Accepted Name - Basionymum / Basionym - Synonyms - Ind. loc. [Indicatio locotypica (type locality)] - Lectotypus [Lectotype] - Designated by - Host - Comments - Chromosomatic number - Ic. [Images] - Distribution - Specimens Examined - References - Authors - Cite us

ISSN: 2386-9666 - Last Updated: 7 March 2019


Accepted Name:

Cistanche tinctoria (Forssk.) Deflers in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 43: 327 no. 336 (1896) (Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk 2018: 24)

Basionymum / Basionym:

Orobanche tinctoria Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 112 (1775 [1 Oct 1775]) (Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk 2018: 23-24, 27)

Synonyms:

Homotypic synonyms:

Phelypaea tinctoria (Forssk.) Brotero, Phytogr. Lusit. Select. 1: 36[-38] (1816). Obs. "Usus ignòtus, nisi forsan Arabibus ad tinctum, ut ex Forskalii triviali colligitur."

Phelypaea tinctoria (Forssk.) Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 3: 462 (1844-1845 [12-14 Sep 1844]) (Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk 2018: 24)

Cistanche tinctoria (Forssk.) Beck in Bull. Herb. Boissier ser. 2, 4: 685 (1904), isonym (Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk 2018: 24)

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Heterotypic synonyms:

? = Lathraea quinquefida Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 111 (1775 [1 Oct 1775]) (Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk 2018: 24). Syn.: = Phelypaea lutea Desf., Fl. Atlant. 2: 61 (1798) (Steudel 1841: 13, 318). Ind. loc.: "Alexandriae [Alexandria Governorate, Egypt], frequens ad omnes ripas arenosas". Obs. "Flores flavi" (Forsskål 1775: 111); "fide Steudel, Nomencl. bot. ed. 2. II: 318 (1841)" (Beck 1930: 30). Obs. "Note. L. quinquefida may be the plant that is usually knwon as Cistanche tubulosa (Schenk) Wight (C. lutea Hoffm. & Link) — Schwartz 1939: 2, with yellow flowers, which appears to be a colour form of C. phelypaea — Schwartz 1939: 247" (Hepper & Fries 1994: 228); "no type material found" (Hepper & Fries 1994: 228)

= Orobanche insignis E.D. Clarke, Travels Eur. Asia & Africa 3(2): 42[41-42] (1814) [IPNI 662432-1]. Syn.: Phelypaea insignis (E.D. Clarke) Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 18 (1822). Ind. loc.: "This was also found between Aboukir [Abu Qir, Alexandria, Egypt] and Rosetta [Rosette, Beheira, Egypt], at the same time". Obs. "... corollis inflatis, recurvis, quinquefidis ... calycibus quinquepartitis ... antheris hirsutis.". Herbarium Specimen: Type: 1. "Flora of Egypt Orobanche insignis E.D. Clarke / Locality: between Aboukir [Abu Qir] and / Rosseta [Rashid] Date: April-May 1801 / Coll. E.D. Clarke". – 2. "Orobanche insignis E.D. / Clarke, Travels 2(2): 41 / (1814)" (BM 000606304; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015)

= Orobanche insignis E.D. Clarke in Spreng. in Neue Entdeck. Pflanzenk. 3: 164 (1822) (Beck 1930: 41, "Clarke in Sprengel"), nom. illeg. Syn.: Orobanche insignis E.D. Clarke, Travels Eur. Asia & Africa 3(2): 42[41-42] (1814)

= Phelypaea insignis (E.D. Clarke) Dumort., Comment. Bot.: 18 (1822) (Dumotier 1822: 18, "O. insignis Clarke ex Spreng. = Phelypaea insignis. N."). Syn.: Orobanche insignis E.D. Clarke, Travels Eur. Asia & Africa 3(2): 42[41-42] (1814) (Beck 1930: 41, "Clarke in Sprengel")

= Phelypaea tubulosa Schenk, Pl. Spec. Schubert: 23[-24] (1840 [1 Jun-1 Dec 1840?]) ["138. Ph. tubulosa n. sp."] (Walpers 1844-1845: 462, sub P. tubulosa; Reuter 1847: 12, sub P. tubulosa; Hooker f. 1884: 324; Beck 1930: 32, sub C. tubulosa; Boulos 2002: 94; Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk 2018: 27). Syn.: Cistanche tubulosa (Schenk) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4(11): 324 (1884)

= Orobanche calotropidis Edgew. in J. Bot. (Hooker) 2(14): 285 (1840 [Jul 1840]) ["Edgew. J. Bot. (Hooker) 2: 285 (Calatropidis). 1840 (view IPNI entry)"]. Syn.: Phelypaea calotropidis (Edgew.) Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 3: 462 (1844-1845 [12-14 Sep 1844]) (Hooker f. 1884: 324); Cistanche calotropidis (Edgew.) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 34 (1930). Ind. loc.: "Crescit in radicibus Calatropidis Hamiltonii [Calotropis hamiltonii Wight; C. procera subsp. hamiltonii (Wight) Ali (Asclepiadaceae)] in arenosissimis Malvae [Malwa / Malwai, Punjab, Thar Desert?]" (Edgeworth 1840: 285); "In radicibus Calotropidis Hamiltonii in the Sickh states Indiae orientalis [eastern Pakistan and northern India]" (Walpers 1844-1845: 462, sub P. calotropidis; Reuter 1847: 12, sub P. calotropidis); Sikh states, IN, Edgeworth (?K) (Schlauer & al. 2002). Herbarium Specimen: "Herb. Ind. Or. Hook fil & Thomson / ... Calotropidis, Walp. / Hab. Plan. Ganget Sup.  Regio Srop / Alt. 1000  ... Coll. J.J." (P 02983448; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015, type?)

= Phelypaea insignis (E.D. Clarke) Steud., Nomencl. Bot. ed. 2: 231 (1841 [Apr 1841]) ["insignis Clarke"]. Syn.: Orobanche insignis E.D. Clarke, Travels Eur. Asia & Africa 3(2): 42[41-42] (1814)

= Phelypaea calotropidis (Edgew.) Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 3: 462 (1844-1845 [12-14 Sep 1844]). Syn.: Orobanche calotropidis Edgew. in Hook., J. Bot. 2: 285 (1840) (Hooker f. 1884: 324)

= Cistanche tubulosa Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4: 4, t. 1420 bis ["Cistanche tubulosa (R.W.) / Phelipaea lutea (Desf  Stocks)"] (1850) [illegitimate later homonym], non Phelypaea tubulosa Schenk, Pl. Spec. Schubert: 23 (1840) (Hooker f., 1884: 324). Ind. loc.: "Ind. bor. occ [India Boreo-occidentalis / NW India]" (view IPNI entry). Herbarium Specimens: "Herb. Hort. Bot. Reg. Kew / Cistanche tubulosa Wight / Baluchistan [Pakistan]: Bugli County [Dera Bugti District] / Coll. ... m. Jeffreys" (CVH 10256; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2016). Obs. "...Stocks' MSS. description which accompanied the drawing of Fig. 1420-bis. ... which has induced me to change the name first given (C. tubulosa), to that given by Mr. Stocks..." (Wight 1850: 4-5)

= Cistanche tubulosa (Schenk) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4(11): 324 (1884 [Jan 1884]) (Boulos 2002: 94; Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk 2018: 23-24, 27). Syn.: Phelypaea tubulosa Schenk, Pl. Spec. Schubert: 23[-24] (1840). Ind. loc.: "Hab. ad viam inter Suez et Tor [Sinai, Egypt] in Arabia petraea, ubi legerunt Dr. Roth et Erdl mense Februario" (Schenk 1840: 24); "Inter Suez et Tor [Sinai, Egypt], in Arabiâ Petraeâ, in radicibus..." (Walpers 1844-1845: 462, sub P. tubulosa; Reuter 1847: 12, sub P. tubulosa); "The type ... was collected in Sinai, between Suez and el-Tor [Egypt] by Roth & Erdl" (Boulos 2002: 95). Obs. "... Bracteae ternae, duabus lateralibus fere dimidio brevioribus, media maxima, calycem superante; ... Corolla ... tubo longissimo calycen duplo superante, arcuato-infundibuliformi ... Antherae ... obtusae ... villosos-lanatae ..." (Schenk 1840: 24). Type: Egypt, Sinai Peninsula: inter Suez et Tor in Arabia petraea, leg. Roth & Erdl (LMO s.n.) (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 23[21], sub C. tubulosa; Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk 2018: 27, sub C. tubulosa); K ? (TL-2: 283).

? = Phelypaea gossypina Baker ex Tristram, Surv. West. Palest.: 377 (1884) ["Baker. M. S. Herb. Kew"], nom. nud. Ind. loc.: Jordan, Madaba Governorate: "Near Heshbon. Fide Paine. P.". Obs. see C. violacea and C. salsa (Post 1932: 312, sub C. salsa)

= Cistanche carnosa Pax in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 39: 651 (1907) ["Cistanche carnosa Pax n. sp. — C. lutea [sensu] Stapf in Th. Dyer, Fl. trop. Afr, IV. 2 (1906) 463?"]. Ind. loc.: "Prov. Ost-Schoa [East Shewa / Ost-Shoa / Est Choa, Oromia, Ethiopia]: Tedetschamalka, 960 m, 30.1.1905. »Wurzelparasit; Nährpflanze unbekannt [unknown host-plant]. Sehr sukkulent und der Fäulnis stark ausgesetzt. Blüten blaßgelb. — Auch in Katschinoa am Ostufer des Hawasch [Awash River, Ethiopia].«". Obs. "langen Kronenröhren [long crown tubes]" (Pax 1907: 651)

? = Cistanche allochroa Chiov., Res. Sci. Somalia Ital. 1: 131 (1916). Ind. loc.: Giumbo [Jumba] (Lower Juba / Jubbada Hoose [Italian Somaliland], Somalia), duna stabile, leg. G. Paoli, 252; Spiaggia presso El Sai (Lower Juba / Jubbada Hoose [Italian Somaliland], Somalia), leg. G. Paoli, 297 (view IPNI entry). Herbarium Specimens: Syntypes: FT 003126 et FT 003127

= Cistanche calotropidis (Edgew.) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 34 (1930 [9 Sep 1930]) (Beck 1930: 34, ["Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4: 4, t. 1420 (1850) ("Cistanche lutea (Link)")]), nom. illeg. Syn.: Orobanche calotropidis Edgew. in Hook., J. Bot. 2: 285 (1840)

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? = Cistanche tubulosa var. tomentosa Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4(11): 324 (1884 [Jan 1884]). Syn.: Cistanche calotropidis var. tomentosa (Hook. f.) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 34 (1930). Ind. loc.: "Lahore [Punjab, Pakistan], Thompson" (K) (Schlauer & al., 2002). Obs.: "stem above bracts and calyx sparsely woolly" (Hooker f. 1884: 324)

? = Cistanche calotropidis var. tomentosa (Hook. f.) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 34 (1930) (Beck 1930: 34, ["Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4(11): 324 (1884 [Jan 1884])"], nom. illeg. Syn.: Cistanche tubulosa var. tomentosa Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4(11): 324 (1884). Ind. loc.: "Ostindien: Punjab, bei Lahore [Pakistan] (Thompson)"

? = Cistanche tubulosa var. albiflora (Gilli) Hadidy in Boulos, Fl. Egypt Checklist 141 (1995) [n.v., see C. violacea]. Syn.: Cistanche tubulosa f. albiflora Gilli in Publ. Cairo Univ. Herb. 5: 87 (1972 [1974]) (Boulos 2002: 95)

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? = Cistanche tubulosa f. albiflora Gilli in Publ. Cairo Univ. Herb. 5: 87 (1972 [1974]) [n.v.]. Syn.: Cistanche tubulosa var. albiflora (Gilli) Hadidy in Boulos, Fl. Egypt Checklist 141 (1995). Ind. loc.: Sinai Peninsula (see C. violacea)

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Misapplied names:

Orobanche tinctoria sensu Vahl, Symb. Bot. 2: 70 (1791). Syn.: = Phelypaea lutea Desf., Fl. Atlant. 2: 61, t. 146 (1798) [p.p. (only Barbaria)]; = Orobanche tinctoria Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 112 (1775) [p.p. (only Arabia)]. Ind. loc.: "Habitat in Arabia & Barbaria")

Orobanche tinctoria sensu Willd., Sp. Pl. 3(1): 353 (1800), non Orobanche tinctoria Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 112 (1775). Syn.: = Lathraea phelypaea L., Sp. Pl.: 606 (1753) [p.p. (only Lusitanìa)]; = Phelypaea lutea Desf., Fl. Atlant. 2: 61, t. 146 (1798) [p.p. (only Barbaria)]; = Orobanche tinctoria Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 112 (1775) [p.p. (only Arabia)]. Ind. loc.: "Habitat in Lusitania, Barbaria, Arabia"

Cistanche lutea sensu Wight, Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4: 4, t. 1420 (1850) ["Cistanche lutea (Link)"] et Wight, Ill. Ind. Bot. 2: 180, t. 158b, f. 4 (1850) ["Cistanche lutea R.W. Icones"] et auct. plur., non Phelypaea lutea Desf., Fl. Atlant. 2: 61, t. 146 (1798) nec Cistanche lutea sensu Hoffmanns. & Link, Fl. Portug. 1: 319[-320] t. 63 (1813) (Hooker f. 1884: 324; Beck 1930: 32; Boulos 2002: 94; view IPNI entry, accessed Nov 2008). Ind. loc.: "Scind [Sindh, Pakistan?], in loose, sandy soil, on roots of Salsolas [Chenopodioideae] — grasses, and Calotropis Hamiltonii [Calotropis hamiltonii Wight; Calotropis procera subsp. hamiltonii (Wight) Ali (Asclepiadaceae)], & c. P. calotropidis, (Edgeworth)?" (Wight 1850: 4)

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Ind. loc.: "Ad urbem Môr [Wadi Mawr, near Al-Luhayya / Luhayyah / Loheia / Luhaiyah / Loheiya, Al Hudaydah, Yemen / Jemen]. Arab. Hödar: aliis Zybb alkáa" (Forsskål 1775: 113); "Yemen: Wadi Mawr ("Môr"), Feb. 1763" (Hepper & Fries 1994: 228).

