Accepted Name - Basionymum / Basionym - Synonyms - Ind. loc. [Indicatio locotypica (type locality)] - Lectotypus [Lectotype] - Designated by - Host - Comments - Chromosomatic number - Ic. [Images] - Distribution - Specimens Examined - References - Authors - Cite us

ISSN: 2386-9666 - Last Updated: 23 May 2022


Accepted Name:

Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 350 (1800) (Turland & al. 2018: Art. 46.5 Ex. 32)

Synonyms:

Homotypic synonyms:

Orobanche alba var. typica Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 151 (1930) ["Var. α. typica G. Beck"], nom. illeg. (Turland & al. 2018: Art. 24.3). Ic.: Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: t.4 f. 64 (1890)

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Heterotypic synonyms:

Orobanche epithymum DC. in Lam. & DC., Fl. Franç. ed. 3, 3: 490 (1805). Syn.: Orobanche epithymophyta St.-Lag. in Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 131 (1880), nom. illeg.; Orobanche thymonepiphyta St.-Lag., Cat. Fl. Bass. Rhône: 609 (1883), nom. illeg.; Orobanche major var. epithymum (DC.) Neilreich, Flora von Wien: 395 (1846); = Orobanche rubra Sm., Engl. Bot.: t. 1786 (1807) (Reichenbach f. 1862: 98); = Orobanche sparsiflora Wallr., Sched. Crit. 1: 309 (1822) (Reichenbach fil. 1862: 98); = Orobanche rubiginosa A. Dietr. Fl. Boruss. 3: t. 252 (1836) (Reichenbach fil. 1862: 98). Ind. loc.: Elle naît dans les liex sablonneux et arides, et adhčre toujours aux racines de thym serpollet. Elle fleurit au commencement de l'été; je l'ai trouvée ŕ Fontainebleau [Paris, France]" (Candolle 1805: 490); "Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne, Île-de-France, France". Type: "France (lectotype designated here): env. de Paris [Fontainebleau], croît toujours sur les radice thym [Thymus] (P-00358187 - hb. Lamarck!) (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 67)

= Orobanche rubra Sm., Engl. Bot.: t. 1786 (1807). Syn.: Orobanche rubra Hook., Fl. Scot. 19 (1821) (https://www.ipni.org/n/662662-1) (Reichenbach f. 1862: 98). Ind. loc.: "was discovered by John Templeton, Esq. growing plentifully on the basaltic rock at Cavehill near Belfast [Northern Ireland, United Kingdom], in August 1805"

? = Orobanche helianthemi Jaume St.-Hil., Pl. France 3: 80 (1809). Ind. loc.: "les environs de Paris [Île-de-France, France], au bois de Vincennes, et dans la foręt de Fontainebleau. Je l'ai toujours trouvée sur les racines del'hélianthęme, Cistus helianthemum L.". Obs. "étamines velues et par son pistil entičrement glabre ... stigmate a deux lobes rapproehés et d'un violet pourpre" (Saint-Hilaire 1809: 80). According to rat (1812: 245) it is conspecific with O. rapum-genistae Thuill., Fl. Env. Paris ed. 2: 317 (1799). However, its habit and habitat suggest that it is probably conspecific with O. alba, which was also recorded from Fontainebleu (rat 1812: 246)

Orobanche sparsiflora Wallr., Sched. Crit. 1: 309 (1822) (Reichenbach f. 1862: 98, sub O. epithymum DC.). Syn.: Catodiacrum sparsiflorum (Wallr.) Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 370 (1867) [nom. illeg.]; Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica subf. sparsiflora (Wallr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 157 (1890) (Beck 1930: 232, "Subforma"). Ind. loc.: Germany, Hessen / Hesse: "In collibus et promontoriis graminosis sylvaticis inter Bottendorf [Burgwald, Waldeck-Frankenberg] et Schweinsroda. Jun."

