара́товская о́бласть / Saratovskaya oblast: "Gub. Saratow [Saratov Oblast]: bei Saratoff, Kamyschin, Zarizyn (Persidski δ) usw.;" (Beck 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "3792 ... / Prov. Saratov. Prope opp. Chvalynsk [Khvalynsk / Хвалынск] ad radices Helianthi annui L. [Helianthus annuus] Leg. K. Gross / 1923.VII.29" (PE 01463804; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2020).

Tatarstan Republic / Республика Татарстан / Татарстан Республикасы: "In Tatarisch [Tatarstan / Республика Татарстан, Russia]-Grusien [Georgia] und Schirwan [Shirvan, Azerbaijan] auf Beifuss [Artemisia], 500-800' hoch." (Koch 1849: 670, sub O. comana)

Ulyanovsk Oblast / Улья́новская о́бласть / Ulyanovskaya oblast: "Gub. Simbirsk [Ulyanovsk Oblast]: bei Syssan (Kolakowsky δ)" (Beck 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

Volgograd Oblast / Волгоградская область: Ilovlinsky District, 49°06'27.4"N 44°07'17.8"E, 20 Jun 2016 (iNaturalist.org/observations/20389306 by Dmitriy Bochkov in iNaturalist.org; accessed Oct 2020).

Crimea / Krym / Крим / Крым [Ukraine / Russia]

inicio / top of page

Serbia / Srbija / Србија (Dedić & al. 2009, sub O. cumana; Škorić & al. 2010: 64; Molinero-Ruiz & al. 2015: 5, sub O. cumana)

Southern and Eastern Serbia / Јужна и источна Србија: "In 2008, the broomrape was detected in Bor County in eastern Serbia" (Dedić & al. 2009, sub O. cumana).

Vojvodina / Војводина: "According to Aćimović (1998), the broomrape occurred in Serbia in early 1950s ... According to Maširević (2001) theregion most endangered by broomrape in Vojvodina is Bačka, the parasite spreading between Bačka Topola and Subotica." (Dedić & al. 2009, sub O. cumana).

inicio / top of page

Slovakia / Slovensko / Eslovaquia / Slowakei (Dostál 1989; Marhold & Hindák 1998)

Slovakia (Cagáň 2006); "Slovakia" (Domina & Raab-Straube 2010, sub O. cumana).

inicio / top of page

Spain / España / Espagne / Spanien (Díaz Celayeta 1974; Velayos 1978; González Torres & al. 1982; Castejón Muñoz, Romero Muñoz & García Torres 1989; Cubero 1994: 466, "The presence of O. cernua Loefl. (syn. O. cumana Wallr.) in Spain is a rather recent phenomenon, the first reference dating back to 1958"; Gagne 1998; Pujadas & Velasco 2000: 517-519, sub O. cumana; Pujadas & al. 2007; Fernández Escobar & al. 2009; Pineda Martos 2014, sub O. cumana; Molinero-Ruiz & al. 2015)

Andalusia / Andalucía (López Granados & García Torres 1992; García Torres & al. 1994: 625, f. 2).

Cádiz (Ca): Jerez ... Villamartín ... (García Torres & al. 1994: 625, f. 2); "Puerto Serrano, on cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), 3.vi.1989, J. Oliveira (COA 13524). Jerez de la Frontera, vii.1995, J. Fernández Escobar, CA195 (COA 28285)" (Pujadas & Velasco 2000: 517, sub O. cumana).

Cordova / Córdoba (Co): Bujalance ... Sta. Cruz ... (García Torres & al. 1994: 625, f. 2); "Valle del Guadalquivir: de Espejo a Montemayor, c. Ermita Dos Hermanas, 30SUG5768, A. Pujadas & J. Fuertes, COA 33962" (Pujadas & al., 2007: 14); "Córdoba, Finca Ruano, on cultivated sunflower, 9.vi.1993, F. Cartujo (COA 17472). Córdoba, Parque Cruz Conde, 16.vi.1994, P. Blanco (COA 17471). Córdoba, near Airport, on cultivated sunflower, 30.vi.1996, A. Lora (COA 22078). Córdoba, Huerta de San Luis, on cultivated sunflower, 30SVG4092, 2.vii.1996, A. Lora & A. Pujadas (COA 22077). Córdoba, Cortijo del Pardito, on cultivated sunflower, 30SUG4377, 16.vii.1996, A. Moyano & A. Pujadas (COA 22115). Puente Genil, vii.1994, J. Alvarado, CO194 (COA 28286). Córdoba, vii.1996, J.M. Melero, CO196 (COA 28287)" (Pujadas & Velasco 2000: 517, sub O. cumana); Córdoba, campos de cultivo, terrenos baldíos (photos [Orobanche sp. 3 de 3] by , accessed Oct 2013).

Granada (Gr): "1986-89: ...O. cernua heavily infested ... sunflower area ... and Huescar (Granada province)" (García Torres & al. 1994: 625); "Atarfe, on cultivated sunflower (oilseed), 14.ix.1995, A. Pujadas (COA 17629)" (Pujadas & Velasco 2000: 517, sub O. cumana).

Huelva (H): "Campiña de Huelva y Condado-Aljarafe: Escacena, 23-VI-2005, E. Sánchez-Gullón, COA 33961" (Pujadas & al. 2007: 14).

Málaga (Ma): "1978-82: O. cernua spread ... sunflower area ... and Fuente Piedra (Malaga province; Gonzalez Torres & al., 1982)" (García Torres & al. 1994: 624); Campillos ... (García Torres & al. 1994: 625, f. 2); "Fuente de Piedra, [Los] Llanos de Antequera (E), 26-4-1994" (Kreutz 1995: 90-91, sub O. cumana!); "Antequera, on cultivated sunflower (oilseed), 3.vi.1989, J. Oiveira (COA 13569). Campillos, on cultivated sunflower (confectionery), 13.vi.1989, J. Oliveira (COA 13525). Between Campillos and Antequera, 20 km, on cultivated sunflower (oilseed), 13.vi.1989, J. Oliveira (COA 13568). Near Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, on cultivated sunflower, 8.vi.1995, A. Lora & A. Pujadas (COA 17628)." (Pujadas & Velasco 2000: 517-518, sub O. cumana).