Typus / Type: "Holotypus: [Jemen], Môr. [2.1763], Forsskål (C, fide Hepper & Fries 1994: 228)" (Lobin & Düll 1996: 586; Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk 2018: 24); Orobanche tinctoria Forssk. (Typus): SNM - C - C 10002702 - herb. Vahl - Forsskål 1537 (Natural History Museum of Denmark, accessed Dec 2013).

Designated by: Hepper & Fries, Pl. Pehr Forsskål's Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 228 (1994).

Host: It has been reported parasitizing different families like Asclepiadaceae (Edgeworth 1840: 285, "Calotropis hamiltonii Wight [C. procera subsp. hamiltonii (Wight) Ali]"; Ilahi & al. 2010, "Calotropis procera L."), Chenopodiaceae (Beck 1930: 32, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Schiman-Czeika 1964: 21, "Salsolae sp.", sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Feinbrun-Dothan 1978: 209, "Atriplex halimus"; Edmondson 1980, E. 2998; E 00029702, "A. farinosa Forssk."; Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008; Sergeev in Flora of Qatar, "Arthrocnemum macrostachyum [Arthrocaulon macrostachyum (Moric.) Piirainen & G.Kadereit; Salicornia macrostachya Moric.]"); Polygonaceae (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008; Ilahi & al. 2010, "Calligonum polygonoides L."); Tamaricaceae (Beck 1930: 32, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 21[25], sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Schiman-Czeika 1964: 21, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Feinbrun-Dothan 1978: 209; Jafri, 1978: 5, "Tamarix aphylla"; Fahmy & al. 1996, "Tamarix aphylla"; Boulos 2002: 95; Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008; Ilahi & al. 2010, "Tamarix indica Willd"; Annotated Checklist of Host Plants of Orobanchaceae, accessed Aug 2009); Zygophyllaceae (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008; Sergeev in Flora of Qatar, "Zygophyllum qatarense"), etc.

Comments:

Morphological observations:

"Corolla flava" (Forsskål 1775: 111, sub C. tinctoria).

"corollae tubo curvato ... Antherae cordato-sagittatae muticae [blunt]" (Reuter 1847: 12, sub P. tubulosa); "Thecae antherarum subobtusae vel rotundatae" (Beck 1930: 26 f. 6g, 28); "(1) C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight: Leaves of upper stem broad lanceolate, flat at base, acuminate at apex, veins not obvious. Raceme terminal, bract obovate, bractlet long slated, slightly shorter than sepals, corolla funnel, purple, surface of seed honeycomb-shaped. It is parasitized on the root of Tamarix plants." (CITES. Prop. 11.59, accessed Oct 2013).

– Flowers usually erecto-patent. Corolla funnel-shaped. Corolla-tube curved, longer than the limb (funnel tubular portion relatively shorter). Bracteoles ± equalling calyx. Anthers apiculate... C. lutea (C. phelypaea subsp. lutea)

– Flowers usually patent. Corolla tubular-funnel-shaped. Corolla-tube longer, narrower and strongly curved, much longer than the limb (funnel tubular portion relatively longer). Bracteoles shorter than calyx. Anthers ± obtuse to slightly acute (not apiculate)... C. tinctoria (C. tubulosa)

C. tinctoria (C. tubulosa) and C. lutea (C. phelypaea subsp. lutea) are closely related species and further studies are therefore necessary to draw more clear conclusions about your morphological differences and distribution areas (Lobin & Düll 1996: 586 "Die Abgrenzung der Sippen ist allerdings problematisch (so führt beispielsweise Schwarz (1939) einen von uns als C. phelypaea angesehenen Beleg aus dem Yemen (Wissmann 553) unter C. tubulosa an) und in der Literatur keineswegs konsistent. Bis zu einer Klärung dieser Frage sind auch die Verbreitungsangaben zu beiden Arten mit Vorsicht zu werten", 592, "Da die Abgrenzung zu C. tubulosa klärungsbedürftig ist sind die Verbreitungsgrenzen jedoch unsicher").

"Cistanche tubulosa is a highly polymorphic ... this species has a wide distribution and many hosts in Iran. It is the most frequent species of Cistanche in Iran and in the world. Cistanche tubulosa is closest to C. flava ... but there are distinct differences between them. The bracts of C. tubulosa are oblate or ovate-lanceolate, while the bracts of C. flava are oblate or lanceolate-linear. Also the bractlets in C. tubulosa are smaller than the calyx, whereas they are as long as calyx or longer than the calyx in C. flava." (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 96, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) Wight).

Taxonomic observations:

C. tubulosa according to Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk, 2018: 27 is a later synonym of Cistanche tinctoria (Forssk.) Deflers

C. tinctoria (C. tubulosa) according to Foley 2004: 234 and Fl. Somalia 3: 295 (2006) and their broad concept of this species, it is a synonym of C. phelypaea (Tela Botanica, accessed Nov 2008).

C. tinctoria (C. tubulosa) according to Flora of China [Illustration [t. 256, f. 12] is a synonym of C. mongolica Beck (C. deserticola in Flora of China [FRPS 69: 88, pl. 23. 1990]).

C. tinctoria (C. tubulosa) according to Schlauer & al. 2002 is a synonym of C. flava (C.A. Mey.) Korsh.

C. tubulosa in Euro+Med PlantBase and C. tubulosa in Tropicos (accessed Nov 2008).

Related Species:

Cistanche mongolica Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 34 (1930 [9 Sep 1930]). Syn.: = Cistanche tubulosa (Schenk) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4(11): 324 (1884) (Czerepanov 1981). Ind. loc.: "Westliche Mongolei!: bei Keria am Nordhange des Joches Russki [Kunlun Mountains] bei 8600' Meereshöhe im Sande längs des Flußes Tschishgan (Przewalski! in Herb. Leningrad).— bei Patta Kum im Sande, April 1 906 (Roshewitz, Pl. Buchar. (1906) n. 229! in Herb. Berlin)." (Beck 1930: 34, sub C. mongolica). "General distribution: Dzhungaria-Kashgaria. Described from Kashgaria (Chinese Turkestan [Xinjiang]) (Kuen-Lun [Kunlun Mountains], Russian Range). Type in Leningrad." (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 24[22]). "Type: Described from Kashgaria [Kashgar, Xinjiang, China] (Kuen-Lun [Kunlun Mountains], ridge Russkii) (LE)" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 24[22]). Ic.: a, Illustration with analysis, f. 256, 12 "Stamen" (Zhang & Tzvelev 1998 in Flora of China, accessed Nov 2008); "Туркменистан, Большой Балхан, трасса Джебел-Гарачагыл [Turkmenistan, Great Balkhan, track Jebel Garachagyl], гребенщиковая формация на сланцевых холмах. 08.05.2017" et "Цветущие растения (питающее растение - Tamarix hispida). Туркменистан, СЗ Копетдаг, Ходжакалинская долина [Turkmenistan, NW Kopetdag Hodzhakalinskaya Valley], глинистое местообитание. 13.05.2018." (photos 508829, 508830, 508831, 508833 et 566814 by Александр Павленко [Alexander Pavlenko], 2018 in Plantarium; accessed Mar 2019). Obs. "Note. G. Beck assigns to this species a specimen of Cistanche from the Berlin Herbarium, collected by R.Yu. Rozhevits in Tadzhikistan [Tajikistan] (sands of Patta-Kum, No. 229, 10 April 1906). However, its duplicate with the same label, deposited in the Herbarium of the Botanical Institute in Leningrad, is indistinguishable from C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight, and I, consequently, place it there. In fact, differences in the color of the corolla between these species [whitish-pink (C. mongolica) / entirely yellow, whitish-yellow or yellow more or less spotted with bluish-violet (C. tubulosa)] cannot be correctly determined on the basis of dry material.") (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 24[22], sub C. mongolica).

Chromosomatic number: 2n: 40 (Hambler 1956, "Cistanche tubulosa Wight (Indian material) was found to have 2n = 40 chromosomes"); 2n: 40 (Pazy & Plitmann 1996).

Ic.: a, Wight 1850: t. 1420 bis [sub Cistanche tubulosa (R.W.) / Phelipaea lutea (Desf  Stocks)]; b, Wight 1850: t. 158b, f. 4, sub C. lutea R.W. Icones; c, Beck 1930: 26 f. 6g; d, Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 30[37] t. 3 f. 2 "anther"; e, Illustration (M.Y. Saleem) in Jafri 1976, Flora of Pakistan; f, t. "354 Cistanche tubulosa (Schenk) Wight" in N. Feinbrun-Dothan (1978).

Distribution: "Punjab and Scinde [Sindh].— Distrib. Central Asia and westwards to Arabia" (Hooker f. 1884: 324, sub C. tubulosa Wight); "Africa borealis et tropica, Persia, India" (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight); "Soviet Central Asia: Kara Kum, mountainous Turkmenia, Syr Darya, Pamiro-Alai. General distribution: North Africa, Ethiopia, Near East, Iran, India-Himalayas (northern part), Dzhungaria-Kashgaria (southern part), Tibet." (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 20-21[25-26], sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight); "N. Africa, Arabia, W. Asia to Pakistan, India and C. Asia." (C. tubulosa in Jafri 1976, Flora of Pakistan); Mediterranean Region distribution (Domina & Raab-Straube 2010).

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Specimens examined and literature records.

Afghanistan /  افغانستان / Afġānistān / Afganistán (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Schiman-Czeika 1964: 21, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Gilli 1979: 291, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight var. tubulosa)

Balochistan / Baluchistan / Baluchestan: "Britisch Baluchistan, nach Lace u. Hemsley in Journ. Linn. Soc. XXVIII. (1891) 294 [A Sketch of the Vegetation of British Baluchistan]" (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

Unknown location: 1. "Herbarium of the late East India Company / No. 4086 / Affghanistan.  Herb. Griffith / Distributed at the Royal Gardens, Kew. 1863-4.". 2. "... Phelipaea lutea Desf." (P 02983452; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016).

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Algeria / Argelia / Algérie / Algerien [need be confirmed]

Biskra Province: "Herbier L. Chevallier Précigné (Sarthe). / Phelypaea lutea Desf. / Sahara: Biskra, entre l'oued / et la ligne / 31-3-1890 Legi: L. Chevallier" (P 02986952; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2015 [blunt anthers]); "Algerien: in der Oase Biskra (Balansa, PI. d'Alger. n. 846), nicht gesehen." (Beck 1930: 32, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

El Bayadh Province: "Herbier L. Chevallier Précigné (Sarthe). / Phelypaea lutea Desf. / Sahara: El Abiodh Sidi Cheikh [El Abiodh Sidi Cheikh District], / est de la grande dune / 3-5-1899 Legi: L. Chevallier" (P 02986953; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2015 [blunt anthers]).

Illizi Province: 1. "Nº 42 / Sahara algérien: F. Polignok a Djanet / Oued Jlezy / Coll. H. Lhote 25.2.1934". 2. "Cistanche phelypaea (L.) P. Cout. / Dr. R. Maire / 11.10.1934" (P 02986966; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2015 ["corollae tubo curvato ... Antherae cordato-sagittatae muticae [blunt]" (Reuter 1847: 12, sub P. tubulosa)]).