= Orobanche du Thym serpolet Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 52 t. 6 (1827), nom. inv. [name not validly published]. Syn.: Orobanche thymi-serpilli Duby, Bot. Gall.: 349 (1828); Orobanche thymi-serpylli F.W. Schultz in Ann. Gew. Regensb. 5: 500 (1830); Orobanche serpylli Des Moul. Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 2(3): 76 (1835); Orobanche epithymum DC. in Lam. & DC., Fl. Franç. ed. 3, 3: 490 (1805) (Vaucher 1827: 52; Duby 1828: 349; Schultz 1830: 500; Des Moulins 1835: 76, "no. 2456"). Ind. loc.: "De Candolle a trouvé cette Orobanche dans la foręt de Fontainebleau [Île-de-France, France]; je l'ai rencontrée au Jura dans la montée de la Dole [Vaud, Switzerland], dans les Alpes entre Bionay et Bianossay [Lacenas, France], dans la Lombardie sur les bords du lac de Come [Lake Como, Italy], dans le Piémont entre Limone [Limone Piemonte, Cuneo, Italy] et Coni, en Dauphiné ŕ la montée de Vizille [Isčre, France]. Dans toutes ces localités, elle étoit entičrement semblable ŕ elle-męme, et ne se trouvoit point ailleurs que sur le Thym Serpolet [Thymus serpyllum L. (aggr.)]"

= Orobanche du Thym vulgaire Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 53 (1827), nom. inv. [name not validly published]. Syn.: Orobanche thymi-vulgaris Duby, Bot. Gall.: 349 (1828); Orobanche thymi-vulgaris F.W. Schultz in Ann. Gew. Regensb. 5: 500 (1830); Orobanche epithymum var. epithymoides Duby, Bot. Gall.: 349 (1828) (Duby 1828 349). Ind. loc.: "J'ai trouvé cette belle Orobanche en grande quantité sur le Thym ordinaire [Thymus vulgaris L.], dans les bois qui bordent la route de Brignolles au Luc [Le Luc, Var, France]"

= Orobanche du Satureia de montagne Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 54 (1827), nom. inv. [name not validly published]. Syn.: Orobanche saturejae-montanae F.W. Schultz in Ann. Gew. Regensb. 5: 500 (1830); ? = Orobanche alba f. bidentata Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 211 (1890). Ind. loc.: "Je l'ai trouvée au commencement de Juillet 1825, au pied du Col de Tende [Alpes-Maritimes, France, on Satureja montana L.], ŕ une lieue plus haut que le Bourg de ce nom, sur les rochers qui bordent la route, ŕ droite en montant. Elle y croissoit en grande abon- dance et de maničre ŕ former une véritable espčce. Je ne l'ai pas retrouvée en Juin 1826, parce que la saison n'était pas assez avancée, et je ne l'ai pas aperçue ailleurs, quoique je l'aie cherchée avec soin dans la basse Provence, le Littoral, etc." (Vaucher 1827: 54)

= Orobanche thymi-serpilli Duby, Bot. Gall.: 349 (1828) ["O. Thymi Serpilli Vauch."], nom. illeg. Syn.: Orobanche du Thym serpolet Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 52 t. 6 (1827); Orobanche serpylli Des Moul. Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 2(3): 76 (1835); Orobanche epithymum DC. in Lam. & DC., Fl. Franç. ed. 3, 3: 490 (1805) (Duby 1828 349)

= Orobanche thymi-vulgaris Duby, Bot. Gall.: 349 (1828) ["O. Thymi Serpilli Vauch."], nom. illeg. Syn.: Orobanche du Thym vulgaire Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 53 (1827); Orobanche epithymum var. epithymoides Duby, Bot. Gall.: 349 (1828)

= Orobanche thymi-serpylli F.W. Schultz in Ann. Gew. Regensb. 5: 500 (1830) ["14. Thymi Serpylli Tab. VI (O. epithymum DC."]. Syn.: Orobanche du Thym serpolet Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 52 t. 6 (1827); Orobanche epithymum DC. in Lam. & DC., Fl. Franç. ed. 3, 3: 490 (1805) (Schultz 1830: 500)

= Orobanche thymi-vulgaris F.W. Schultz in Ann. Gew. Regensb. 5: 500 (1830) ["15. Thymi vulgaris"]. Syn.: Orobanche du Thym vulgaire Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 53 (1827); Orobanche epithymum var. epithymoides Duby, Bot. Gall.: 349 (1828) (Duby 1828 349)