Seville / Sevilla (Se): "1986-89: ...O. cernua heavily infested ... sunflower area ... at El Coronil (Seville province)" (García Torres & al. 1994: 625); Lebrija ... Utrera ... Marchena ... Écija ... (García Torres & al. 1994: 625, f. 2); "El Coronil, on cultivated sunflower, 16.vi.1986, L. García Torres (COA 13636). Morón to El Coronil, 9 km, on cultivated sunflower (oilseed), 2.vii.1987, J. Oliveira (COA 13624). El Coronil to Morón, 7 km, on cultivated sunflower (oilseed), 2.vii.1987, J. Oliveira (COA 13633). El Coronil to Utrera, 15 km, on cultivated sunflower (confectionery), 2.vii.1987, J. Oliveira (COA 13645). Osuna, 1.vii.1988, J. Oliveira, COA 28295. El Coronil to Montellano, 10 km, on cultivated sunflower (oilseed), 1.vii.1988, J. Oliveira (COA 13533). El Coronil to El Arahal, 12 km, on cultivated sunflower (confectionery), 1.vii.1988, J. Oliveira (COA 13629). El Coronil to Acabalas, 10 km, on cultivated sunflower (oilseed), 1.vii.1988, J. Oliveira (COA 13643). Montellano, on cultivated sunflower (confectionery), 13.vi.1989, J. Oliveira (COA 13618). Osuna, vii.1989, J. Oliveira (COA 28296). Écija, Sotillo Gallego, vii.1993, J.M. Melero, SE193 (COA 28290). Écija, Finca Pavía, vii.1994, J. Fernández, SE194 (COA 28293). Écija to Herrera, 24 km, on cultivated sunflower, 18.v.1995, A. Pujadas (COA 17460). Écija, Finca Mencáa, vii.1996, J.M. Melero, SE296 (COA 28292). Écija to Estepa, 3 km, 1.vii.1996, A. Pujadas, A. Lora & A. Jiménez (COA 22079). Herrera to Écija, 3 km, 1.vii.1996, A. Pujadas, A. Lora & A. Jiménez (COA 22080). Aznalcázar, near Guadiamar river, on cultivated sunflower, 29SQB4232, 22.xii.1998, A. Pujadas & M. del Río (COA 27749). Cañada del Rosal, vii.1998, J.A. Sainz de Tejada (COA 28291). Écija, viii.1998, J.A. Sainz de Tejada (COA 28294)" (Pujadas & Velasco 2000: 518-519, sub O. cumana).

Castile and León / Castilla y León (Fernández Escobar & al. 2009).

Valladolid (Va): "Medina del Campo" (Fernández Escobar & al. 2009).

Castile-La Mancha / Castilla-La Mancha (Díaz Celayeta 1974; Sobrino Vesperinas & Martínez Abad 1980; García Torres & al. 1994)

Albacete (A): "Camino Villalgordo, 4, 02329 Casas de Lázaro [38°46'19.7"N 2°14'20.4"W] ... Between planted sunflowers", 8 Ago 2017 (iNaturalist.org/observations/7425185 - gbif.org/occurrence/2563710981 by Fernando Useros López in iNaturalist.org; accessed Oct 2020).

Cuenca (Cu): Cuenca (Sobrino Vesperinas & Martínez Abad 1980); "1978-82: O. cernua spread ... sunflower area of Cuenca ..." (García Torres & al. 1994: 624); "Villarejo de Penesteban, viii.1992, J.M. Melero, CU192 (COA 28288). Alcázar del Rey, ix.1994, J.M. Melero, CU494, (COA 28289). Km. 17,800 of Cuenca road, 2.viii.1978, M. Velayos (MACB 47083)" (Pujadas & Velasco 2000: 517); Cuenca, Barajas de Melo, M. Velayos (Flora iberica, sub O. cernua [on Helianthus annuus L.], accessed Dec 2010); Cuenca (Fernández Escobar & al. 2009); Municipality of Almendros, between la Noria and Saleguillas (at km 5, CM-3011, Almendros-Casas Luján), parasitic on Scorzonera laciniata L. in an ancient terrace-cultivation, G. Gómez Casares & G. Moreno Moral MM0047/2007, 12 May 2007 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12840) [N.B. this is the first record of O. cumana parasitizing a wild plant in the Iberian Peninsula]; Barajas de Melo, Barranco del Robledal (al comienzo del camino que va hacia la Tinada del Picazo de Valverde, pr. Barajas de Melo [La Alcarria]), 30TWK0538, 725 m, sobre (!) Artemisia herba-alba, en talud herboso, yesoso, soleado, bajo el camino, G. Moreno Moral MM0057/2013, 19-V-2013 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 13855 [N.B. new wild host-plant in the Iberian Peninsula]); Barajas de Melo, Barranco del Robledal (al comienzo del camino que va hacia la Tinada del Picazo de Valverde, después del cruce con el del Barranco de Valhondo, pr. Barajas de Melo), 30TWK0638, 740 m, sobre (!) Artemisia herba-alba, en talud herboso, yesoso, soleado, bajo el camino, G. Moreno Moral MM0058/2013, 19-V-2013 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 13856); Barajas de Melo, vertiente sur del Cerro de la Grajera (pr. Barajas de Melo), 30TWK0640, 740 m, parásita de Artemisia herba-alba en rellano soleado al pie de la serrezuela, G. Moreno Moral MM0059/2013, 19-V-2013 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 13857); Barajas de Melo, vertiente sur del Cerro de la Grajera (pr. Barajas de Melo), 30TWK0640, 740 m, parásita de A. herba-alba en rellano soleado al pie de la serrezuela, L. Carlón & G. Moreno Moral, 14-VI-2013 (obs.); Barajas de Melo, Barranco del Robledal (al comienzo del camino que va hacia la Tinada del Picazo de Valverde, pr. Barajas de Melo [La Alcarria]), 30TWK0538, 725 m, parásita de A. herba-alba, en talud herboso, yesoso, soleado, bajo el camino, L. Carlón & G. Moreno Moral, 14-VI-2013 (obs. [muy pocos ejemplares]).

Toledo (To): Díaz Celayeta 1974; Gonzalez Torres & al. 1982; García Torres & al. 1994: 624, "1958: O. cernua was first observed in Toledo ... (Díaz Celayeta, 1974)"; Fernández Escobar & al. 2009.

inicio / top of page

Syria / Sūriyya / Sūryā / Siria / Syrien

"Professor C. Haussknecht. Iter orientale 1867 / Orobanche cernua L. / in desrto fl. Chabur. [Khabur / Habur, Mesopotamia Mars - Juin 1867] dieb. Mai" (MNHN-P-P02968091 - P 02968091.jpg - Gbif.org/occurrence/438438053; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2015); "Syria: ... et fl. Chabur [Khabur River] (f. 4 leg. Haussknecht!)" (Beck 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana); "in der Wüste Singara und am Flusse Chabur (Haussknecht δ)." (Beck 1930: 124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "Mesopotamien: bei Tell Halaf in der Steppe bei Haus, im Mai (Kohkl! in der Expedition Frh. v. Oppenheim) [Tell Halaf, Al Hasakah]" (Beck 1930: 128, loc. class. of O. cernua var. cumana f. valens).

inicio / top of page

Tajikistan / Таджикистан / Tadzhikistan / Tayikistán / Tadschikistan (Beck 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana)

"Turkestania: prope Suidan et Pamil [Pamir] (f. 4 leg. Kuschalkewicz) ... pr. Kuldja (4 leg. Schrenk)" (Beck 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana); "in planitie Kickdan ad montes Gasi Machik et prope Gomut (f. 5 leg. Regel)" (Beck 1890: 145, loc. class. of O. cernua f. tenuisepala); "Turkestan: bei Suidan umd Pamil [Pamir] (Kuschalkewicz δ!), auf der Ebene Kickdan am Gasi Machik Gebirge und bei Gomut (Regel f. 6!), bei Kuldja (Schrenk δ!)" (Beck 1930: 125, sub O. cernua var. cumana); Tajikistan (Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

inicio / top of page

Tunisia / تونس / Tunisie / Túnez (Amri & al. 2012, sub O. cumana; Pineda Martos 2014, sub O. cumana; El Mokni & Domina 2020: 554-556, sub O. cumana)

Béja Governorate: "Béja region, for the first time during the 2009-2010 agricultural season. Clear O. cumana attachments were observed in some sunflower [Helianthus annuus L.] fields" (Amri & al. 2012, sub O. cumana); "Beja, Beja towards Nefza, NW Tunisia; 36°46ʹ13′′N, 009°11ʹ28′′E; 180 m a.s.l.; 8 Jul. 2014; R. El Mokni (El Mokni-FSB-37/08082014) Beja, Amdoun-Route d’Aîn Draham, NW Tunisia; 36°44ʹ15′′N, 009°03ʹ14′′E; 260 m a.s.l.; 21 Jul. 2018; R. El Mokni & G. Domina (El Mokni-FPHM-33/21082018, PAL-Gr, PAL) ... It occurs in very large populations in sunflower crops in Beja and Jendouba regions, northwestern Tunisia" (El Mokni & Domina 2020: 554-556, sub O. cumana).