Tamanrasset / Tamanghasset Province: "Herbier P. Lavie / Niger nº 841 / ... / Février 76 / Oued Temorte - Massif de l'Atakar (Algériè) ..." (P 04410180; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2015); "La Cistanche tubulosa (Orobanchaceae) est relativement fréquente dans le Tassili n'Ajjer, mais aussi en Egypte ou dans le reste du Sahara ... Le Calligonum comosum [C. comosum L'Hér.; C. polygomoides subsp. comosum (L'Hér.) Soskov.] (Polygonaceae) qui sert d'hôte à notre Cistanche parasite est commun dans tout le Sahara" (photos (1350293536, 1444997275) by Jacques Louvel in Tassili n'Ajjer, accessed Apr 2015).

Unknown location: "Cistanche tubulosa, Grand Erg Occidental [Sahara], Algeria" (photos by Michael Jeddah in flickr, accessed Feb 2015); Sahara (photo arton180.jpg by John Newby in Sahara Conservation Fund, accessed Feb 2016).

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Bahrain / Baréin / Bahreïn / Bahrein ("State of Bahrain / Cistanche phelypae / Postage / 150 Fils [1993]" [postage stamp in The Parasitic Plant Connection, accessed Jan 2015]; Foley 2004: 234, sub C. phelypaea; Norton & al. 2009: 54, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight)

C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight / Vicinity Stone Quarries near east coast / near Chenopodiaceae / Cornes, M. / 18 December 1983 (E 00029703; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2015); "Bahrain: vicinity of stone quarries near east coast, 18.XII.1983, Cornes 97 (E)" (Foley 2004: 234, sub C. phelypaea).

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Benin / Bénin / Dahomey [needs be confirmed] (Hepper 1963: 374; Lobin & Düll 1996: 592, sub C. phelypaea).

"Cistanche lutea Link et Hoffm. / Bibliotheque / Prince Roland Bonaparte // Mission de Gironcourt 76 // Mission de Gironcourt Ht Dahomey / Reçu le 8 Novembre 1915" (P 03430972; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2015).

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Cape Verde / Cabo Verde / Cap-Vert / Kapverdische Inseln (Macaronesia) [unconfirmed, see Cistanche phelypaea subsp. lutea (Desf.) Fern. Casas & M. Laínz] (Lobin & Düll 1996: 592, sub C. phelypaea)

S. Vicente: "Cap Verdische Inseln: São Vincente (Wawra und Maly)?" (Beck 1930: 32, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

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Chad / Tchad / Tschad [unconfirmed]

Barh El Gazel / Région du Barh El Gazel: "Institut d'Élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire / des Pays Tropicaux / Nº 3896 / Collecteur Mosnier / Numéro: 1858 / Date: 6.12.63 / Koal  Tchad / pied dune N-O-puits / jaune claire / Cistanche Phelypaea (L.) P. Cout. / J.P. Lebrun, Mars 1964" (P 03004158; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016 [blunt anthers]).

Borkou Region [Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti]: "Plantae in Tibesti a M. Dalloni lectae - 1931 / Cistanche Phelypaea (L.) P. Cout. / Aozi, 1345 m., in alluvie basaltica / 15 -1 / ...  det. Sr. R. Maire" (P 03430946; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016).

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China / Chine / 中国 [unconfirmed] (according to Zhang & Tzvelev 1998 [Illustration [t. 256, f. 12]] is a synonym of C. mongolica Beck; see CITES. Prop. 11.59, accessed Oct 2013)

"Dzhungaria-Kashgaria (southern part), Tibet." (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 20-21[25-26], sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

"(1) C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight: Leaves of upper stem broad lanceolate, flat at base, acuminate at apex, veins not obvious. Raceme terminal, bract obovate, bractlet long slated, slightly shorter than sepals, corolla funnel, purple, surface of seed honeycomb-shaped. It is parasitized on the root of Tamarix plants." (CITES. Prop. 11.59, accessed Oct 2013).

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Cyprus / Κύπρος / Kýpros / Kıbrıs / Chipre [unconfirmed, see C. tinctoria (C. tubulosa)] (Meikle 1985: 1233, sub C. phelypaea; Lobin & Düll 1996: 589, sub C. phelypaea; Hand & al. 2011, sub C. phelypaea)

Paphos: "Ayios Yeoryios Island (Akamas), 1962, Meikle 2164!" (Meikle 1985: 1233, sub C. phelypaea).

Limassol: Akrotiri Peninsula: "Near the lighthouse at Cape Gata, 1905, Holmboe 679" (Meikle 1985: 1233, sub C. phelypaea); "Akrotiri, Ladies' Mile Beach", photo 786_14 by Leif & Anita Stridvall, 2000.04.07 (Stridvall, L. & A., sub C phelypaea).

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Djibouti / Jabuuti / Gabuuti / Yibuti / Dschibuti

Dikhil Region: 1. "N.º 75 .... / "Baro Hendisse" / Gobad [Sultanat de Goba'ad], Somalie Fse [Somalie française] / G. Denis 14-12-1945 / ...". 2. "Cistanche senegalensis (Reut.) Beck / det. N. Ataei 5.2014" (P 03430970 - Gbif 474921608; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018).

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Egypt / مصر / Egipto / Ägypten (Forsskål 1775: 111, loc. class. of Lathraea quinquefida Forssk.; Clarke 1814: 42[41-42], loc. class. of Orobanche insignis E.D. Clarke; Beck 1930: 32, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Fahmy & al. 1996; Boulos 2002: 95, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) Hook. f.) [see Cistanche phelypaea subsp. lutea (Desf.) Fern. Casas & M. Laínz]

Alexandria Governorate: "Alexandriae, frequens ad omnes ripas arenosas" (Forsskål 1775: 111, loc. class. of Lathraea quinquefida Forssk.).

Alexandria Governorate-Beheira Governorate: 1. "Flora of Egypt Orobanche insignis E.D. Clarke / Locality: between Aboukir [Abu Qir] and / Rosseta [Rashid] Date: April-May 1801 / Coll. E.D. Clarke". – 2. "Orobanche insignis E.D. / Clarke, Travels 2(2): 41 / (1814)" (BM 000606304, type of Orobanche insignis E.D. Clarke); "This was also found between Aboukir [Abu Qir, Alexandria] and Rosetta [Rosette, Beheira], at the same time" (Clarke 1814: 42[41-42], loc. class. of Orobanche insignis E.D. Clarke; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015).

Beheira Governorate: "Phelipaea lutea / Rosette / Sxrb. Moutbret [Coquebert de Moutbret[?] / Abu Webb.[?]" (P 02970614 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016 [anthers not apiculate, ± acute]); "P. Ascherson, iter aegyptiacum quartum. / 689./ Rosette / III.1887" (P 03430940; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016); "um Rosette (Figari)" (Beck 1930: 32, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

Cairo Governorate: "n.º 58 Cistanche lutea ... / Wadi Warag [Wadi El-Warag], mittelaegyptische Wüste, arabicche Seite [Central Egyptian desert, Arabian side]  /  25 ... Schweinfurth" (P 02983471; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2015); "Wadi dugla [Wadi Dugla (W. Dégeli / Wadi Degla), between Cairo and Suez] bei Cairo (Schweinfurth)" (Beck 1930: 32, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

Damiette Governorate / Damietta Governorate: "... n. 147 / Phelipaea lutea Desf. / envir. de Damiette / ... Sieber ..." (P 02970620; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Phelipaea lutea Desf. / Damiatte / Sieber" (P 02983471; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2015); "bei Damiette (Sieber n. 147!)" (Beck 1930: 32, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

Ismailia Governorate: "Herborisations au Levant. / Égypte / 18 Mars 1880 / Phelipaea lutea tubulosa Schenk / Ismaïlya / Leg. W. Barbey / Valleyres, Vaud (Suisse). / 689." (P 02970649; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "am Isthmus bei Ismaïlia (Barbey)" (Beck 1930: 32, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

Ismaïlia Governorate - Port-Saïd - Suez Governorate: "Egypte, Isthme de Suez / Rochet d'Héricourt, 1842" (P 02970650 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. N. Ataei 05-2014, C. almeriensis Ataei & Schneeweiss; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016).

Red Sea Governorate: "N.º 573. Cistanche lutea Lk, Hoffg. / auf Sadaba [Safaga, near Hurghada?] ... / Abu Tiur am ... [Al-Qusayr / Kosseir / Al Qusair / Qusseir] / (Berber) / 8 Febr. 1865 gesammelt von Dr. G. Schweiinfurth." (P 02970635; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016).

South Sinai Governorate: "Phelipea Lutea / in vallibus mont Sïnaï 2845 // Cistanche / Phelipea tubulosa Schenk / ... / Sïnaï / Asie Occidentale. M. Aucher-Eloy. 1837" (P 02983455; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015 [blunt anthers]); "Hab. ad viam inter Suez et Tor [Sinai] in Arabia petraea, ubi legerunt Dr. Roth et Erdl mense Februario" (Schenk 1840: 24, loc. class. of P. tubulosa); "Inter Suez et Tor [Sinai], in Arabiâ Petraeâ, in radicibus..." (Reuter 1847: 12, loc. class. of P. tubulosa); "The type ... was collected in Sinai, between Suez and el-Tor [South Sinai] by Roth & Erdl" (Boulos 2002: 95, loc. class. of C. tubulosa); "Phelipaea lutea Desf. / Arabia petraea, ad desertum Tih [Jabal at Tīh]. Mart. 1846 / E. Boissier // Herb. Al de Bunge" (P 02983471; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2015); "Phelipaea tubulosa Schenk / Arabia Petraea / Wadi Useit [29° 13' 0" N y 32° 55' 60" E]  marts 1846 / E. Boissier. // Donné en 1855" (P 02983454; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015 [fructified specimen]); "P. 12. P. tubulosa, adde: in Arabiâ Petraeâ Wadi Useit (Boissier!) — Scapus sesquipedalis fere a basi florifer. Squama; lanceolata; erectae. Corolla subpollicaris tubo insigniter curvato. Flores in sicco fusco-violacei (v. s. in h. Boiss.)" (Reuter 1847: 12, sub P. tubulosa Schenk); "im Wadi Useit (Boissier!)" (Beck 1930: 32, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight); "Egypto (Sieb!, Schweinf!), deserto Tih [Al-Tih / At Tih Desert / Badiet at Tih / Desert Et Tih, Janūb Sīnā'] Arabiae Petreae (Boiss!)" (Boissier 1879: 500, sub P. lutea); "Sinai: Suez to Tawr (Roth, in Schenk), Wâdi-Kusayt [ Wadi Useit] (Bo [Boissier]), W. Islîh, W. ush-Shaykh [Jisr-Shaykh-Awwash] (K)" (Post 1932: 312, sub C. tubulosa).

Unknown location: 1. "Orobanche tinctoria / Egypte  Olivier". 2. "Phelipaea lutea Desf. / Egypte  Olivier" (P 02970619; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2015).

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Eritrea (Stapf 1906: 464, sub C. lutea; Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 20-21[25-26], "Abyssinia [Ethiopian Empire]", sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight)

Anseba Region: "Erythraea: bei Keren [Cheren / Sanhit], Ainzaba (Prinz von Württemberg)" (Beck, 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

Northern Red Sea Region: 1. "Phelipaea lutea / Zulla ... / ...  Mer Rouge". 2. "Phelipaea tinctoria Walp. / Ade-Rich-flab [?] / Abyssinie —  Golfe d' Adulés [Adulis Bay, Gulf of Zula / Gulf of Arafali, 15°10′N 39°46′E, Foro Province] / Exploration de la Mer rouge sous les ordres de / Mr Russel capitaine de Vaisseau, 1859-1860. / Herbier donné par Mr. le Dr. Courbon. 1860." (P 02970631; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016)

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Ethiopia / Etiopía / Ethiopie (Richard 1851: 137, sub P. tinctoria; Stapf 1906: 464, sub C. lutea; Pax 1907: 651, sub C. carnosa; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 20-21[25-26], "Abyssinia [Ethiopian Empire]", sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight)

Amhara Region

Lasta Woreda: Lasta (photo 2063-VLal3.jpg by Alberto Vascon in Flowers - Magic Ethiopia; accessed Mar 2018).