= Orobanche saturejae-montanae F.W. Schultz in Ann. Gew. Regensb. 5: 500 (1830) ["16. O. Saturejae montanae"]. Syn.: Orobanche du Satureia de montagne Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 54 (1827)

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= Orobanche glabrata C.A. Mey. in Eichw., Pl. Casp. 1: 16[-17] t. 17 (1831) (Reuter 1847: 33, sub O. glabrata; Boissier 1879: 511, sub O. glabrata; Schiman-Czeika 1964: 18, sub O. alba). Syn.: Orobanche alba var. glabrata (C.A. Mey.) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 154 (1930); Orobanche alba f. glabrata (C.A. Mey.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 212 (1890); ? = Orobanche hymenocalyx Reut. in DC., Prodr. 11: 20 (1847) (Beck 1890: 212); = Orobanche wiedemannii Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4: 510 (1879) (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 94[89], sub O. alba); = Orobanche psilostemon Novopokr. in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 13: 324 (1950) (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 93-94[88-89]; https://www.ipni.org/n/662374-1). Ind. loc.: "Hab. in Kachetia [Kakheti, Georgia]" (Eichwald 1831: 16); "Vidi originalia in Kachetia lecta (l. Eichwald) in herb. Ledebour in collectionibus St. Petersb. [LE - Herbarium Petropolitanum]" (Beck 1930: 154, sub O. alba var. glabrata). Herbarium Specimens: Type: "Lectotypus (Tzvelev, hic designatus): «In Transcaucasiae ditione Kachetia, Eichwald» (LE [http://re.herbariumle.ru/01015393 - LE 01015393])" (Tzvelev 2015: 204); 1. "Orobanche glabrata mihi! [m. C.A. Meyer]". – 2. "I. Novopokrovsky. Notae criticae / Orobanche glabrata C.A. Mey. / specimen authenticum! / «Hab. in Kachetia [Kakheti, Georgia]» / Eichw., pl. nov. casp. p. 16 / 1949.12.IX". – 3. "= O. alba Steph / 1955.II.28 Teste: Tzvelev [m. Tzvelev]". – 4. "Specimen authenticum.". – 5. "O. alba var. glabrata (Mey.) Beck [m. Beck]" (http://re.herbariumle.ru/01015393 - LE 01015393); 1. "Herb. Ledebour / Orobanche glabrata C.A. Meyer / In Kachetia & Imeritia [?] leg. Eichwald". – 2. "Herb. Ledeb. 758.24 / Orobanche glabrata C.A. Mey". – 3. "Ovarium glabrum ... 18.X.1949  I. Novopokrovsky". – 4. "= O. alba Steph / 1955.II.28 Teste: Tzvelev [m. Tzvelev]" (http://re.herbariumle.ru/01015394 - LE 01015394). Obs. "Corolla in speciminibus siccis sordide obscure rufa" (Eichwald 1831: 17). "паразитируют на видах губоцветных [Lamiaceae]. Известна с Восточного Кавказа [Eastern Caucasus]" (Tzvelev 2015: 204-205, sub O. glabrata = "O. alba auct. non Steph.")

= Orobanche serpylli Des Moul. in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. sér. 2(3): 76 (1835) ["3. Orobanche Serpylli Vauch."], nom. illeg., pro syn. Syn.: Orobanche du Thym serpolet Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 52 t. 6 (1827) ["O. Thymi Serpylli Vauch. (Des Moulins 1835: 76)]; Orobanche thymi-serpilli Duby, Bot. Gall.: 349 (1828) ["O. Epithymum (typus) Duby, Bot. Gall. I, p. 349, nş 8" (Des Moulins 1835: 76)] Orobanche epithymum DC. in Lam. & DC., Fl. Franç. ed. 3, 3: 490 (1805) (Des Moulins 1835: 76). Obs. https://www.ipni.org/n/662695-1