Jendouba Governorate: "... It occurs in very large populations in sunflower crops in Beja and Jendouba regions, northwestern Tunisia" (El Mokni & Domina 2020: 554-556, sub O. cumana).

"Also in northern Africa" (Kreutz 1995: 88).

inicio / top of page

Turkmenistan / Turkmenistán / Turkmenia / Туркмения (Ledebour 1841-1853: 322, sub O. cumana)

"Orobanche cumana Wallr. / Turcoman. / Karelin // Herb. Al. de Bunge" (MNHN-P-P02968106 - P 02968106.jpg - hb. E. Cosson - gbif.org/occurrence/437278575; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014); "Siberia uralensi: in Turkomania! (Eichw., Karelin pl. exs.)..." (Ledebour 1841-1853: 322, sub O. cumana); "Turkomania (Eichw.)" (Boissier 1879: 515, sub O. cumana); "Transcaspia: prope Krasnowok f. 4" (Beck 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana); "Transkaspien: bei Krasnowodsk" (Beck 1930: 125, sub O. cernua var. cumana); Turkmenistan (Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "Herb. Mus. Paris / 802 bis Orobanche cernua Loefl. / Arkabai [Turkestan]. 16 Juni 96 / Plantes de l'Asie Centrale. / M. Chaffanjon, 1895-1896" (MNHN-P-P02968099 - P 02968099.jpg - gbif.org/occurrence/438104938; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014).

inicio / top of page

Turkey / Türkiye / Turquía / Турция (Beck 1930: 124, sub O. cumana; Pineda Martos 2014, sub O. cumana; Molinero-Ruiz & al. 2015: 5, sub O. cumana)

"Phrygien [Phrygia]" (Beck 1930: 124, sub O. cumana); "In 1983/85 more than 50% of the Thracia [Eastern Thrace] sunflowers in northern Turkey was infested" (Petzoldt & Sneyd 1986); Turkey (Bulbul & al. 1991; Gagne 1998; Kaya & al. 2004); SW Asia (Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

inicio / top of page

Ukraine / Ucrania / Україна / Украи́н (Reuter 1847: 32, sub O. cernua var. bicolor; Reichenbach 1862: 107, sub O. cumana; Beck 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana; Pineda Martos 2014, sub O. cumana; Molinero-Ruiz & al. 2015: 4, sub O. cumana; Maslіiov & al. 2018, sub O. cumana)

"In arenosis Podoliae [Podilia / Podillya / Поділля / Подолье]" (Reuter 1847: 32, sub O. cernua var. bicolor); "Podolia australi a Bessero indicata" (Reichenbach 1862: 107, sub O. cumana); "Ukraine" (Domina & Raab-Straube 2010, sub O. cumana). "In Ukraine, about 70 % of the territory where sunflower is grown, is infected by Broomrape (Novopokrovskij,1928; Shindrova, Penchev, 2012; Pineda-Martos et al., 2014; Guchetl et al., 2014)" (Maslіiov & al. 2018, sub O. cumana)

Dnipropetrovsk Oblast / Дніпропетровська область / Днепропетровская область: "Gub. Jekaterinoslaw [Dnipropetrovsk]: um Jekaterinoslaw, im Sept. (Alexeenko δ)" (Beck 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "Днепропетровская обл., Криворожский р-н [Kryvyi Rih Raion], окр. с. Широкое, дно канавы на склоне балки. 30.10.2015" (photo id/447942 by Александр Дегтяр [Alexander Degtyar] 2016; растение определил(а) Андрей Ковальчук [Andriy Kovalchuk] in Plantarium, accessed Oct 2020); "UA·Dnipro·Dnipro [Дніпро] 48°25'31.4"N 35°08'04.0"E, [on Helianthus annuus L.], 26.07.2020" (photos imageid=170661 and imageid=170662 by Vika Roi in ukrbin.com/showimages.php?id=127317 - Ukrainian Biodiversity Information Network, accessed Sep 2020).

Kharkiv Oblast / Харківська область

Dvorichna Raion / Дворічанський район: "Двуречанский район", Novomlyns'k / Новомлинськ, 49°54'02.9"N 37°44'39.8"E, 25 Jul 2020 (iNaturalist.org/observations/54247103 by Max Parkhomenko in iNaturalist.org; accessed Oct 2020).

Kherson Oblast / Херсонська область / Херсонска област: "Cherson [Kherson] (Paczoski δ)" (Beck 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

Odessa Oblast / Одеська область / Одесская область: "Orobanche / coerulea / Juin 1828 / Odessa" (MW 0514110; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "Russische Länder: Ukraine: in Bessarabien bei Tatar-Bunar [Tatarbunary / Татарбунари] (Zelenetzky δ) um Reni (Herb. Besser δ), Pandaclia (Grintescu δ) ... Gub. Gherson: bei Odessa (Schmalhausen, Engler (δ)" (Beck 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "UA·Odesa [Одеса] 47°32'41.44"N 30°22'37.14"E, [on Helianthus annuus L.], 26.07.2008" (photos imageid=141068, imageid=141067 and imageid=141066 by Nikolay in ukrbin.com/showimages.php?id=127317 - Ukrainian Biodiversity Information Network, accessed Sep 2020).

Zaporizhia Oblast / Запорізька область / Запорожская область: "im Distrikte Alexandrowsk bei Nowohupolowka, im August-November auf Helianthus und Lycopersicum (Alexeenko δ); im Distrikte Nowomoskowa, im Juli (Alexeenko δ)" (Beck 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "Цветок. Украина, Запорожская обл., Запорожский р-н [Zaporozhye region, Zaporozhye district], напротив авиагородка Широкое, на поле подсолнечника. 13.07.2010" (photos id/174348, id/174347, id/174346 by Сергей Одинец [Sergey Odinets] 2013 in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2014); UA·Zaporizhia·Melitopol [Меліто́поль / Мелитополь], 46°58'36.98"N 35°25'21.95"E [on Helianthus annuus L.], 02.08.2020 (photos imageid=174500 and imageid=174498 by linker in ukrbin.com/showimages.php?id=127317 - Ukrainian Biodiversity Information Network, accessed Sep 2020).