Weldiya Woreda: "5 Km N. of Woldia [Weldiya]", 23.12.1972, Ash 1811 (K specimen 35551.000, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

Harari Region: "E. of Bike, Harrar Province" (K specimen 35620.000, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

Oromia Region / Oromiyaa: "Prov. Ost-Schoa [East Shewa / Ost- Shoa / Est Choa]: Tedetschamalka, 960 m, 30.1.1905. »Wurzelparasit; Nährpflanze unbekannt [unknown host-plant]. Sehr sukkulent und der Fäulnis stark ausgesetzt. Blüten blaßgelb. — Auch in Katschinoa am Ostufer des Hawasch [Awash River].«" (Pax 1907: 651, sub C. carnosa).

Tigray Region: "Herb. Mus. Paris. / Phelipaea lutea Desf. / tinctoria Walpers. / ... / Voyage de M. Quartin-Dillon en Abyssinie. Massoua à Adowa [Adua / Adwa / Aduwa]" (P 02970632; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2015); "Crescit in locis humidis convallis fluvii Mareb [Mareb River / Gash River]" (Richard 1851: 137, sub P. tinctoria).

Unknown locations: Phelipaea lutea? / Abyssinie [Ethiopian Empire] / Envoi de M. W. Schimper, 1853 (P 02970633; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2015); "Cistanche // Phelipaea lutea? / Abyssinie [Ethiopian Empire]. Lequa / Envoi de M. W. Schimper, 1853. n. 963" (P 02970636; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2015); 1. "n. 963 ... / Lequa - 5000' - 6 Oct 52 sur le / racine de 209". 2. "Cistanche // Phelipaea lutea? / Abyssinie [Ethiopian Empire]. Lequa / Envoi de M. W. Schimper, 1853" (P 02970637; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2015).

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Greece / Ελλάδα / Hellas / Grecia / Grèce / Griechenland [unconfirmed, see Cistanche phelypaea subsp. lutea (Desf.) Fern. Casas & M. Laínz] (C. phelypaea in Itia, accessed Apr 2015)

Aegean Islands (Lobin & Düll 1996: 592, sub C. phelypaea).

Crete / Creta / Κρήτη (Boulos 2002: 95, sub C. phelypaea).

Heraklion regional unit / Περιφερειακή ενότητα Ηρακλείου: 1. "K.H. Rechinger fil.: Iter Aegaeum VI. 1942. / No. 13113. / Cistanche tinctoria (Forsk.) Beck / Creta: Distr. Hierapetra: In saxosis insulae Mikro- / nisi, in Atriplici Halimo parasitica. / 19.V.". 2. "Cistanche phelypaea (L.) Cout. / Det. Najibeh Ataei Mar 2012 / ... BONN" (E 00028897; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018).

Lasithi / Λασίθι: "in this case Atriplex halimus (Chenopodiaceae). Koufonisi island [Κουφονήσι / Leuce], off the south-eastern corner of Crete", April 5, 2009" (photos 33349430682 [3453583111 and 32662549734] by Nicholas Turland in Greek plant diversity - Crete, 2009 - flickriver; accessed Feb 2016).

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India / Inde / Indien (Edgeworth 1840: 285, loc. class. of O. calotropidis; Wight 1850: 4; Hooker f. 1884: 324; Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 20-21[25-26], sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Deomurari & al., sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) Wight, overview in IBIS-Flora Beta Version (Angiosperm Flora of India - Cistanche), accessed Apr 2015)

Gujarat State: Rann of Kutch, recorded Bitapi C. Sinha, Nita Shah (sub C. tubulosa, WII 00000902328 - Gbif 685750137; accessed Mar 2019); "Protan Island, Marine NP, recorded G.S. Rawat, det. G.S. Rawat" (sub C. tubulosa, WII 00234002322 - Gbif 685750131; accessed Mar 2019).

Punjab State: "Crescit in radicibus Calatropidis Hamiltonii in arenosissimis Malvae [Malwa / Malwai, Punjab, Thar Desert?]" (Edgeworth 1840: 285, loc. class. of Orobanche calotropidis); "In radicibus Calotropidis Hamiltonii [Calotropis hamiltonii Wight; Calotropis procera subsp. hamiltonii (Wight) Ali (Asclepiadaceae)] in the Sickh states Indiae orientalis [eastern Pakistan and northern India]" (Reuter 1847: 12); Sikh states, IN, Edgeworth (?K) (Schlauer & al., 2002); "Herb. Ind. Or. Hook fil & Thomson / ... Calotropidis, Walp. / Hab. Plan. Ganget Sup.  Regio Srop / Alt. 1000  ... Coll. J.J." (P 02983448; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015, type[?] of O. calotropidis Edgew. Phelypaea calotropidis (Edgew.) Walp.) (Hooker f. 1884: 324); "Ost-Indien: In den Sickh States (Edgeworth); im Punjab, Scinde [Sindh, Pakistan?], in der Ebene des oberen Ganges (Hooker f. et Thomson)" (Beck 1930: 33, sub. C. calotropidis).

Maharashtra State: "This was photographed at Gorai (at the outskirts of Mumbai [Bombay])" (photos 2011 by Prashant & Dr. Satish Phadke ji in "Flora Picture of the year-2011", Efloraindia; accessed Feb 2015); "Gorai - Borivali Rd, Essel world Amusement Park, Uttan, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400092, India", 29 Apr 2018 (photos 16935912/original.jpg?1525056248 et 16935937/original.jpg?1525056257, sub C. tubulosa, by wonderviewer in iNaturalist 11835880 - Gbif 1990438942; accessed Mar 2019).

Rajasthan State: "The plant is able to tolerate saline environments and is most found in arid regions of Rajasthan, Punjab and Pakistan ... Photographed in Pokhran, Rajasthan" (photos by Nandan Kalbag in Flowers of India; accessed Feb 2015).

Unknown location: flora.indianbiodiversity C. tubulosa-Minal.jpg by Minal Jani in IBIS-Flora / Angiosperm Flora of India (accessed Mar 2019).

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Iraq / Irak (Bornmüller 1907: 117, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Schiman-Czeika 1964: 21, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Gilli 1979: 291, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight var. tubulosa)

Al Anbar Governorate: "Extra fine Periae: in desertis Euphraticis inter Anah et Deïr [Deir Hamīda / Dayr al Hamidah]; 6.V.1894" (Bornmüller 1907: 117, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

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Iran / Irán / Persia / Persien (Bornmüller 1904: 686, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 20-21[25-26], sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Schiman-Czeika 1964: 21, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) Wight, parasitizing "Zygophyllum, Haloxylon, Calligonum, Prosopis, Pteropyrum, Tamarix"; Shahi Shavvon & Saeidi Mehrvarz 2010: 620, sub C. tubulosa Wight, "C. tubulosa is the most common and is distributed throughout nearly all phytogeographical zones of Iran and C. laxiflora is endemic to the Flora Iranica area and found in Central and Southern parts of Iran"; photo in IranDeserts.com; accessed Dec 2015)

Balouchistan / Balochistan / Baluchistan / Baluchestan: "Britisch Baluchistan, nach Lace u. Hemsley in Journ. Linn. Soc. XXVIII. (1891) 294 [A Sketch of the Vegetation of British Baluchistan]" (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight). [Sistan and Baluchestan]: "Zahedan to Khash, Hakimi 32303 (IRAN); Khash, ca. 1500 m, Assadi 22958; Moksoukhteh, 25 km Gasht road, 480 m, Foroughi 10825; 17 km Iranshahr, Bam road, 550 m, Foroughi 10652; 2 km SE Iranshahr, 580 m, Runemark, Assadi & Sardabi 22291; 64 km Bazman, 640 m, Runemark, Assadi & Sardabi 22593; 34 km MirJave road to Khash, Runemark, Assadi & Sardabi 22644; Iranshar to Sarbaz, around main road, Ghahreman & Mozaffarian 14056; Iranshahr to Bazman, 30 km WN Bazman, Govanz, 1500 m, Mousavi & Tehrani s.n. (IRAN); Saravan, Iranshahr 32320 (IRAN). Khorassan: SW Tabas, new road, Tabas to Yazd, 1000 m, Raafi & Zanghooei 26346 (FUHM); Dashte Lut, South of Tabas, 590 m, Leonard 32302 (IRAN)" (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 97, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) Wight); "Baluchestan: 34 km Mir Jave road to Khash, Runemark, Assadi & Sardabi 22 644 (TARI)" (Shahi Shavvon & Saeidi Mehrvarz 2010: 620, sub C. tubulosa Wight).

Bushehr: "Farsi Island, Tehrani & Sangari 26566 (IRAN); Dayyer, Morghi Island, Tehrani & Sangari 26567 (IRAN)" (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 97, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) Wight).

Fars: "43 km from Lar to Bastak, 400 m, Assadi & Sardabi 41846; Lar, 800 m, Iranshahr 32311 (IRAN); Bandare Lenghe, Tonbe koochak Island, 10 m, Mozaffarian 63586; Shatvar Island, Aminirad 33505 (IRAN); Bostan, Banifarur Island, Terme & Karavar 26565 (IRAN); Bandar Abbas, Bandare Khamir, Shahi & Saeidi 13229" (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 97, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) Wight); "Iran, Bandare Abbas, Bandare Khamir, Shahi & Saeidi 13 229 (GUH)" (Shahi Shavvon & Saeidi Mehrvarz 2010: 620, sub C. tubulosa Wight).

Hormozgan: "Iran, Hormozgan, Bandzark", 24-01-2009 (photo by Arie Ouwerkerk (2004 - 2015) in Pbase.com; accessed Feb 2015).

Isfahan / Esfahan: "confus cun nº 1379. = Ispahan / Aucher-Eloy-Herbier d'Orient N.º 5080" (P 04243220; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2015); "Ispahan / Aucher-Eloy-Herbier d'Orient N.º 5080" (P 04243219; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2015); " ... Aucher-Eloy-Herbier d'Orient N.º [Aucher n. 3080?]" (P 02970649; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "bei Ispahan (Aucher n. 3080)" (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight); "1223 ... Rischm [Rashm] ..." (P 02970649; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "bei Rischm [Rashm] umd Kaschan [Kashan] (Buhse n. 1223 als Ph. lutea nach Boissier)" (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight); "Kash.: Inter Rashm et Kashan, Buhse!" (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 21, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight); "23 km NE Kashan, 750 m, Babakhanloo, Amin & Bazarghan 17821" (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 97, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) Wight).

Kerman: "Persia orientalis: in desertis inter Yesd [Yazd / Yezd, Yazd County] el Kennan [Kermān / Kirman / Carmania, Kerman County] prope pagum Hormusabad, 16-1700 m. s. m.; 17.IV.1892; plantse nutrientes: Tamarix (Bornm., iter Persico-turcicum, n. 3899). — Die üppigen, bis 70 cm. hohen Exemplare sind an den obern Stengelteilen und Bracteen häufig mehr oder minder amethystfarbig, Blülhen goldgelb (Bornm., n. 3899b)." (Bornmüller 1904: 686, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight); "Cistanche tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight / 1970 det. A.G.U. // Cistanche / sur Haloxylon ammodendron [(C.A. Mey.) Bunge (Anabasis ammodendron C.A. Mey., Chenopodiaceae)] / ... S du Kuh-ê-Patuki / ... Iran, SE / Th Monod 14579 18.3.70[1970]" (P 02983450 - hb. Th. Monod; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "S. Kuh-e Patuki, Monod 14579" (Gilli, 1979: 291, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight var. tubulosa); "Ahmad Abad, Iranshahr 32314 (IRAN); Jiroft, Maraz, 18 km SE Pimjan, 750-900 m, Tehrani & Mousavi 32304 (IRAN); Jiroft, Ghaleye Ghanj to Shams Abad, Shah Abad, 450 m, Mousavi & Tehrani s.n. (IRAN); Bemani, Shah Mardi, Mousavi & Iranshahr 32321 (IRAN); 53 km NE Sirjan, 1730 m, with no name of collecter 6839" (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 97, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) Wight).

Khuzestan: "Near Ahvaz, Mobayen 8831 (IRAN); Mahshahr, Boune Island, Tehrani & Eskandari 33506/1 (IRAN); NE Susangherd, Farhe region, 40 m, Mozaffarian 53474 (IRAN); NE Bostan, around Misho Dagh mountain, 50-200 m, Mozaffarian 53740 (IRAN)" (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 97, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) Wight).

Qom: "Herbarium Bonnensis (BONN) / ... / Cistanche tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight / Locality: Iran, Highway Ghom [Qom] - Tehran, 60 km Ghom to Tehran, Cheshme / Shur, 9,5 km to Hoze-Solatan lake; clay to sandstone soil. / ... 801 m a.s.l. Date: 23.04.2010 ... / Leg.: N. Ataei (Iran 13A) / Det.: N. Ataei" (P 00784789; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018 [typical anthers]); "Tehran: Ghom lake, 800 m, Jadidi 25 598 a (TARI)" (Shahi Shavvon & Saeidi Mehrvarz 2010: 620, sub C. tubulosa Wight); "Saveh Qom Lake [Howz e Soltan Lake]" (photo 2017/06/Hovz-e-Soltan-Lake-Qom-1.jpg in Travital; accessed Apr 2018).