= Orobanche rubiginosa A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 3: 252 [t. 252] (1836). Syn.: Orobanche epithymum var. rubiginosa (A. Dietr.) Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 3: 480 (1844 [12-14 Sep 1844]); Orobanche alba f. rubiginosa (A. Dietr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 212 (1890) (Dietrich 1835: 252; Reichenbach fil. 1862: 98; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 93[88]). Ind. loc.: "Auf Thymus Serpyllum im Siebengebirge [Rhein-Sieg, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany] bei Bonn vom Herrn Apotheker Tils gefunden und mir in lebenden Exemplaren übersandt. Blüht im Jimi und Juli" (Dietrich 1835: 252)

? = Orobanche diaphana F.W. Schultz in Flora 26: 130 (1843 [28 Feb 1843]) ["Fraasii"]. Ind. loc.: "In Phtio [Phthia, Thessaly, Greece] tede leg. Cl. Fraas." (Schultz 1843: 130). Obs. "sepalis ... indivisis ... dorso vix curvata ... staminibus supra basim corollae insertis, basi subvillosis" (Beck 1890: 209)

= Orobanche punctata F.W. Schultz in Flora 26: 131 (1843 [28 Feb 1843]) ["O. speciosa var. minor Spruner non DC."] (Boissier 1879: 509; Beck 1930: 152, "Vidi spec. origin."). Ind. loc.: "In Cisto cum priori [Greece] legit Cl. Spruner" (Schultz 1843: 131). "Hab. in monte Lycabeto [Mount Lycabettus] Atticae ad Cistos parasitica (Sprun. Heldr.!)" (Boissier 1879: 509). Herbarium specimens: "Orobanche punctata F.G. Schultz / O. speciosa DC. var. minor Spruner / Auf Cistus ... In Regolidda [Mount Lycabettus] / Spruner" (https://https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=517671 - https://wu.jacq.org/WU0077702 - WU - Keck 0077702, typus of O. punctata); "De Heldreich pl. Atticae. / Orobanche punctata F.W. / Schultz, Bent! / Ad radices Cistorum im / m. Hymetto [Hymettus / Hymettos / Υμηττός] / 19 April 1848" (https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/p04384483 - http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p04384483 - P 04384483.jpg - hb. Heldreich - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/465035122 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/4D329319F290492C9C4EF4D1B9FBEAF4; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2013)

= Orobanche lycica F.W. Schultz in Flora 26: 128 (1843). Ind. loc.: "Ad Lycos in Attica [Greece] leg. Cl. Fraas." (Schultz 1843: 128). Obs. "Habitus O. rubentis et Epithymi" (Schultz 1843: 128)

? = Orobanche ferruginea K. Koch in Linnaea 17: 291 (1844) (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 93[88], sub O. alba). Syn.: Orobanche epithymum var. ferruginea (K. Koch) K. Koch in Linnaea 22: 664 (1849) ["γ Ferruginea"]; = Orobanche epithymum DC. in Lam. & DC., Fl. Franç. ed. 3, 3: 490 (1805) (Boissier 1879: 509). Ind. loc.: "Ibidem ["In planitie ad Araxem [Ararat Province, Armenia] sita" (Koch 1844: 291)]" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 93[88])

= Orobanche alexandri Tineo in Guss., Fl. Sicul. Syn. 2: 845 (1844). Syn.: = Orobanche caryophyllacea sensu Fraas, non auct. (Schultz 1843: 130; Beck 1930: 152; Pignatti 1982: 611). Ind. loc.: "In montosis; Palermo [Palermo (PA), Sicily, Italy] sopra S. Maria a Gesů, Montepellegrino, Catalfano; sed rara. Aprili, Majo" (Gussone 1844: 845). "Lectotype (here designated): NAP-Gussone Sicilia" (Domina & Mazzola 2007: 224). Herbarium specimen: 1. "Todaro Flora Sicula Exiccata / Orobanche Alexandri Tin. in Guss. syn. fl. / sic. 2, p. 2, in add. p. 845. / Ad radices Galiorum [?] - Palermo / Majo / n. 1153   Legit Todaro". – 2. "Orobanche alba Steph. in Willd. / Rev. G. Domina / 05.03.2003" (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p04384469 - P 04384469.jpg - hb. Cosson; Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); 1. "Todaro Flora Sicula Exiccata / Orobanche Alexandri Tin. in Guss. syn. fl. / sic. 2, p. 2, in add. p. 845. / Ad radices Galiorum [?] - Palermo / Majo / n. 1153   Legit Todaro". – 2. "Orobanche alba Steph. in Willd. / Rev. G. Domina / 05.03.2003" (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p04384468 - P 04384468.jpg; Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011)