Crimea / Krym / Крим / Крым [Ukraine / Russia]

1. "O. alba 5.". 2. "O. arenaria M.B. / Tauria litorea". 3. "O. cumana !B / mea Wallroth". 4. "208 W" (B-W 11600 200; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017, type of O. cernua var. cumana f. taurica?); 1. "Orobanche arenaria / Ex Tauria meridionalis". 2. "... Orobanche arenaria M.B. / ... / N.º 665". – 3. "Syntypus / Specimen authenticum" (MW 0594764; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2019 [the sheet contains two specimens, the specimen on the left side corresponds to O. cumana and the specimen on the right side corresponds to Phelipanche sp., but the latter is not P. arenaria]); "Tauria [Crimea / Krym]" (Reuter 1847: 33, sub O. cumana); "Rossia mer. (Tauria)" (Nyman 1854-1855); "Sudak [Sudaq / Судак] Steven! ..." (Reichenbach 1862: 107, sub O. cumana); "Tauria (M.B.)" (Boissier 1879: 515, sub O. cumana); "Rossia: f. 4 in Gubernia Tauria (! desertum Nogaiorum, Jalta etc.)" (Beck 1890: 144, sub O. cernua f. cumana); "A. Callier, Iter tauricum secundum a. 1896. / nr. 357 / Orobanche cumana Wallr. / J. Dörfler. Wien. / d. 8.VII / Hügel bei Kopsel / auf Artemisia / determ. de Halácsy." (MNHN-P-P04419816 - P 04419816.jpg - gbif.org/occurrence/464928910; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2020); "in der Krim und Taurien: bei Aleschki (Paczoski β, δ) ... Jalta [Yalta], Nikita und Kertsch, im April bis Juni (Paczoski δ), um Kopsel (A. Callier δ), um Simeiis (Golde δ! auch f. 4), bei Balaklava, Inkermann, Sudak (Fedtschenko δ!) auf der Halbinsel Kercz (Klopotow δ) im Mai-Juli" (Beck 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "In der Krim [Crimea / Krym] bei Oreanda [Yalta Municipality] (V. Golde! in Herb. Petersburg. [LE] unter O. alba)" (Beck 1930: 128, loc. class. of O. cernua var. cumana f. taurica); "«In der Krim bei Oreanda [Yalta Municipality], V. Golde» — W)" (Tzvelev 2015: 214, type of O. cernua var. taurica); "RK" (Greuter & al. 1989: 258, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana); "near Yevpatoriya [Yevpatoria / Eupatoria / Євпато́рія / Евпато́рия, Yevpatoria municipality], Crimea [Crimea / Krym], UA, (KW)" (Tzvelev 1981: 451; ipni.org/n/662674-1; Schlauer & al. 2003, loc. class. of O. sarmatica); "Crimea" (Domina & Raab-Straube 2010, sub O. cumana); "... / Orobanche cumana Wallr. / ... / Крым, Сакский район [Saky Raion], / северная окраина пос. Новоозёрное, / берег Донузлава к востоку от штаба, / известняковый обрыв северной экспозиции. / Сеточное картирование флоры Крыма: J05-3. / Собр. А. Серегин [A. Seregin] 21.07.2014. № T-1963" (plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW0632266 - MW 0632266.jpg - gbif.org/occurrence/1801081499; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2020); "Цветущие растения, паразитирующие на Artemisia sp. Крым, окр. Феодосии [Feodosia], Курортное, обочина грунтовой дороги, идущей вдоль пляжа. 21 мая 2014 г." (photos id/242108 and id/42107 by Валентина Фатерыга 2014 [Valentina Fateryga] in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2014); "Цветущие растения (паразитируют на Artemisia taurica). Крым, окр. Феодосии [Feodosia], Курортное, пустынно-степной склон. 20 мая 2018 г." (photo id/613629 by Александр Фатерыга [Alexander Fateryga] 2019 in Plantarium, accessed Oct 2020).

inicio / top of page

Uzbekistan / Uzbekistán / O‘zbekiston / Ўзбекистон

"Ex herbario horti Petropolitani. 2000 3/80[?] / Orobanche cernua L. / Chiwa 1873  Korolkow et Krause" (CVH 10262; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2016); "Chiwa [Xiva / Хива, Choresmien / Xorazm / Choresm Province]: (4 leg. Korolkow et Krause)" (Beck 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana; Beck 1930: 125, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "Bokhara [Bukhara]: in monte Taschbulak district. Hissar (f. 4 leg. Regel)" (Beck 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana); Uzbekistan (Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

inicio / top of page


References.

AgroAtlas. 2003-2009. Project «Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries. Economic Plants and their Diseases, Pests and Weeds». Orobanche cumana (accessed Dec 2014).

Al-Khateeb, W., Hameed, K.M., Shibli, R. 2003. Effect of salinity on Orobanche cernua seeds germination and infection on tomato plants. Phytopathology 93: S3-S4.

Antonova, T.S. 2014 [Dec 2014]. The History of Interconnected Evolution of Orobanche cumana Wallr. and Sunflower in the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan. Helia 37(61). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/helia-2014-0017.

Antonova, T.S., Araslanova, N.M., Strelnikov, E.A., Ramazanova, S.A., Guchetl, S.Z., Tchelustnikova, T.A. 2012. Some peculiarities of ontogenesis of Orobanche cumana Wallr., parasitizing on sunflower in Rostov region of Russian Federation. Helia 35(56): 99-110. UDC 633.854.78:633.494:632.1. DOI: 10.2298/HEL1256099A.

Amri, M., Abbes, Z., Youssef, S.B., Bouhadida, M., Salah, H.B. & Kharrat, M. 2012. Detection of the parasitic plant, Orobanche cumana on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in Tunisia. African Journal of Biotechnology 11(18): 4163-4167. URL: http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/full%20text/2012/1Mar/Amri%20et%20al.htm.

Barina, Z., Harmos, K. & Schmotzer, A. 2005. Orobanche cernua in Hungary. Stud. Bot. Hung. 36. 5-11. URL: http://publication.nhmus.hu/pdf/Studia/StudiaBotHung_2005_Vol_36_5.pdf - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267388032.

Beck, G. 1890. Monographie der Gattung Orobanche. Biblioth. Bot. 19. Theodor Fischer. Kassel. URL: https://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/idurl/1/10221.

Beck, G. 1930 [30 Sep 1930]. IV. 261. Orobanchaceae Lindl. In: Engler, A. (ed.). Das Pflanzenreich. Regni Vegetabili Conspectus. Wilhelm Engelmann. Leipzig, pp. 1-348. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/71652.

Boissier, P.É. 1879 [Apr-May 1879]. Flora orientalis [...] Volumen quartum. Fasciculus secundus. Genevae et Basileae. URL: https://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/idurl/1/10750. [Ord. LXXXIX. Orobanchaceae: 492-518].

Bulbul, A., Salihoglu, M., Sari, C. & Aydin, A. 1991. Determination of broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) races of sunflower in the Thrace region of Turkey. Helia 14: 21-26.

Cagáň, L. 2006. Distribution of Orobanche species in Slovakia and biological control. In Vaz Patto, M.C. (Local organizer). Workshop Parasitic Plant Management in Sustainable Agriculture. Final meeting of COST849. 23-24 November 2006, ITQB Oeiras-Lisbon, Portugal.

Carlón, L., Gómez Casares, G., Laínz, M., Moreno Moral, G., Sánchez Pedraja, Ó. & Schneeweiss, G.M. 2005 [Jun 2005]. Más, a propósito de algunas Orobanche L. y Phelipanche Pomel (Orobanchaceae) del oeste del Paleártico [More on some Orobanche L. and Phelipanche Pomel (Orobanchaceae) from the western Palearctic]. Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 3: 1-71 (in Spanish, plus an Appendix in English).