Semnan: "1223 ... Rischm [Rashm] ..." (P 02970649; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "bei Rischm [Rashm] umd Kaschan [Kashan] (Buhse n. 1223 als Ph. lutea nach Boissier)" (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight); "21 km SW Raze, 880 m, Freitag & Mozaffarian 28655; 82 km Sabzevar to Mayamey, Befor Abbas Abad, 930 m, Assadi & Maassoumi 55902; Shahrud, 8 km Ahmad Abad, near Zaman Abad, 950 m, Iranshahr s. n. (IRAN); West of Dashte Lut, 750 m, Leonard 32319 (IRAN)" (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 97, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) Wight).

South Khorasan: "Herbar. Bungeanum. / Iter persicum. / pr. Sser-tschah [Sar Chah-e Tazian / Sar-i-tschah / Sar-I-Chah, 33°01′07″N 59°33′38″E] Persiae mediae orientalis. Mart. 1859." (P 02983449 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "bei Ssertschah [Sar Chah-e Tazian] (Bunge nach Boissier)" (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

Yazd: "54 km Bafgh to Sheitoor, near Gazestan, 2200 m, Assadi & Bazghosha 56076; Ardakan, Toot and Anjirvand, 1800 m, Mozaffarian 77411; Near Yazd, 1000 m, Rechinger 2704" (Saeidi Mehrvarz & Shahi Shavvon 2008: 97, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) Wight); "Photo1 and Photo2 of the flowering plants. Abarkouh region, Iran. Photos by Rasoul Rasoulpour." (sub C. phelypaea in The Parasitic Plants Connection, accessed Mar 2015).

Unknown location: "R.C.P. nº 140: ... / Cistanche / 14119 / Th. Monod 3-3-69 / Oued Shungaz un peu au S de / Shungaz Haman [désert de Zanghi Ahmad, SE Iran, Balouchistan?] / sur Tamarix" (P 04409938; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015).

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Israel / Palestine / Palaestina (Bornmüller 1898: 614-615, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Post 1932: 312, sub C. tubulosa; Feinbrun-Dothan 1978: 209, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight)

"Host: Tamarix spp., Atriplex halimus. Hab.: Deserts. Fairly common. Judean Desert, C. Negev, Lower Jordan Valley, Dead Sea area, Arava Valley; Ammon, Edom" (Feinbrun-Dothan 1978: 209, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight); "Geogr. District: Lower Jordan Valley (Common), Judean Desert (Common), Dead-Sea Valley (Common), Negev Highlands (Rare), Southern Negev (Rare), Arava Valley (Rare), Moav (Common), Edom (Rare)" ... "Dead Sea Valley [Jordan Rift Valley]; Southern Negev, Eastern rim of the Ramon Depression; using the root of Atriplex halimus [L. (Chenopodiaceae)] as a source for the parasite, Southern Negev; S. Negev, Biqa'at Uvda; Dead-Sea valley, near Almog junction; Negev Highlands, the Large Crater; Negev Higlands, Mezad Yarkeam" (C. tubulosa (Schenk) Hook. f. by Avinoam Danin in Flora of Israel Online; accessed Feb 2015).

Gaza Governorate: Azrah: "ut-Tîk: ur-Ramlah (PH)" to Gaza (Post 1932: 312, sub C. tubulosa).

Southern District: "Tamar Regional Council, Southern District, Israel [near Neve Zohar] Lat: 31.18, Long: 35.30" (photo 1095286004 by Ori Fragman-Sapir in Project Noah; accessed Feb 2015); "Нижняя часть растения. Израиль [Israel], южная Арава [the southern Arava], восточные окр. киббуца Элифаз [oriental ambient Kibbutz Eliphaz], нарушенное местообитание между шоссе Арава и плантацией фиников, ближайшее растение Salsola imbricata [Chenopodiaceae]. 20.02.2017." (photos 515067, 515071, 515072, 515075, 515076, 515078, 515079 [!], 515080, 515081 [!], 515082 by Татьяна Мальчинская [Tatiana Malchinski] 2017, sub C. tubulosa Wight, in Plantarium; accessed Apr 2018).

Palestine region: Mars-avril 64[1864] / Aïn el Feschka [Aïn-Feschkah, bord de la mer Morte, Palestine] // Dr. A. Combes 1864 (P 04243218; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2015); "On Tamarix. Pal. around Dead Sea (Tr)" (Post 1932: 312, sub C. tubulosa).

Palestinian territories, West Bank (Jericho Governorate): "Im Jordanthal bei Jericho [West Bank] (exs. Nr. 1230), dort, wie in der grossen Salzwüste des östlichen Persien, nur mit goldgelben Blüthen angetroffen, nur selten hatte der Stengel in den oberen Theilen einen amethystfarbenen Anflug; vgl. Post, l.c., p. 603" (Bornmüller 1898: 614-615, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight); "750 / Dr. Fr. Nábělek Iter turcico-persicum 1909-10. / Cistanche lutea Lk. et Hffsg. / Phelipaea lutea Desf., Boiss. / 30.III.1909 / Judaea: Wâdi el-Kelt prope Jericho [Atriplex lucocladum] det.-leg. VII.1909. Dr. Fr. Nábělek" (SAV 0003280; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016); "Palästina: bei El Chalil = Hebron (nach Roth); im Jordan-Tale bei Jericho (Bornmüller, Iter syriacum n. 1230 ! im März 1897)." (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight); "near Jericho (Bn. 1230)" (Post 1932: 312, sub C. tubulosa).

Tel Aviv District: Tel Aviv-Yafo: Hallâl [Jab. Hallal: ut-Tîh. S. W. of Jab. Muwaylih] (Range, 2086, on Retama and Haloxylon articulatum [Hammada articulata (Moq.) O. Bolòs & Vigo (Chenopodiaceae Vent.)]), Bîr-ul-Masâr [Bîr-ul-Mas'aud: ut-Tîh. S. of Katiya] (Barb.)" (Post 1932: 312, sub C. tubulosa).

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Jordan / اَلأُرْدُنّ / Al-'Urdunn / Jordanie / Jordania / Jordanien (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Post 1932: 312, sub C. tubulosa)

Aqaba Governorate: "Photographed ad Wadi Rum [Uadi Rum], Jordan on March" (photos in Gardner. & Gardner, 2014).

Karak Governorate-Madaba Governorate: "On Tamarix. Pal. around Dead Sea (Tr)" (Post 1932: 312, sub C. tubulosa).

Madaba Governorate [unconfirmed, see C. violacea]: "Near Heshbon. Fide Paine. P." (Tristram 1884: 377, Phelypaea gossypina Baker ex Tristram).

Zarqa Governorate: "Cistanche tubulosa (Schrenk) Wight / ... / Jordanien. Amman: Azraq / 510 m, auf Tamarix / 6.4.80[1980] / leg. W. Frey & H. Kürschner / det. H. Kürschner 1980 / Nr.: VO 4924" (E 00029727; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); Shaumari Wildlife Reserve (photo 28457630 by wildchroma, sub C. tubulosa, in iNaturalist 18595246 - Gbif 1946323789; accessed Mar 2019).

N.B.: "Haloxylon persicum [Haloxylon persicum Bunge (Chenopodiaceae Vent.)], which was parasitzed by Cistanche lutea ... Punica granatum, Alhagi maurorum, Casuarina equisetifolia, Centaurea postii, and Prosopis farcta, which were parasitzed by Cistanche tubulosa" (Qasem 2009).

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Kazakhstan / Қазақстан / Qazaqstan / Казахстан / Kazajistán [unconfirmed] (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 20-21[25-26], sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight)

"Цветущее растение в пустыне. Казахстан. Середина мая." (photo 59887 by Рустам Бобров, 2010; растение определил(а) [det.] Андрей Ковальчук; in Plantarium; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2015 [cf.]).

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Kenya / Kenia (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; R.A. Graham, Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1957, sub Cistanche ["The Cistanche material in our area seems to be of one species only, namely C. tubulosa (Schenk) Hook, f., but it is difficult from pressed examples to differentiate between C. tubulosa and C. phelypaea (L.) Cout. (= C. lutea Hoffmgg. & Link)"] in Jstor, accessed Jan 2016)

Coast Province: "Brit. Ostafrika [East Africa Protectorate]! am Woiflusse bei Taita (Hildebrandt n. 2583!)" (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight); "Kurawa, 30 ml. S of Garsen, Tana River Dist., Kenya, 50 ft. / Cistanche. ... / ... / ... Suaeda etc. / Polhill and Paulo 595. 5.10.1961" (P 03430961; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Vipingo, 20 miles N. of Mombasa", 19.12.1953, B. Verdcourt (K specimen 3929.000, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight); "Fundort: Nordküste Kenia in Nähe eines Baobab" (photos by Michael Kürschner in Safari-afrika.de; accessed Feb 2015).

Eastern Province: "Ex Herb. Hort. Bot. Reg. Kew. / Cistanche tubulosa (Schenk) Hook. f. / Kenya: Marsabit District (Kl). 1978 / F.N. Hepper & P.M.L. Jaeger  No. 6940 // Cistanche / Marsabit District (Kl), Mt. Kulal in cinder / and lava below upper Gatab airstrip c. 5500 / ft. = 1700 m. / ... / Haustoria and roots / of Amaranth traced to parent plants. / H. & J. 6940  21 Nov. 1978" (P 04410177; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015).

Rift Valley Province / Bonde la Ufa: "Sentrim hotel grounds, Amboseli NP, Kenya", 2012-01-01 (PhotoID: 36266 by Katarina Stenman in www.igoterra.com; accessed Feb 2015).

Taita-Taveta: "Nº 2583 / Uvi-Fufs (Taita). / Ufernvaldungen. / [Kenya] / Leg. J. M. Hildebrandt. Comm. C. Rensch. Juli 1877." (P 04608130 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2016).

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Kuwait / Koweït (Daoud & Al-Rawi 1985; Foley 2004: 234, sub C. phelypaea; Norton & al. 2009: 54, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight)

"Kuwait Feb 2013" (photo by Khaled Al-Ghanem in Flickr; accessed Feb 2015).

Ahmadi: Khiran (photo 49734 by Simon Wright in TrekNature; accessed Feb 2015).

Jahra: "Flora of Kuwait / No. 10218 / Cistanche tubulosa / Sheikh Abdulla Jaber's Farm near / Kathma [Kazimah]. / Irrigated land from reservoir / 16 m / A. Rawi, R. Jalili & V. Armer, 12 Mar. 1981 / Deep purple and yellow flowers // Department ... / Cistanche tubulosa (Schrenk) R. Wight / Elizabeth Pruitt 7 January 1994" (E 00029686; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Kuwait: near Kathma, 12.III.1981, Rawi & al. 10218 (E); near the Salmi road,16.III.1981, Armer 122 (E); 9 km south of Dubaiya, 20.II.1973, Boulos s.n. (BM)" (Foley 2004: 234, sub C. phelypaea).

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Lebanon / Líbano / Libanon / Liban (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight)

"Syrien: auf dem Libanon bei Bischerra und um Cedretum (Kotschy, It. syr. n. 836!)" (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

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Libya /  ‏ليبيا‎  / Libia / Lybien (Jafri 1978: 4, "A species confined to the southern desert areas of Libya and parasiting on roots of Tamarix aphylla")

Ghat: "E-1 U. Tanezzuft-nella zona centrale dell'U., c. 675 m, 10.3.1934. R. Corti 1187 (FI)" (Jafri 1978: 4).

Surt: 1. "Davis 49850 / Cistanche lutea / Libya. C: Gulf of Sirte [Gulf of Sidra], E. of Marble Arch. / 20 m. 20 m. Sebkha on Atriples halimus [Atriplex halimus L. (Chenopodiaceae)]. Flowers flava. 23 March 1970.". 2. "Cistanche phelypaea ... / ... / 1972 rev. A. Gilli". 3. "Cistanche tubulosa ... / Det. Najibeh Ataei Mar 2012 / ..." (E 00029749; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016 [apparently blunt anthers]).

N. B. see C. lutea et Orobanche compacta

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Mali [see C. lutea] (Lobin & Düll 1996: 592, sub C. phelypaea)

Gao Region: "Herbier M. de Wailly / Plantes de l'Afrique Occidental Française / Ile des rapides / Fafa / Cercle de Gao (Soudan) / 30.4.87 / n.º 5396 Legit M. de Wailly" (P 03430971 [Gbif 474739381]; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018).