? = Orobanche hymenocalyx Reut. in DC., Prodr. 11: 20 (1847). Syn.: = Orobanche glabrata C.A. Mey. in Eichw. Pl. Casp. 1: 16[-17] t. 17 (1831); = Orobanche alba var. glabrata (C.A. Mey.) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 154 (1930); = Orobanche alba f. glabrata (C.A. Mey.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 212 (1890) (Beck 1890: 212). Ind. loc.: "In Georgiâ Caucasicâ prope Helenendorf [Goygol, Goygol Rayon, Azerbaijan] (Hohenacker !)" (Reuter 1847: 20). Obs. "staminibus ad basin corollae insertis glaberrimis ... Aflinis O. Gallii, sed corollae labio superiore profunde bilobo non galeato, staminibus glaberrimis differt. (v. in h. Hohenack.)" (Reuter 1847: 20)

? = Orobanche psilandra (K. Koch) K. Koch in Linnaea 22: 668 (1849) (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 93[88], sub O. alba). Syn.: = Orobanche epithymum DC. in Lam. & DC., Fl. Franç. ed. 3, 3: 490 (1805) (Boissier 1879: 509; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 93[88]). Ind. loc.: "In Banate [Banat (Roumania-Serbia-Hungary)]" (Koch 1849: 668)

? = Orobanche hians Steven in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 29(2): 266 (1856), nom. nud. [https://www.ipni.org/n/662408-1]. Syn.: = Orobanche hians Steven in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 30: 354 n. 1096 (1857); = Orobanche hians D. Brândză, Fl. Dobrogei: 307 (1898) (Beck 1890: 209, "?")

? = Orobanche squalida Steven in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 29(2): 266 (1856), nom. nud. Syn.: Orobanche squalida Steven in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 30: 354 n. 1100 (1857)

? = Orobanche hians Steven in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 30: 354 n. 1096 (1857) (Boissier 1879: 517, sub "O. hians (Stev. Taur. p. 273) ... Facies O. albae"; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 93[88], sub O. alba). Syn.: Orobanche hians Steven in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 29(2): 266 (1856), nom. nud. (Beck 1930: 151-152, "nomen solum"; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 93[88]; https://www.ipni.org/n/662408-1); = Orobanche alba var. typica Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 151 (1930). Ind. loc.: "In Tauria [Crimean Peninsula]; sed locus natalis haud accuratius indicatus; eandem ad ostia Hypanis [Kuban River] circa Taman legi, atque ex Iberia a Wilhelmsio habeo" (Steven 1857: 354). Obs. = Orobanche lutea Baumg. (Domina & Raab-Straube 2010)

? = Orobanche squalida Steven in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 30: 354 n. 1100 (1857). Syn.: Orobanche squalida Steven in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 29(2): 266 (1856), nom. nud.; Orobanche pubescens subsp. squalida (Stev.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 561 (1881). Ind. loc.: "In Tauria montosa [Crimean Mountains] hinc inde; etiam in Iberia" (Steven 1857: 354; Beck 1890: 209). Obs. "An O. Epithymum Ledeb.? a qua specie differt spicâ longiore, pube densiore, corollâ sordide cseruleo-rufescenti. An O. pubescens (Urv? Stev.)" (Boissier 1879: 518, sub "O. squalida (Stev. Taur. p. 273) ... An O. Epithymum Ledeb.?"); = Orobanche pubescens d’Urv. (Novopokrovsky & Tzvelev 1958[2000]: 103[97])