Carlón, L., Gómez Casares, G., Laínz, M., Moreno Moral, G., Sánchez Pedraja, Ó. & Schneeweiss, G.M. 2008 [17 Jul 2008]. Más, a propósito de algunas Phelipanche Pomel, Boulardia F. W. Schultz y Orobanche L. (Orobanchaceae) del oeste del Paleártico [More on some Phelipanche Pomel, Boulardia F.W. Schultz and Orobanche L. (Orobanchaceae) from the western Palearctic.]. Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 6: 1-128 (in Spanish, plus an enlarged abstract in English).

Carter, R.J. & Cooke, D.A. 1994. Broomrape (Orobanche spp.) in Australia. In: Pieterse A.H., Verkleij, J.A.C., Borg ,S.J. ter [ed.(s)]. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research (3rd: 1993: Amsterdam). Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute. 587-590 pp.

Castejón Muñoz, M., Romero Muñoz, F. & García Torres, L. 1989. Áreas de distribución del jopo de girasol en Andalucía. Agricultura 688: 981-982.

Chinese Virture Herbarium [中国数字植物标本馆] (CVH). 2004-2020. 国家植物标本资源库 (National Plant Specimen Resource Center,NPSRC). Institute of Botany, CAS. URL: http://www.cvh.ac.cn/ - http://www.cvh.ac.cn/species/taxon_tree.php?type=fam&param=Orobanchaceae - http://www.cvh.ac.cn/spms/list.php?taxonName=Orobanche+cumana - http://www.cvh.ac.cn/spms/info.php?id=c9f7eb5a [browser link]... - http://www.cvh.ac.cn/spm/PE/01463736 [former browser link]... (accessed Jun 2013).

Conti, F., Abbate, G., Alessandrini, A., Blasi, C., (ed.). 2005. An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora. Rome: Palombi Editori.

Cubero, J.I. 1994. Breeding work in Spain for Orobanche resistance in faba bean and sunflower. In: Pieterse A.H., Verkleij, J.A.C., Borg ,S.J. ter [ed.(s)]. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research (3rd: 1993: Amsterdam). Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute, pp. 465-473.

inicio / top of page

Delavault, P. & Thalouarn, P. 2002 [4 Sep 2002]. The obligate root parasite Orobanche cumana exhibits several rbcL sequences. Gene 297(1-2): 85-92. ISSN 0378-1119. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1119(02)00868-5. URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378111902008685.

Dhanapal, G.N. 1996 [16 Sep 1996]. Management of broomrape (Orobanche cernua Loefl.) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L). Doctoral thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 183 pp. URL: https://edepot.wur.nl/210504.

Díaz Celayeta, F. 1974. Algunas plantas parásitas de otras de interés agrícola o medicinal. Anales INIA Serie Protección Vegetal 4: 143-160.

Domina, G. & Raab-Straube, E. 2010. Orobanche cumana. Orobanchaceae. In: Euro+Med Plantbase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity (accessed Jul 2010).

Don, G. 1837-1838. A general history of the dichlamydeous plants [...] 4 (Corolliflorae). London. (Orobanche-Phelipaea: 628-633 [1838]).

Duca, M., Clapco, S., Nedealcov, M. & Dencicov, L. 2018 [28 Sep 2018]. Influence of environmental conditions on the virulence and distribution of Orobanche cumana Wallr. in the Republic of Moldova. OCL 26(3). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/ocl/2018049.

Eizenberg, H., Plakhine, D., Landa, T., Achdari, G., Joel, D.M. & Hershenhorn, J. 2004. First report of a new race of sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana) in Israel. Plant Disease 88.

El Mokni, R. & Domina, G. 2020 [13 May 2020]. Additions to terrestrial flora of Tunisia: occurrence and taxonomic notes. Check List 16 (3): 553-561. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15560/16.3.553.

Encheva, V. & Shindrova, P. 1994. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) - a hindrance to sunflower production in Bulgaria. In: Pieterse, A.H., Verkleij, J.A.C. & Borg, S.J. ter (eds.). Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Royal Tropical Institute, pp. 619-622.

Fernández Escobar, J., Rodríguez Ojeda, M.I., Fernández Martínez, J.M. & Alonso, L.C. 2009. Sunflower Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) in Castilla-León, a traditionally nonbroomrape infested area in Northern Spain. Helia 32(51): 57-64.

Gagne, G., Roeckel-Drevet, P., Grezes-Besset, B., Shindrova, P., Ivanov, P., Grand-Ravel, C., Vear, F., Tourvieille de Labrouhe, D., Charmet, G. & Nicolas, P. 1998. Study of the variability and evolution of Orobanche cumana populations infesting sunflower in different European countries. Theor. Appl. Genet. [TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics] 96(8): 1216-1222.

García Torres, L., Castejón Muñoz, M. & López Granados, F. 1994. The problem of Orobanche and its management in Spain. In: Pieterse A.H., Verkleij, J.A.C., Borg, S.J. ter [ed.(s)]. Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research (3rd: 1993: Amsterdam). Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute, pp. 623-627.

GBIF (The Global Biodiversity Information Facility). GBIF Online Resource Centre. Search. Orobanchaceae. URL: https://www.gbif.org/species/3733985 (accessed Oct 2020).

Gilli, A. 1976. Orobanchaceen der "Flora Iranica". Candollea 34: 280-305.

Gilli, A. 1982. Orobanchaceae (90). In: Davis, P.H. (ed.). Flora of Turkey 7: 1-22. Edinburgh.

González-Cantón, E., Velasco, A., Velasco, L., Pérez-Vich, B. & Martín-Sanz, A. 2019. First Report of Sunflower Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) in Portugal First Report of Sunflower Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) in Portugal. Plant Disease 103(8). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-10-18-1723-PDN. URL: https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/10.1094/PDIS-10-18-1723-PDN.

González Torres, R., Jiménez Díaz, R. & Melero Vara, J.M. 1982. Distribution and virulence of Orobanche cernua in sunflower crops in Spain. Phytopath. Z. 104: 78-89.

Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M. & Long, G. 1989. Med-Checklist.. 4: 265-266 [Orobanchaceae]. Genève, Berlin.

inicio / top of page

Hooker, J.D. 1883-1885. The flora of British India 4 [Asclepiadeae to Amarantaceae]. London: L. Reeve, 1875-97. [Fl. Brit. Ind.]. [Orobanchaceae, "4(11)", pp. 319-329, published on Jan 1884] (TL-2: 277). DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.678. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/13817.

iNaturalist. URL: https://www.inaturalist.org/ - https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/ - https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/47126-Plantae - https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/557475-Orobanche-cumana - https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/7425185 (accessed Oct 2020).

Ish-Shalom-Gordon, N., Jacobsohn, R. & Cohen, Y. 1993. Inheritance of resistence to Orobanche cumana in sunflower. Phytopathology 83: 1250-1252.

Ish-Shalom-Gordon, N., Jacobsohn, R. & Cohen, Y. 1994. Seasonal fluctuations in sunflowe's resistence to Orobanche cumana. In: Pieterse, A.H., Verkleij, J.A.C. & Borg, S.J. ter (eds.). Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Royal Tropical Institute, pp. 351-355.

ITIS. 2016. Integrated Taxonomic Information System online database. URL: http://www.itis.gov.

Jafri, S.M.H. Orobanchaceae [vol. 98]. Flora of Pakistan Online Version. [eFloras.org]. URL: http://www.efloras.org/] (accessed Nov 2015).