Tombouctou Region: "3.316 / Cistanche lutea ... / Goundam parasite sur Salvadora / persica [Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae)] / 12. 8.1899" (P 03430942; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016).

Kidal Region: "Mali - Adrar des Iforas / N.V.: / Ehya ag Sidiyène  1983-1989 // 76 / Cistanche phelypaea ... / Déterm.: J.P. Lebrun" (P 03430955; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2015 [apparently blunt anthers]).

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Mauritania / Mauriatanie / Mauretanien (Barry & Celles 1991; Lobin & Düll 1996: 592, sub C. phelypaea)

Adrar Region: "Nº 5736 / 28.II.1935 / Herb. Mus. Paris / T. Monod Sahara 1934-35 / Cistanche phelypaea / Tinioulig [Tenioulig / Tinioûlig, N 22°38′29″ W 7°13′13″] Sahara occidental" (P 04410189; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2015 [blunt anthers]); "Nº 5736bis / 28.II.1935 / Herb. Mus. Paris / T. Monod Sahara 1934-35 / Cistanche phelypaea / ... / = Cistanche lutea ... / Tinioulig [Tenioulig / Tinioûlig, N 22°38′29″ W 7°13′13″] Sahara occidental" (P 04410190; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2015 [blunt anthers]); Mauritanie sur Tamarix et Calligonum / Oued el Abiod [N 20°10′39″ W 13°12′54″], 2005-03-16 (photos [mra2639_6.jpg, mra2793_6, mra2794_6, mra2797_6.jpg] in Sahara-Nature, accesed Dec 2015); "Cistanche tubulosa Wight / ... Old Nouakchott Airport, / Nouakchott, Mauritania. / ... / Notes: This is a plant parasite that commonly / grows up around Tamarix or Calligonum / species. This plant specimen was found / around Tamarix gallica. ... / Collected: 14 September 2017 / Collector Franklin C. Graham IV, Ph.D." (USF 296480 - swbiodiversity 19418321; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2019).

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Morocco / المغرب‎, / Marruecos / Marokko [need be confirmed]

Souss-Massa-Drâa - Guelmim-Es Semara: "emergiendo de una duna en el Parque Nacional Souss Massa" (photo MA-20090131-DSC_4947 in Macroinstantes, Feb 2009, sub C. phelypaea); "Valle del Draa, Marruecos [Zagora Province]" et "Foum Draa [Foum-oued-draa], Marruecos" (photos [2.jpg, 3.jpg et 4.jpg] by J. Quiles Hoyo in Flora silvestre del Mediterráneo, sub C. phelypaea, accesed Jan 2016).

Sahara / al-Kubrā / The Great Desert: unconfirmed, see C. tinctoria (C. tubulosa).

Unknown location: "Phelypaea lutea / South Morocco Coll. Dr. Hooker April-May 1871" (P 02970630; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2015).

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Mozambique / Mosambik (Philcox 1990 [online 2004])

Nampula: "Goa Isl., Mossuril Bay, c. 4.6 m., fl. 10.viii. 1964, Leach 12348 (K; SRGH)." (Philcox 1990 [online 2004]).

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Niger / Níger (see Stamp)

Agadez: "Aug. Chevalier. — Voyage de 1931-1932 / Au Sahara et en Afrique Occidentale Fraçaise / Nº 43.525 / Cistanche lutea / 7-10.2.1932 / Niger: bud[?] de l' Aïr Agadez / Coll. Aug. Chevalier" (P 03944869; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2015 [blunt anthers]); "M.S.A.D. — B. nº 654 / ... du Niger  29.I.28 / Th. Monod coll. // Cistanche tinctoria (Forssk.) Beck ... // Mission Saharienne Augiéras-Draper" (P 03430960; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2015); 1. "... / M.S.A.D. — B. nº 667 / ... du Niger  29.I.28 / Th. Monod coll. // Mission Saharienne Augiéras-Draper / ...". 2. "Cistanche phelypaea (L.) Cout. / det. Dr. R. Maire / 5-3-1931" (P 03430947; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016).

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Oman (K; C. tubulosa in Tropicos, accessed Nov 2008; Foley 2004: 234, sub C. phelypaea)

Al Batinah North: 1. "Flora of the Sultanate of Oman / Cistanche tubulosa (Schrenk) R. Wight / Beside Batinah road prob. near / Sawaiq [Suwayq]. / Annual?, 20 cm. Flowers yellow, upper / petal pinkish. Fragrant scentlike / Friesia. Sandy roadside. / Alt. 10 m Date 19.3.78 / Coll. R. Whitcombe No. 155". – 2. "Herb. ... Vindob. / Cistanche tubulosa (Schrenk) R. Wight / rev. A. Gilli" (E 00029717; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018); "Liwa, Oman, February (28327)" (photo by Hanne & Jens Eriksen in Birds Oman; accessed Feb 2015).

Al Wusta: 1. "Flora of the Sultanate of Oman / Cistanche / Central Oman: Zawrik, Huqf Depression [Wadi Huqf] / ... / [leg.] I. McLeish No. 1640  05 Mar 1993". 2. "Cistanche tubulosa (Schrenk) R. Wight / Det. Najibeh Altaei / Nees Institute ... BONN." (E 00121966; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018); "Flowering Plants of Al Wusta Gov., Oman / ... / Cistanche salsa (C.A. Mey.) Beck / C. J. Rothfels #4234, with ... / Khor Dirif [Sahil al Jazir], midway along south side of. One clump of three stems. Base of sand dune as / it reaches the khor, with Ipomaea pes-caprae. / 18°56'23"N 057°20'40"E +/-150 m. 7 m elevation." (Gbif 1257996555 - MO 6463327 - 100654415 ; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018).

Ash Sharqiyah South / Southeastern Governorate: "Barr Al Hikman, Oman, January (11659) ... Barr Al Hikman, Oman, January (11657)" (photos by Hanne & Jens Eriksen in Birds Oman; accessed Feb 2015); "Ash Sharqiyah South Governorate, Omán", 20° 22' 39.05" N 58° 18' 16.05" E (photos 99983085 by , sub C. phelypaea, in Panoramio; accessed Mar 2015).

Dhofar: "Dhofar Province On the beach at Salalah 17° N 54° 05' E 0 m" (K specimen 29047.291, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight); "Ash Shuwaymiyyah beach, at the far end, near the jinawt cliffs..." (MO 2666701 - Carl J. Rothfels 4235) (C. tubulosa in Tropicos; accessed Feb 2015); Dhofar: Miji, 14 km west of Sharbithat / Coastal community dominated by Suaeda sp. nov. and Atriplex farinosa [A. farinosa Forssk.] / Miller, Anthony G. & Nyberg, Jane A. / M 9431 / 18 September 1989 (E 00029702; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2015).

"Oman: Salalah to Nazwa, 21.I.1993, McLeish 1490 (E); Dhofar, Raha beach, 13.I.1989, McLeish 966 (E); Dhofar, Kuria Muria islands, 16.X.1979, Miller 2767 (E); Beach near Muscat Intercontinental Hotel, 15.I.1982, Maconochie 3096 (E); Duqm beach, 11.XI.1993, McLeish 3071 (E); Dhofar, Miji, 18.IX.1989, Miller & Nyberg M9431 (E)" (Foley 2004: 234, sub C. phelypaea).

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Pakistan / Pakistán / Paquistán (Edgeworth 1840: 285, loc. class. of Orobanche calotropidis; Hooker f. 1884: 324, sub C. tubulosa; Hooker f. 1884: 324, loc. class. of C. tubulosa var. tomentosa; Schiman-Czeika 1964: 21, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Ilahi & al. 2010, sub C. tubulosa)

Balochistan / Baluchistan / Baluchestan: "Herb. Hort. Bot. Reg. Kew / Cistanche tubulosa Wight / Baluchistan: Bugli County [Dera Bugti District] / Coll. ... m. Jeffreys" (CVH 10256; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2016); "Britisch Baluchistan, nach Lace u. Hemsley in Journ. Linn. Soc. XXVIII. (1891) 294 [A Sketch of the Vegetation of British Baluchistan]" (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: "Cistanche tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight of the family Orobanchaceae has been found growing as a parasite for the first time on Capparis decidua L. (Capparidaceae). It is reported for the first time from District Karak (N.-W.F.P.) Pakistan. It was also found growing on Calligonum polygonoides L. (Polygonaceae), Calotropis procera L. (Asclepiadaceae) and Tamarix indica Willd (Tamaricaceae)" (Ilahi & al. 2010, sub C. tubulosa).

Punjab: "Lahore, Thompson" (Hooker f. 1884: 324, loc. class. of C. tubulosa var. tomentosa, (K) (Schlauer & al. 2002)); "Crescit in radicibus Calatropidis Hamiltonii in arenosissimis Malvae [Malwa / Malwai, Punjab, Thar Desert?]." (Edgeworth 1840: 285, loc. class. of Orobanche calotropidis); "Punjab and Scinde [Sindh]" (Hooker f. 1884: 324, sub C. tubulosa); "Nordwestliches Indien, im Punjab und Scinde [Sindh] (nach Hooker)" (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

Sindh: "Scind [Sindh, Pakistan?], in loose, sandy soil, on roots of Salsolas [Chenopodioideae] — grasses, and Calotropis Hamiltonii [Calotropis hamiltonii Wight; Calotropis procera subsp. hamiltonii (Wight) Ali (Asclepiadaceae)], & c. P. calotropidis, (Edgeworth)?" (Wight 1850: 4, sub C. lutea sensu Wight); "Punjab and Scinde [Sindh]" (Hooker f. 1884: 324, sub C. tubulosa); "Nordwestliches Indien, im Punjab und Scinde [Sindh] (nach Hooker)" (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

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Qatar / Catar / Katar (Norton & al. 2009: 54, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight [p.p., excl. syn.], "Mainly in coastal areas, including coastal sands along beaches, where occasional or forming small clumps. Host plants include Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Cornulaca spp, Limonium axillare, Suaeda vermiculata and Tetraena qatarensis. [cf.]"; Cistanche tubulosa in Flora of Qatar [map], accessed Feb 2015)

Ad-Dawhah Municipality: "Parasitic plants Cistanche tubulosa (desert hyacinth, dhanoon, Tartuth) in bloom. Harrarah, 40 miles south-west from Doha. Qatar, March 5, 2010" (C. tubulosa by A. Sergeev in Flora of Qatar, accessed Feb 2015); "Doha, Qatar Lat: 25.29, Long: 51.53 ... Some sites show C. tubulosa with purple flowers and some don't." (photo (Project Noah 17411381) by Elsa Naumann in Project Noah, accessed Feb 2015).

Al Khor Municipality / Al Khawr: "Parasitic plant Desert Hyacinth (Cistanche tubulosa, dhanoon, Tartuth) with a host plant, salt tolerant succulent Arthrocnemum macrostachyum [Salicornia macrostachya Moric. (Chenopodiaceae)] (glasswort, local name shnaan) in Purple Island (Jazirat Bin Ghanim). Al Khor, Qatar, March 4, 2011" (C. tubulosa by A. Sergeev in Flora of Qatar, accessed Feb 2015); "Photo. Closer view of the flowers. North of Al Khor, Qatar. The plant is parasitic on Arthrocnemum. Photo August 2007 by Martin Vestergaard." et "Flowering shoot. Frequently associated with Arthrocnemum, Qatar. Photo spring 2008 by Martin Vestergaard." (sub C. phelypaea in The Parasitic Plants Connection, accessed Mar 2015); "on the salty, hot, moist conditions of the Sabkha around the Al Thakira [Al Dakhira] area of Qatar" (photo by the apostrophe in Al Dhakira - Qatar - Gallery No1 - www.flickr.com, accessed Apr 2015).

Al Rayyan Municipality [Jariyan al Batnah]: "Flower of Desert Hyacinth (Cistanche tubulosa, Cistanche phelypaea, Lathraea phelypaea, local names zanoon, Wedaina) at entrance of Umm Bab in south-western Qatar, February 21, 2014" (C. tubulosa by A. Sergeev in Flora of Qatar, accessed Feb 2015); "Desert Hyacinth (Cistanche tubulosa, dhanoon, Tartuth) with a host plant Zygophyllum qatarense [Zygophyllaceae] at entrance of Umm Bab in south-western Qatar, March 3, 2014" (C. tubulosa by A. Sergeev in Flora of Qatar, accessed Feb 2015).