Orobanche buhsei Reut. in Nouv. Mém. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 12: 169 (1860) (Boissier 1879: 509, sub O. epithymumBeck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 111, sub O. caryophyllacea). Syn.:  Orobanche epithymum var. bushei (Reut.) Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4(2): 509 (1879); Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. bushei (Reut.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 160 (1890) (Beck 1890: 160). Ind. loc.: Azerbaijan: "Im Alindschathal [valley of Alinjachay / Khndzorut River, near Khanegah village, Julfa District] und Dschagrithal bei Nachitschewan [Nakhchivan / Naxçıvan] auf Thymus Serpyllum. Nş 345]" (Reuter 1860: 169); "Hab. in Armeniâ Rossicâ prope Nachitschewan Thymi serpylli [Thymus serpyllum L.] parasitica (Buhse!)" (Boissier 1879: 509); "Vidi spec. orig. in herb. Petrop. collecta in Valle Alindscha et Dschagri pr. Nachitschewan" (Beck 1890: 160). Obs. "Sepala bifida" (Reuter 1860: 169; Boissier 1879: 509). Herbarium Specimens: 1. "Herb. Buhse, Riga. / Orob. Epithymum β. Bushei / Boiss., Fl. or. IV, 509 / ... / N.ş 345 / Im Alindschathal [valley of Alinjachay / Khndzorut River, near Khanegah village, Julfa District] und Dschagrithal / bei Nachitschewan [Nakhchivan / Naxçıvan] auf Thymus / Serpyllum, mai 1847". – 2. "N.ş 345 / Orob. Buhsei Reuter n. sp.". – 3. "I. Novopokrovsky. Notae criticae. / specimen authenticum! (Syn.: O. caryophyllacea var.  Buhsei / G. Beck / 1949.X)" (LE 01015398 - http://re.herbariumle.ru/01015398 [Record creation: 2020-10-01, Ivan Tatanov, from old scans]; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2022, sub O. caryophyllacea); 1. "435 = 345? / Orob. Buhsei Reut.? = 345 / Buhse /  Dzhakhri Thal [Dzhagry / Cəhriçay / Джагричай, Babek District / Бабек] 31.V.47". – 2. "Orob. caryophyllacea / var.  O. Buhsei / det. Dr. G. Beck [m. Beck]". – 3. "Orobanche Buhsei Reut. / Isotypus! / ... / 1960.III.11. Teste: Tzvelev" (LE 01015399 - http://re.herbariumle.ru/01015399 [Record creation: 2020-10-01, Ivan Tatanov, from old scans]; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2022, sub O. caryophyllacea)

= Orobanche betonicae Reuter in B. Balansa, Plantes d'Orient (1866) [in sched., unpublished name]. Syn.: = Orobanche marginata Reut. [in Balansa & Huet exs., 1866] ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4(2): 508 (1879 [Apr-May 1879]), pro syn. Herbarium Specimens: "B. Balansa, Plantes d'Orient, 1866. / Orobanche Betonicae n. sp. (Reuter)" / Stigmates jaunâtres .— Parasite sur le Betonica grandiflora. / Région du Lazistam / prčs de Djimil [40°45'23.9"N 40°39'18.0"E, Kaçkar Mountains / Lazistan Mountains, Pontic Mountains / Kuzey Anadolu Dağları, Turkey], vers ... mętres d'altitude" (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p02982378 - P 02982378.jpg - hb. Balansa - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/438483445; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017, sub O. alpigena K. Koch)

Catodiacrum sparsiflorum (Wallr.) Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 370 (1867) [nom. illeg.]. Syn.: Orobanche sparsiflora Wallr., Sched. Crit. 1: 309 (1822) [see O. caryophyllacea]