Jafri, S.M.H. 2011 [Last Modified On 6/3/2011]. Orobanchaceae. Flora of Pakistan Online Version. [Tropicos]. URL: http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan] (accessed Feb 2017).

Joel, D. 1988. Orobanche cumana - A new adventive weed in Israel. Phytopaparasitica 16: 375.

Kaya, Y., Demerci, M., & Evci, G. 2004. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) breeding in Turkey for broomrape (Orobanche cernua Loeffl.) and herbicide resistance. Helia 27(40): 199-210.

Koch, K. 1849. Beiträge zu einer Flora des Orientes. Linnaea 22: 177-338 [Jun 1849], [Fortsetzung] 597-752. [Orobanchaceae: 658-670] [Dec 1849]. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/109745. (TL-2: 194 n. 10744, 197).

Kreutz, C.A.J. 1995. Orobanche: die Sommerwurzarten Europas: ein Bestimmungsbuch [the European broomrape species: a field guide]. Vol. 1 [Mittel- und Nordeuropa (Central and Northern Europe)]. Maastricht.

Krupp, A., Rücker, E., Heller A. & Spring, O. 2014. Seed structure characteristics of Orobanche cumana populations. Helia. DOI: 10.1515/helia-2014-0034 

Labrousse, P., Arnaud, M.C., Serieys, H., Bervillé, A. & Thalouarn, P. 2001. Several mechanisms are involved in resistance of Helianthus to Orobanche cumana Wallr. Annals of Botany 88: 859-868. DOI: 10.1006/anbo.2001.1520. http://prodinra.inra.fr/record/66566.

Ledebour, C.F. 1829-1834. Icones plantarum novarum vel imperfecte cognitarum floram Rossicam, imprimis Altaicam, illustrantes edidit Carolus Fridericus a Ledebour. Rigae: Apud I. Deubner; Londini, Parisiis et Argentorati: Apud Treuttel et Würtz; Bruxellae: In Libraria Parisiensi. [Centuria IV. 1833: 24: Phelipaea salsa, 21 t. 376; Phelipaea lanuginosa, 22 t. 377; Orobanche amoena, 23 t. 385; Orobanche sordida, 23 t. 386; Orobanche ammophila, 24 t. 389; Orobanche bicolor, 24 t. 390 (C.A. Meyer made reference to these illustrations in his Orobanchaceae (Fl. Altaica 2: 450-463. 1830)].

Ledebour, C.F. 1829-1834. Flora altaica 1-4. (Flora Altaica; scripsit Carolus Fridericus a Ledebour, adiutoribus Car. Ant. Meyer et Al. a Bunge. [vol. 2: 450-463. 1830 (450, "295. Orobanche Linn.; 459, "296. Phelipaea")]).

Ledebour, C.F. 1849 [Jun 1849]. Flora rossica 3(1). Stuttgartiae, Sumptibus Librariae E. Schweizerbart, 1847-1849. [Flora Rossica; sive, Enumeratio plantarum in totius Imperii Rossici provinciis Europaeis, Asiaticis et Americanis hucusque observatarum, auctore Carolo Friderico a Ledebour. Volumen III. Pars I. Corolliflorae: Ordo XCIII. Orobanchaceae. Lindl.: 310-328. 1847-1849 (Jun 1849)]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.6606. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/29508 (TL-2: 807 n. 4285).

inicio / top of page

Marschall von Bieberstein, F.A. 1808-1819. Flora Taurico-Caucasica, exhibens stirpes Phanerogamas, in Chersoneso Taurica et regionibus Caucasicis sponte crescentes. 3 vols. Charkov. [1 et 2 in 1808; 3, Supplementum, in 1819]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.10825.

Maslіiov, S.V., Macai, N.Ju., Beseda, O.O. & Stepanov, V.V. 2018. Orobanche cumana Wallr. and its extermination. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology 8(2): 74-80. DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.15421/2018_312. URL: http://dspace.luguniv.edu.ua/jspui/bitstream/123456789/2872/1/....pdf.

Miladinovic, D,, Cantamutto, M,, Vasin, J., Dedic, B., Alvarez, D. & Poverene, M. 2012. Exploring environmental determinants of the geographic distribution of broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.). Helia 35(56): 79-87. URL: http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/1018-1806/2012/1018-18061256079M.pdf.

MNHN (Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle), Paris (France). Vascular plants (P). Orobanchaceae. URL: https://science.mnhn.fr/all/search - https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/search - http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p02968103 [permalink]... - https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/p02968103 [browser link]... - http://mediaphoto.mnhn.fr/media/14413531512615OWFuwo01cLAQHTC [image link]... - http://sonneratphoto.mnhn.fr/2011/10/14/4/P02968103.jpg [former image link]... (accessed Sep 2015).

Molinero-Ruiz, L., Delavault, P., Pérez-Vich, B., Pacureanu-Joita, M., Bulos, M., Altieri, E. & Domínguez, J. 2015 [Dec 2015]. History of the race structure of Orobanche cumana and the breeding of sunflower for resistance to this parasitic weed: A review. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 13(4), e10R01, 19 pp. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2015134-8080. URL: https://digital.csic.es/bitstream/10261/158439/1/orobanche_cumana_Molinero.pdf.

Morozov, V.K. 1947. Sunflower breeding in USSR. Pishchepromizdat: 1-274. Moscow (In Russian).

Nabloussi, A., Velasco, L. & Assissel, N. 2018 [4 Dec 2017]. First Report of Sunflower Broomrape, Orobanche cumana Wallr., in Morocco. Plant Disease 102(2): 457. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1094/pdis-06-17-0858-pdn. URL: https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/full/10.1094/PDIS-06-17-0858-PDN - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320571605 - https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/6139671.

Naturalis - Nationaal Herbarium Nederlands - Botany Section (AMD - L - WAG). BioPortal. Naturalis Biodiversity Center (NL). URL: https://bioportal.naturalis.nl/specimen/WAG.1141224 [permalink]... - http://medialib.naturalis.nl/file/id/WAG.1141225/format/large [image link]... (accessed Sep 2016).

Nyman, C. F. 1854-1855. Sylloge florae Europaeae seu plantarum vascularium Europae indigenarum enumeratio adjectis synonymis gravioribus et indicata singularum distributione geographica. Oerebroae: Sumptu et typis N. M. Lindh. [Syll. Fl. Eur.].

Novopokrovskij, I.V. & Tzvelev, N.N. 1958. Orobanchaceae. In: Shishkin, B.K. (ed.). Flora Unionis Republicarum Socialisticarum Sovieticarum (Flora URSS), vol. 23. Institutum Botanicum nomine V. L. Komarovii Academiae Scientiarum URSS, Mosqua and Leningrad, pp. 685–687. (Novopokrovskii, I.V. & Tzvelev [Cvelev], N.N. 1958. Orobanchaceae Vent. In: Komarov, V.L., (ed.). 1934-1964. Flora SSSR 23: 17-111. Edit. Akad. Nauk SSSR. Moskva-Leningrad. [Pandit, V. (Translator & Editor). 1999. Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. Translated and published under an agreement with the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Washington, DC, by Amerind Publishing Co., 66 Janpath, New Delhi 110 001. 2000] et [Panigrahi, G. (Bot. Ed.). 2000. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh]).

Pacureanu-Joita, M., Vranceanu, A.V., Soare, G., Marinscu, A. & Sandu, I. 1998. The evaluation of the parasite-host interaction system (Helianthus annuus L.)-(Orobanche cumana Wallr.) in Romania. Proceedings of 2nd Balkan Symposium on Field Crops. 16-20 June, Novi Sad, Yugoslavia, pp. 153-155.