Al Shamal: "Desert Hyacinth (Cistanche tubulosa) with a host plant, a salt tolerant succulent, at Jazirat Umm Tays, barrier island at northern tip of Qatar, east from Ruwais [Ar Ru'ays], March 24, 2012" (C. tubulosa by A. Sergeev in Flora of Qatar, accessed Feb 2015).

Al Wakrah Municipality / Al Wakra: "Parasitic plant Desert Hyacinth (Cistanche tubulosa, dhanoon, Tartuth) with a host plant, salt tolerant succulent Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (glasswort). Salt marsh near Mesaieed, Qatar, January 29, 2010" (C. tubulosa by A. Sergeev in Flora of Qatar, accessed Feb 2015); "Bright yellow flowers of a parasitic plant Cistanche tubulosa (desert hyacinth, dhanoon, Tartuth). Salt marsh near Mesaieed, Qatar, March 18, 2011" (C. tubulosa by A. Sergeev in Flora of Qatar, accessed Feb 2015).

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Saudi Arabia / as-Su‘ūdiyyah / Arabia Saudita / Saudi-Arabien (Farah 1987, sub C. phelypaea; Foley 2004: 234, sub C. phelypaea; Farah & Al-Subaie 2006, sub C. phelypaea; Norton & al. 2009: 54, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Parasitic flora of Saudi Arabia [Site maintained by Jacob Thomas, Herbarium, Dept. of Botany & Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA, accessed Mar 2012]; photos (1, 2, 3, 4) in Birds of Saudi Arabia, accessed Jan 2016; "Saudi Arabia" (photos 1976826003 by Dr. Abdulhadi Aloufi in Project Noah, accessed Jan 2016)

Al Jawf Region [unconfirmed]: "Thaniyat Camp" (E 00029712 - Gbif 574750566; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018, sub C. violacea).

Al Madinah Province: "Saudi Arabia [near Al Furaysh] / Lat: 24.21, Long: 39.17 / Spotted on Jan 14, 2016" (photos by Dr. Abdulhadi Aloufi in Project Noah, accessed Jan 2016).

Eastern Province Ach-Charqiya / Ash Sharqiyah: "Institut d'Élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire / des Pays Tropicaux / N° 26083 / Collecteur: A. Gaston / Numéro: 2633 / 30.3.1969 / Tawi [Abar at Tuwi / At Tawi] / Sable / Arabie / fl. / jaune / ... / Cistanche phelypaea (L.) P. Cout. / ... /  J.P. Lebrun" (P 04409941; rev. N. Ataei 05-2014, ut Cistanche chabaharensis Ataei, sp. nov.; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016 ["non apiculatae sed submuticae" (Beck 1930: 26, t. 6, f. G)]); "Institut d'Élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire / des Pays Tropicaux / N° 52699 / ... / Collecteur: G. Boudet / Numéro: 8817 / Arabie / Saoudite / Forte pente dune / 81a / ... / Cistanche cf. Phelypaea ... / J.P. Lebrun" (P 04409940; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016 [a single very bad preserved specimen, it needs to be confirmed]).

Al-Ahsa Governorate: "Al-Ahsa Oasis, Saudi Arabia" (Farah & Al-Subaie 2006, sub C. phelypaea).

"Arabia" (Willdenow 1800: 353, sub Orobanche tinctoria Willd.); Arabia (Walpers 1844: 462, P. tinctoria (Forssk.) Walp.; Reuter 1847: 13, sub P. lutea; Battandier 1890: 656, sub P. lutea); "Auch für Arabien in der Wüste Tih wird sie von Boissier und Reuter (in DC. Prodr. XI. 717) wohl irrtümlich angegeben." (Beck 1930: 31, sub C. tinctoria); "Arabie Pétrée [Arabia Petrea]" (Pitard & Proust 1909: 296, sub P. lutea; Jafri 1978: 4, sub C. phelypaea); "Arabia" (Boulos 2002: 95, sub C. phelypaea); "Thaniyat Camp, 24.III.1982, Collenette 3469 (E); Eastern province, north of Damman, 7.II.1982, Naylor 6 (E); 30 km west of Dhahran, 23.III.1981, Frey & Kürschner VO 6557 (E); off the Medina-Qassim road, 20.IV.1981, Collenette 2458 (E); Easter Province, Juaymah, 14.II.1983, Naylor 172 (E)" (Foley 2004: 234, sub C. phelypaea).

"The natural hosts include: Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Anabasis articulata, Salsola baryosma, Seidlitzia rosmarinus [Salsola rosmarinus (Boiss.) Akhani], Suaeda aegyptiaca, Suaeda monoica, Suaeda vermiculata, Zygophyllum coccineum, Zygophyllum simplex, Zygophyllum qatarense. The cultivated species were Beta vulgaris, Beta vulgaris subsp. cicla, and Atriplex leucoclada ... Cistanche phelypaea restricted its host range in two families only, Chenopodiaceae and Zygophyllaceae. However, in an earlier study, Tamaricaceae was recorded to include hosts of Tha-noun (Farah, 1987)" (Farah & Al-Subaie 2006: 75, 84, sub C. phelypaea).

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Senegal / le Sénégal [unconfirmed, see Cistanche lutea et P. senegalensis] (Reuter 1847: 13, loc. class. of P. senegalensis; Hooker 1849: 167, loc. class. of P. brunneri; Hooker 1849: 167, loc. class. of P. hesperugo; Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight)

Dakar Region-Thiès Region: "Herb. Webbianum / Phelipaea brunneri Webb / P. lutea Brunn. pro / parte non Desf. // Typus // Phelypaea lutea / In sabulosis Senegambiae [Senegambia] et Insulae Salis [M'bour]" (FI 000241, type of P. brunneri); "Hab. In herb. ins. Cap. Vir. [Cape Verde] (Mus. reg. Par.) et in ins. Salis [M'bour], (Brunner.)" (Hooker 1849: 167, loc. class. of P. brunneri Webb); "Herb. Webbianum / Phelipaea Hesperugo Webb / P. lutea Brunn. pro / parte non Desf. // Typus // Missa fuih haec planta ... P. Brunneri Nob. et cum ... / inscripta P. lutea / in sabulosis Senegambia et in Insula Salis" (FI 000240, type of P. hesperugo); "Afrika: In Senegambien an sandigen Stellen bei Boro [Mboro?] und auf der Insel Salis (Brunner! in sehr beschädigten Exemplaren)" (Beck, 1930: 35, sub Cistanche hesperugo); "Afrika: In Senegambien an sandigen Stellen bei Boro [Mboro?] und auf der Insel Salis..." (Beck 1930: 35, sub C. brunneri); "... / Sénégal: 1950-1951. Coll. R.P. Berhaut / Presqu'île du Cap Vert [Cape Verde] / Dakar-Niayes; Hann, Mbao / Sangalkam, Nayar. / ... / Nº 5109 / 27-4-54 [1954]" (P 03430958; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018); "Ex Herb. Hort. Bot. Reg. Kew. / Flora of Senegal / Cistanche phelypaea (L.) Cout. / Locality: Kayar [Thiès] Alt.: sea level / On sand-dunes beside sea. Growing with / (?parasite on) N.º 18. Yellow flowers / J.D. Resby No 17  17.7.1960" (P 03430936; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016 ["antheris ... calvis"]); "In Senegaliâ (Sparmann! Roussilon! Sieber! Perrottet!) ... (v. in h. DC.)" (Lobin & Düll 1996: 589, sub P. senegalensis Reut.); "Holotypus: [Senegal]. Sumpf bei N'Boro, S. Brunner (FI-W, untersucht von Dr. C.M. Baldini) - Fig. 4" (Lobin & Düll 1996: 589, sub P. hesperugo); "... Cap Verdischen Inseln (Brunner als Phelipaea lutea!)." (Beck 1930: 35, sub C. brunneri); "Cistanche / Orobanche brunneri Webb / ... / Cap-vert [Cape Verde]. Herbier rapporté du Portugal en 1808 par M. Geoffroy St. Hilaire" (P 03004182; syntypus); «"Cap-vert [Cape Verde]. Herbier rapporté du Portugal en 1808 par M. Geoffroy St. Hilaire". [1784-87, Silva Feijão] (P!); [Kapverden], in ins. Salis, S. Brunner (Fl.-W, G!)» (Lobin & Düll 1996: 589, sub P. brunneri Webb); habit (University Duisburg-Essen, accessed Mar 2009).

Dakar Region: "3.317 / Cistanche lutea / Hoffmg. et Link / Dakar (Sénégal) / Jam. 1900 / Parasite sur les plants herbacés de la / plage maritime" (P 03430945; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016); "3467 / Cistanche lutea Hoffmg. et Link. / Dakar [14°41′34″N 17°26′48″W, Cap-Vert Peninsula]" (P 03430965; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016 [hairy and blunt anthers]); Dakar (P 03004161; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja, Jan. 2016 [bad preserved (cf.)]); Dakar (P 03004162; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016 [bad preserved (cf.)]).

Saint-Louis Region: 1. "Phelipaea Senegalensis N. // Herb. J. Gay / Presented by dr. Hooker, February 1868. // (Senegal) Roger dedit Junio 1821: Sables maritimes / pres St. Louis [Saint-Louis / Ndar] (M. Roger)". 2. "... 1847 / Phelipaea Senegalensis  Reut, / in DC. prodr. XI (1847) p. 13, n.º 37". 3. "Cistanche Phelipaea Cout. / Flora of West Africa / Determinavit Hutchinson & Dalziel". 4. "Seen for Flora of / Tropical East Africa" (K 000701271); "Herbier du Sénégal / Voyage 1933-1934 / Coll. J. Trochain / 2125 / 17 XII 33 / Barbaire S. [Langue de Barbarie]" (P 03430939; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016); Ross "Herbier du Sénégal / Voyage 1933-1934 / Coll. J. Trochain / 2204 / 30 XII 39 / Ross [Ross Béthio]" (P 03430938; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016 [hairy and blunt anthers]); "Institut d'Élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire / des Pays Tropicaux / Nº 11848Bis / Collecteur: [J.] Audru / Numéro: 3010 / Date: 2.1.66 [1966-1-2] / Tilene [Tilène?] / sable / ... / Cistanche Phelypaea (L.) / ..." (P 03004160; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016).

Thiès Region: "Institut d'Élevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire / des Pays Tropicaux / Nº 11848Bis / Collecteur: [J.] Audru / Numéro: 3010 / Date: 2.1.66 [ 1966-1-2] / Tilene [Tilène] / sable / ... / Cistanche Phelypaea (L.) / ..." (P 03004160; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016 [hairy and blunt anthers]).

Unknown location: Phelipeastrum Luteum  R Zauvier [?] 1825... // Ph. senegalensis Reut / Senegal (P 03430944; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016); 1. "Phelipeastrum / Luteum  Senegal". 2. "Cistanche / Ph. senegalensis Reut / Sénégal  M. E. Robert 1836" (P 03430943; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016 [apparently blunt anther lobes]); 1. "Perrotet, Senégal Herb. Ed. Bureau / N.º 584". 2. "... Sénégal — Pl. recueillies par M. Perrottet, / de 1824 á 1829." (P 03430941; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016); 1. "C. tubulosa ... // anther cells muticous [blunt] // Senegal // Sieber". 2. " 53. Cistanche lutea Fl. Port.". 3. "Phelipaea / senegalensis / Reuter // cor. lobes 5-6 mm lg" (K 000701272 - hb. Hookerianum; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016; type of  P. senegalensis Reut [blunt anthers, see C. tubulosa]); "n.º ... / 53. Cistanche lutea Fl. Port. / Senegal // Phelipaea tinctoria Walp. ? / S" (P 04385306 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018; type of  P. senegalensis Reut. The two specimens on the left hand of the sheet (with a longer corolla tube), the three specimens from Spain (two disappeared) seem to correspond to C. phelypaea (L.) Cout. s. str.); "In Senegaliâ [Senegal] (Sparmann! Roussilon! Sieber! Perrottet!) ... (v. in h. DC.)" (Reuter 1847: 13, loc. class. of P. senegalensis); "Senegal: Sieber, Fl. Seneg. n. 53; Perrottet n. 584 (nicht gesehen)" (Beck, 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

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Somalia (Stapf 1906: 464, sub C. lutea; Chiovenda 1916: 131, sub C. allochroa; Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight)

Lower Juba / Jubbada Hoose: Giumbo [Jumba, Italian Somaliland], duna stabile, leg. G. Paoli, 252 (FT 003126); Spiaggia presso El Sai [Italian Somaliland], leg. G. Paoli, 297 (FT 003127) (Chiovenda 1916: 131, sub C. allochroa).

Lower Shebelle: "Mogadishu-Merca coastal road 15 km south of Gzira [Jaziira]" (K specimen 29047.774).

Somaliland

Hargesia / Hargeisa: "AbyssiniaSomaliland Boundary Commission. / Cistanche lutea ... / Somaliland: Hargesia Alt. 4300 / Coll.: J.B. Gillett. Nº 4240  Date 13.10.32" (P 02970627; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2015).

Togdheer: "Abessinien! Ejssa Somal [Ejssa-Somâl] bei Agarwejna dada (Hardegger!)" (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

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Sudan / Sudán / Soudan (Stapf 1906: 464, sub C. lutea; R.A. Graham, Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1957, sub Cistanche ["The Cistanche material in our area seems to be of one species only, namely C. tubulosa (Schenk) Hook, f., but it is difficult from pressed examples to differentiate between C. tubulosa and C. phelypaea (L.) Cout. (= C. lutea Hoffmgg. & Link)"] in Jstor, accessed Jan 2016; F.W. Andrews, Fl. Pl. Sudan 3: 151. 1956, sub C. phelypaea (L.) Cout.)

Khartoum State: 1. "Cistanche phelypaea (L.) Cout. / Frequent root parasite of Capparis / decidua but perhaps also Acacia nilotica. / Flowers bright yellow ... / ... Dom Island south / of Khartoum / 6 December 1982  6179 / Lytton J. Musselman no. 198 / ...". 2. "Cistanche senegalensis (Reut.) Beck. / Det. Najibeh Ataei Mar 2012 / ..." (E 00028898; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016).

Red Sea State: "Reise nach Central-Afrika / im Auftrage der Humboldt Stiftung. / N.º 310 Cistanche lutea / Singat ... [?] / zwischen Suakin u. Berber ges. v. G. Schweinfurth" (P 02970614 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016).

Unknown location: "Aug. Chevalier. - Pl. de la Sénégal ... de Soudan ... / Mission du Général de Trentinian ... / N.º 3316 (suite) / Soudan" (P 03430937; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016).

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Syria / Siria / Sūriyya / Syrien (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight)

Homs Governorate: 1. "Flora of Syria / ... / nr. Bir Slem (Palmyra [Tadmur]) / ... / Plant greyish mauve / P.H. Davis Ref. No. 5790 / 18.4.1943". 2. "Cistanche phelypaea (L.) Cout. / Det. Najibeh Ataei Mar 2012 / ...". 3. "Cistanche tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight / 1966 det. A. Gilli" (E 00028870; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016); "N.º 121 / Herbier Gombault / Plantes des Etats de Syrie, du Liban / de Lattaquié et du Djebel-Druze / ... / Cistanche lutea (Desf.) Hoffmgg. & Link / Phelipaea lut. Desf. = Ph. tinctoria Walp. / [Couleur jaume citron.] / 1er Mai 1928 / De Forglos à Palmyre (Désert de Syrie)" (P 02985675; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2017 ["non apiculatae sed submuticae" (Beck 1930: 26, t. 6, f. G)]); "N.º 540 / Herbier Gombault / Plantes des Etats de Syrie, du Liban / de Lattaquié et du Djebel-Druze / ... / Cistanche lutea (Desf.) Hoffmgg. & Link / Phelipaea lut. Desf. = Ph. tinctoria Walp. / 8 Mars 1929 / à Khan Abou Chamat (Désert de Syrie) / R. Gombault" (P 02985676; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2017 ["tubo longissimo"]).

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Tanzania / Tansania

Kilimanjaro Region: "9 miles along Moshi track", 7.01.1969, M. Richards 23671 (K specimen 7492.000); "E.B. Knox 2585 / ... / Tanzania (T3), Lembeni to Same, Road from / 29 Jun 1995 / 925 m / ... " (IND  0154987 - swbiodiversity.org 21409311; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2019).

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Turkmenistan / Türkmenistan / Turkmenia / Туркмения / Turkmenien / Turcomannia (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight)

"Kara-Kum [Karakum Desert / Gara-Gum], mountainous Turkmenia" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 20-21[25-26], sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight); "Turcomania: Ad mare Caspium [Caspian Sea]" (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 21, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

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UAE / United Arab Emirates / EAU / Emiratos Árabes Unidos / Émirats arabes unis / Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate (Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah, Umm al-Quwain) (Norton & al. 2009: 54, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; photos 12930673765 by G.A. Indianature22 in Wildflowers of the UAE - www.flickr.com, accessed Apr 2015; "popped up desert hyacinth (Cistanche tubulosa)" (photo eidubai_03 by mikapoka: October 2012 in www.mikapoka.com, accessed Jan 2016)

Abu Dhabi: 1. "United Arab Emirates / Abu Dhabi town, old Sewage Farm / Cistanche tubulosa / Heavily saline, occassionally / flooded swamp-land, hosting on / Arthrocnemum macrostachyum [Salicornia macrostachya Moric.] only. / 0-1 m / Annual to 40 cm, but / here rarely above 25 cm. / Bright yellow petals, no tint of purple... / 28.2.86 J.N.B. Brown J.N.B./RW885". -- 2. "Cistanche chabaharensis Ataei sp. nov. / Najibeh Ataei May 2014" (E 00029700 - 35590; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "at Swehain, Abu Dhabi" (photo 27157074 by Karan Raghwa in Project Noah, accessed Jan 2016); photos 12930689955 in Wildflowers of the UAE, accessed Jan 2016).

Ras al-Khaimah / Ras al-Jaima / Ras el Khaïmah / Ra’s al-Chaima: "Saraya Islands", 8 Feb 2012 (photo 54915149 by Salem Al Shekaili in www.flickr.com, accessed Feb 2015).

Sharjah: "U.A.E.: Sharjah: by Khawr al Khan, / 2 km south of Sharjah. / Saline mud-flats / Flowers sulphur-yellow. On Halocnemum [Chenopodiaceae] / UTM ref.: CD 3502 / Alt. s.l. - 2 m / 15.2.1980 / J.R. Edmondson, E. 2998 // Cistanche tubulosa (Schrenk) R. Wight / det.: Najibeh Ataei // Cistanche tubulosa (Schrenk) R. Wight / det.: A. Gilli, 1983 // Cistanche tubulosa (Schrenk) R. Wight / det.: Elizabeth Pruitt, 7 January 1994" (E 00029692; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); Gbif 1453085173 (accessed Sep 2017).

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Uzbekistan / Uzbekistán / Ouzbékistan / Usbekistan [unconfirmed] (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight; Schiman-Czeik 1964: 21, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight)

Buxoro Region / Bukhara Region / Buxoro viloyati / Бухоро вилояти: "Cistanche tubulosa Wight / Tengi Charam [Boukharie], 23 avril / M. Capus. Plantes du Turkestan. 1881 / Reçu le 27 Octobre 1881" (P 02983453; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015 [cf., see C. flava]); "P. ..., 1906 / N.º 229 Cistanche salsa / Chirabad: Sables Patta-Koum. / 11 avril  Roshewitz, Plantae bucharicae 1906." (P 02983457; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2016 [glabrous!, it does not seem to be C. salsa]); "Turkmenien: Buchara [Bukhara / Buxoro / Бухараa]! auf dem Baba-Tag (Roshewitz, pl. bucharicae [1906] n. 752! in Herb. Berlin) ... Turkestan: zwischen den Brunnen Jeschak-rabatt und Rofatak sowie zwischen Tschardschui [Khanate of Bokhara] uud dem Brunnen Salim, im Mai fruchtend (Regel)" (Beck 1930: 33, sub C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight).

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Yemen / Yémen / Jemen (Forsskål 1775: 111, loc. class. of Orobanche tinctoria Forssk.; Deflers 1896: 327 no. 336, sub C. tinctoria (Forssk.) Deflers; Lobin & Düll 1996: 586, holotypus of Orobanche tinctoria Forssk.; Foley 2004: 234, sub C. phelypaea; Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk 2018: 24, holotypus of C. tinctoria)

Aden Governorate: "336. Cistanche tinctoria (Forsk.) Defl., Gebel Dhoubayat, wadi Mo'âden [Aden Protectorate?]" (Deflers 1896: 327 no. 336, sub C. tinctoria).

Al Hudaydah Governorate?: "Ad urbem Môr [near Al-Luhayya / Luhayyah / Loheia / Luhaiyah / Loheiya]" (Forsskål 1775: 111, loc. class. of Orobanche tinctoria Forssk.); "Holotypus: [Jemen], Môr. [2.1763], Forsskål (C [C 10002702], fide Hepper & Fries 1994: 228)" (Lobin & Düll 1996: 586, sub Orobanche tinctoria Forssk.; Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk 2018: 24); "El Jajz, auf Lößsand am Rande eines kleinen Feldes, 1600 m, 1.1928. H. v. Wissmann 553 (HBG)" (Lobin & Düll 1996: 592, sub C. phelypaea).

Dhamar Governorate: "east of Hamman Ali, 30.III.1979, Wo od Y1132 (E)" (Foley 2004: 234, sub C. phelypaea).

Hadhramaut Governorate / Hadramawt: "Socotra" (Balfour 1888: 207); "Cistanche / fl. jaune pâle / cultures au N de Shiban [Shibam Hadramawt] / Wadi Hadramaout / Sud Yemen / T. Monod 16923 3-I-78" (MNHN-P-P04409935 - P 04409935.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2019 [apparently acute anther lobes]); "Cistanche / det. N. Kilian / Yemen: Hadhramout. Jol Berka, on track from the village As Safal in the wadi Fuwwah to Yuan. rocky plateau with small wadis, Acacia woodland with big termite mounds in depressions. Alt.: 1200-1400 m. 30.11.1999 / Leg.: N. Kilian, S.M.A. Bashmeilah, P. Hein & A.F. Bin Nesr NK 6483. / Notes: tinged purple, on Anisotes, Asparagus or Cissus [?]" (B 100425724; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2016 [this coloration ("tinged purple") is characteristic of the C. tubulosa]); "Cistanche / Yemen: Hadhramout. upper Wadi Hajar, near the village Bam Sebeli, c 5 km S of As Sadarah. wide wadi with sandy soil. Alt.: 430 m. 3.11.2000 / Leg.: N. Kilian, M. El-Mashjary & P. Hein NK 6609. / Notes: plant pinkish yellow, corolla whitish apart from the pink tips" (B 100425726; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2016 [this coloration ("plant pinkish yellow, corolla whitish apart from the pink tips") is characteristic of the C. tubulosa); "Цветущее растение. Сокотра, залив Шуаб [Socotra / Soqotra, bay Schwab]. 04.01.2014" (photo by Марина Скотникова [Marina Skotnikova] in Plantarium [sub C. tubulosa Wight]; accessed Feb 2015); "Fotografovali Alena Vydrová a Vít Grulich, dne 24. 2. 2010 (Jemen, ostrov Sokotra: Ghubbah)." (photos sub C. tinctoria in botany.cz; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2015).

Hajjah Governorate: "above Bahal [Bahal ad Darb?], 13.X.1978, Mille r 509 (E )" (Foley 2004: 234, sub C. phelypaea).

Sana'a Governorate: 1. "A. Deflers. — Voyage dans l'Yemen. / 1887 / 605  Phelipaea tinctoria Walp. / = Lathraea Phelipaea L. / Ydiz [Al `Idiz]: collines boisées   Alt. 1500 / 28 Juin". 2. " Cistanche senegalensis (Reut.) Beck / det. N. Ataei 5.2014" (MNHN-P-P02983472 - P 02983472.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2015); 1. "A. Deflers. — Voyage dans l'Yemen. / 1887 / 550  Phelipaea tinctoria Walp. / = Lathraea Phelipaea L. / Environs de Sana'a [Sana'a]: Wadi Hada: cultures / Alt. 2300 / 10 Juin". 2. " Cistanche senegalensis (Reut.) Beck / det. N. Ataei 5.2014" (MNHN-P-P02983473 - P 02983473.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2015, sub C. tinctoria).

Taiz Governorate / Ta‘izz: Wadi Ad Dabab [near Taiz], Miller, Anthony G. & King, Rosemary A. 5082, 11 March 1984 (E 00029689); "Yemen: Wadi ad Dahab, 11.III.1984, Miller & King 5082 (E) ... Hadda , 15.X .1978, Mille r 581 (E)" (Foley 2004: 234, sub C. phelypaea).

"Yemen: Wadi ad Dahab, 11.III.1984, Miller & King 5082 (E); above Bahal [Bahal ad Darb?], 13.X.1978, Miller 509 (E ); east of Hamman Ali, 30.III.1979, Wood Y1132 (E); Hadda, 15.X.1978, Miller 581 (E)" (Foley 2004: 234, sub C. phelypaea).

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