Palomeque, T. & Sañudo, A. 1981. In: Löve, A. (ed.). IOPB Chromosome number reports. LXXI. Taxon 30(2): 507-508.

Petrov, D. 1968. A new physiological race of broomrape in Bulgaria (Orobanche cumama Wallr.). C. R. Acad. Sci. Agric. Bulg. 1: 27-30.

Petzoldt, K. & Sneyd, J. 1986 [Jan 1986]. Orobanche cumana control by breeding and glyphosate treatment in sunflowers. In: Borg, S.J. ter (ed.). Biology and control of Orobanche. Proceedings of a workshop on biology and control of Orobanche. Wageningen, The Netherlands, LH/VPO, pp. 166-171.

Pineda Martos, R. 2014. Estudios moleculares en Jopo de girasol (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) [Molecular Studies on Sunflower Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.)]. Tesis Doctoral [Doctoral Thesis]. Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Córdoba. URL: https://helvia.uco.es/xmlui/handle/10396/12382.

Pineda-Martos, R., Pujadas-Salvà, A., Fernández-Martínez, J.M., Stoyanov, K., Velasco, L. & Pérez-Vich, B. 2014 [20 July 2014]. The Genetic Structure of Wild Orobanche cumana Wallr. (Orobanchaceae) Populations in Eastern Bulgaria Reflects Introgressions from Weedy Populations. The Scientific World Journal. Volume 2014, Article ID 150432, 15 pages. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/150432.

Piwowarczyk, R., Sánchez Pedraja, Ó., Moreno Moral, G., Fayvush, G., Zakaryan, N., Kartashyan, N. & Aleksanyan, A. 2019 [3 Jan 2019]. Holoparasitic Orobanchaceae (Cistanche, Diphelypaea, Orobanche, Phelipanche) in Armenia: distribution, habitats, host range and taxonomic problems. Phytotaxa 386(1): 001-106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.386.1.1.

Plantarium. Открытый атлас сосудистых растений России и сопредельных стран [Open Atlas of Vascular Plants of Russia and Adjacent Countries]. Определитель растений on-line [To Plants of the On-line]. Поиск таксонов [Search taxa]. Scrophulariaceae. Cistanche. Orobanche. URL: http://www.plantarium.ru/ - https://www.plantarium.ru/page/view/item/25913.html (accessed Dec 2014).

Pujadas, A. & Velasco, L. 2000. Comparative studies on Orobanche cernua L. and O. cumana Wallr. (Orobanchaceae) in the Iberian Peninsula. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 134: 513-527. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/bojl.2000.0346. URL: https://www.uco.es/organiza/departamentos/decraf/orobanche.pdf - https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.533.7550&rep=rep1&type=pdf.

Pujadas, A., Plaza Arregui, L., Sánchez Gullón, E., Triano Muños, E., López Martínez, M., Burga Rella, C., Rubiales Olmedo, D., Román del Castillo, B., Reyes Sepúlveda, E. & Ivorra Jiménez, A. (1 Dec 2007 [Oct 2007 online]). El género Orobanche L. (Orobanchaceae) en Andalucía. Acta Bot. Malacitana 32: 91-126. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24310/abm.v32i0.7032. URL: http://www.revistas.uma.es/index.php/abm/article/view/7032/6535.

inicio / top of page

Reichenbach, H.G.L. 1823-1832. Iconographia botanica seu plantae criticae [...] Septima centuria tabularum: 29-50, t. 651-700 [DCLI-DCC] (1829). Lipsiae: Apud Fridericum Hofmeister. URL: https://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/idurl/1/10431. (TL-2: 670 n. 8876; Kergélen, 1987: 136, "1931", Greuter, 1989: 38, "1931").

Reichenbach, H.G.L. 1834-1914. Icones florae germanicae et helveticae ... 20: 49-125, t. 121-220 [MDCCXLII-MDCCCXLI] (1862) [H.G. Reichenbach fil.]. Lipsiae: sumptibus Ambrosi Abel. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.6353. (TL-2: 676-677 n. 8885, see p. 125 for dates ... (1): Fol. 1. 2., pp. [1]-16, pl. 1-40. 19 Jun 1861. (2): Fol. 3. 4., pp. 17-32, pl. 41-80. 10 Sep 1861. (3): Fol. 5. 6., pp. 33-48, pl. 81-120. 21 Dec 1861. (4): Fol. 7. 9., pp. 49-72, pl. 121-160. 8 Jul 1862. (5): Fol. 10. 11., pp. 73-88, pl. 161-200. 29 Sep 1862" (6):  Fol. 12. 16. pp. 89-125, pl. 201-220. 22 Dec 1862).

Reuter, G. 1847 [25 Nov 1847]. Orobanchaceae. In: De Candolle, A. (ed.). Prodromus Systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis... 11: 1-45. Addenda et Corrigenda: 717-720. Parisiis: Sumptibus Victoris Masson. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/160970. (TL-2: 446 n. 999).

Schneeweiss, G.M., Palomeque, T., Colwell, A.E. & Weiss-Schneeweiss, H. 2004. Chromosome numbers and karyotype evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera. American Journal of Botany 91: 439-448. [Abstract / Download] (accessed Sep 2007).

Schlauer J., Meijer, W. & Hansen, B. (last update, 5 Mar 2012). Parasitic Plants Database. Rick Walker, Palo Alto, CA - "walker AT omnisterra.com". URL: http://www.omnisterra.com/bot/pp_home.cgi (accessed Jun 2015).

Schultz, F.W. 1830. IV. Monographien einzelner Gattungen der Phanerogamen. Beitrag zur Kenntniss der deutschen Orobanchen. Ann. Gew. Regensb. 5: 490-509. URL: https://bibdigital.rjb.csic.es/idurl/1/1525821.

Seregin, A.P. (ed.). 2017. Specimens MW0514110... from the collection "Moscow University Herbarium" // Depository of Live Systems (branch "Plants"): Electronic resource. – Moscow State University, Moscow. URL: https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW0514110 - https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW0514110/img/0.jpg?original ... (accessed Oct 2017).

Shaha, M. & Mian, I.H. 2013. Characterization of Orobanche species occurring in Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Plant Pathol. 29 (1&2): 39-44.

Shindrova, P. 1994. Distribution and race composition of Orobanche cumana Wallr. in Bulgaria. In: Pieterse, A.H., Verkleij, J.A.C., Borg, S.J. ter (eds.). Biology and management of Orobanche. Proceedings of the international workshop on Orobanche and related Striga research (3rd: 1993: Amsterdam). Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute, pp. 142-145

Shindrova, P. 2006. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) in Bulgaria - Distribution and race composition. Helia 29(44): 111-120. URL: http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/1018-1806/2006/1018-18060644111S.pdf.

Shindrova, P. & Penchev, E. 2012. Race Composition and Distribution of Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) in Bulgaria During 2007-2011. Helia 5: 87-94. URL: http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/1018-1806/2012/1018-18061257087S.pdf.

Škorić, D., Pacureanu, M. & Sava, E. 2010. Sunflower breeding for resistance to broomrape (Orobanche cumana wallr.). AN. I.N.C.D.A. Fundulea 78(1): 63-79.

SIUC. College of Science. Parasitic Plant Connection / Scrophulariaceae. List of Genera. Nonphotosynthetic Members (exclusive of Orobanche). Orobanche (Broomrapes) - Photo Gallery of Species (accessed Jan 2011).

Sobrino Vesperinas, E. & Martínez Abad, G. 1980 [Jun 1980]. Susceptibility differences of a collection of sunflower genotypes to a new breed of Orobanche cumana Wallr. [root-parasitic herbs] in Cuenca [Spain]. In Proceedings of the IXth International Sunflower Conference. Torremolinos, Spain. Ministerio de Agricultura, Servicio de Publicaciones Agrarias. Madrid, Spain, pp. 8-13.

Soó, R. 1972. Systematisch-nomenklatorische Bemerkungen zur Flora Mitteleuropas mit Beziehungen zur südosteuropäischen Flora. Feddes Repert. 83(3): 129-212.

Steudel E.G. 1840-1841 [Apr 1841]. Nomenclator botanicus seu: Synonymia plantarum universalis, enumerans ordine alphabetico nomina atque synonyma tum generica tum specifica et a Linnaeo et a recentioribus de re botanica scriptoribus plantis phanerogamis imposita. Stuttgartiae et Tubingae: Typis et sumptibus J. G. Cottae. [Nomencl. Bot. ed. 2]. [Orobanche Lin. Spr. 2205.: 230-232].

inicio / top of page

Teryokhin, E.S., Shibakina, G.V., Serafimovich, N.B. & Kravtsova, T.I. 1993. Opredelitelj Sarasichovich Florii SSSR (Determinator of Broomrapes of the USSR Flora). Leningrad.

Teryokhin, E.S., Anisimova, G.M. 1978. About some peculiarities development of Orobanche cumana Wallr. (Orobanchaceae). Bot. Journal 63(6): 797-803. (In Russian).

Teryokhin, E.S. & Chubarov, S.I., 1996. Two modes of the vegetative p ropagation in Orobanche cernua (Orobanchaceae). Advances in parasitic plant research. 6 th International Parasitic Weed Symposium, Junta de Andalucía, Spain, pp. 243-248.

The Caucasus. Coordination and Development of Plant List Assessments for the Caucasian Biodiversity Hotspot. IUCN (The World Conservation Union), Missouri Botanical Garden] & al. Critical Ecosystem Parnership Fund (CEPF) (accessed Feb 2009).

Trautvetter, E.R. a. 1871. Observations in plantas a Dre. G. Radde anno 1870 in Turcomania et Transcaucasia lectas, nec non in alias quasdam, auctore E.R. a. Trautvetter: Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 1: 15-34. URL: https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/50794.

Tzvelev [Cvelev], N.N. 1981 [2001]. Orobanchaceae Vent. In Fedorov, An.A. (ed.). Flora of Russia: The European Part and Bordering Regions 5: 434-461. Nauka Publishers. Leningrad [A.A. Balkema. India]. [Flora Evropeiskoi Chasti SSSR 5]. [Цвелёв, Н.Н. Сем. Orobanchaceae — Заразиховые. Флора европейской части СССР. Т. 5. Л., 1981. С. 317-336.].

Tzvelev, N.N. [Цвелёв, Н.Н.] . 2015. О роде заразиха (Orobanche L. sensu lato, Orobanchaceae) в России [On the genus Orobanche L. sensu lato (Orobanchaceae) in Russia]. Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 46: 189-215. [Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 46 Type Index]. URL: http://www.binran.ru/files/journals/Novitates/2015_46/NSPV-46_23-Tzvelev.pdf.

Ukrainian Biodiversity Information Network (Національна мережа інформації з біорізноманіття). UkrBIN. URL: http://ukrbin.com/ - http://ukrbin.com/showimages.php?id=127317 (accessed Sep 2020).

USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL: http://www.ars-grin.gov.4/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?410697 (accessed Sep 2015).

Velayos, M. 1978. Aportación al estudio de las malas hierbas de los cultivos de girasol. Thesis (unpublished). Universidad Complutense. Madrid.

Velasco, L., Pérez-Vich, B. & M. Fernández-Martínez, J.M. 2016 [10 Feb 2016]. Research on resistance to sunflower broomrape: an integrated vision. OCL, 23 2 (2016) D203. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/ocl/2016002. URL: https://www.ocl-journal.org/articles/ocl/pdf/2016/02/ocl160002-s.pdf - https://www.ocl-journal.org/articles/ocl/full_html/2016/02/ocl160002-s/ocl160002-s.html - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/294103821.

Wallroth, K.F.W. 1825 [Oct 1825]. Orobanches generis ΔΙΑΣΚΕΥΗ ad Carolam Mertensium... [Orobanches Generis Diaskene [romanized] ad Carolam Mertensium professorem apud Bremanos celeberrimum epistola]. Franco-furti ad Moenum. [Orobanches Gen. Diask. (ipni.org/p/20165-2)]. URL: https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_Og9QAAAAcAAJ/page/n4 - http://books.google.com/books?id=Og9QAAAAcAAJ&hl=&source=gbs_api. (TL-2: 44 n. 16.597).

Wight, R. 1850. Illustrations of Indian Botany; or Figures Illustrative of each of the Natural Orders of Indian Plants, described in the author's Prodromus Florae Peninsulae Indiae Orientalis 2.  Madras. [Ill. Ind. Bot. 2]. [CIX. Orobanchaceae: 176-180]. URL: http://biodiversitylibrary.org/item/39780.

Wu, Y.H., Xia, B., Liu, X.H. & Tang, J.C. 2013. P03.070 The effects of Orobanche cumana infection on tobacco morphology and physiology. In: Mumford, J.D. et al. 2013. Quantification and inter-pretation of risk for security, trade, food and environment. 10th International Congress of PlantPathology, Aug 2013, Beijing, China. p.409. URL: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01004310/document.

Yakutkin, V.I. 2003-2009. Orobanche cumana Wallr. Project «Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries. Economic Plants and their Diseases, Pests and Weeds» (accessed 21 Jan. 2011).

Yakutkin, V.I. & Budrevskaya, I.A. 2006. Area and zones of severity of Sunflower Broomrape. Project «Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries. Economic Plants and their Diseases, Pests and Weeds» (accessed Jan 2011).

Zhang, Z.Y. & Fu, L.M. 1990. The supplementary description on Orobanche cernua Loefling. Acta Phytotax. Sin. 28(4): 332.

Zhang, Z.Y. & Tzvelev, N.N. 1998. Orobanchaceae. In: Zhang, Z.Y. (ed.). Flora of China 18: 229-243. eFloras 2008. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. URL: http://www.efloras.org/ (accessed Jun 2015).

Zhang, Z.Y. & Tzvelev, N.N. 1998. Orobanchaceae. In: Wu, Z.Y. & Raven, P.H. (eds.). Flora of China 18: 229-243 (pdf). Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis & Science Press, Beijing.

Žukov, N.I. 1939. Citologičeskoe issledovanie redukcionnogo delenija nekotoryh vidov zarazih. Sb. rabot po selekcii, genetike i semenovedeniju tabaka i mahorki, Vsesojuzn. N.-I. Inst. Tabačnoj i Mahoročnoj Promyšlennosti, Krasnodar 139: 198-207.

inicio / top of page



Google   

Home page (Página principal) | Index of Orobanchaceae | Contact us


© 2005 GBC (Grupo botánico cantábrico)