? = Orobanche marginata Reut. [in Balansa & Huet exs., 1866] ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4(2): 508 (1879 [Apr-May 1879]), pro syn. Syn.: = Orobanche betonicae Reuter in B. Balansa, Plantes d'Orient (1866) [in sched., unpublished name]; = Orobanche teucrii Holandre (1829), p.p. (Boissier 1879: 508); = Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd. (1800) p.p. (Beck 1930: 236, sub O. teucrii). Ind. loc.: "Hab. Teucrii chamaedrys parasitica in valle Djimil Ponti Lazici [Rize Province / Rize ili, Turkey] (Bal!)". Herbarium Specimens: "B. Balansa, Plantes d'Orient, 1866. / Orobanche marginata n. sp. / (Reuter) / Région sous-alpine du Lazistan / prčs de Djimil [40°45'23.9"N 40°39'18.0"E, Kaçkar Mountains / Lazistan Mountains, Pontic Mountains / Kuzey Anadolu Dağları], vers 2000 mętres d'altitude. / Juillet" (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p02968068 - P 02968068.jpg - hb. E. Cosson - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/438276963; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2015 [the sheet contains a mix of two different species: O. teucrii (three specimens) et = O. alba (six specimens)]); idem (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p02968067 - P 02968067.jpg - hb. E. Cosson - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/439276883; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2015 [all specimens seem to correspond to O. alba])

= Orobanche cuprea Boiss. & Balansa ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4(2): 510 (1879 [Apr-May 1879]) ["Boiss. et Bal. exs. 1855"]. Syn.: Orobanche alba f. cuprea (Boiss. & Balansa ex Boiss.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 213 (1890); Orobanche alba subsp. cuprea (Boiss. & Balansa ex Boiss.) Uhlich, Kreutz & Rätzel in Phytotaxa 222(1): 4 (2015 [7 Aug 2015, epublished]) (Uhlich & al. 2015; Flora of Cyprus, accessed Aug 2016). Ind. loc.: "Hab. Origani Onitis et Satureiae Thymhrae parasitica ad Bouloukli [near Mersin, Mersin Province / Mersin ili, Mediterranean Region, Turkey] et in fauce Guzel Dere supra Sedichig Ciliciae littoralis (Bal !)". Herbarium specimen: "763. / Orobanche cuprea / sp. nov. affin. O. Epithymum / Parasite sur l' origanum Otites [Origanum onites L.] / Gorge du Guzel-Déré, en amont de / Sedichig (Environs de Mersina) / Mr. Balansa 1855  24 avril." (G 00330044, syntype); "unique / 765 / Orobanche cuprea / sp. nov. / Stigmate blanc. / Parasite sur le Satureiae Thymhrae [Satureja thymbra L.] / Bouloukli, prčs de Mersina. / Mr. Balansa 1855  23 avril." (G 00330045, syntype). Obs. "stigmate albo"

= Orobanche wiedemannii Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4(2): 510 (1879) (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 94[89], sub O. alba). Syn.: Orobanche alba var. wiedemannii (Boiss.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 212 (1890); Orobanche alba f. wiedemannii (Boiss.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 212 (1890). Ind. loc.: "Anatoliâ boreali prope Kastamouni [Kastamonu Province / Kastamonu ili, Black Sea Region / Karadeniz Bölgesi, Turkey] (Wiedem!), in Daghestaniâ [Dagestan, North Caucasus, Russia] mediâ prope Tindi [Tindi village] 5500'-6000' (Rupr.!)" (Boissier 1879: 511, sub O. Wiedemanni); "Caucasus: Castamoni [Kastamonu Province / Kastamonu ili, Black Sea Region / Karadeniz Bölgesi, Turkey] (leg. Wiedemann)" (Beck 1890: 212). Herbarium Specimens: "P. Sintenis: Iter orientale 1892. / No. 4552d Orobanche / Wiedemanni Boiss. f. bidentata / Paphlagonia. Wilajet Kastambuli [Kastamonu Province / Kastamonu ili, Black Sea Region / Karadeniz Bölgesi, Turkey]. / Tossia [Tosya]: in montosis ad Giaurdagh. / 10.6 / determ. J. Freyn." (https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/p02968065 - P 02968065.jpg - hb. E. Drake - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/438446442 et https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/p02968064 - P 02968064.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/439112861; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2015, type of O. wiedemannii). Obs. "corollâ intense purpureâ ... stigmate bilobo e sicco flavido ... sepalis fere semper indivisis" (Boissier 1879: 511, sub O. Wiedemannii)

= Orobanche epithymophyta St.-Lag. in Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon 7: 131 (1880), nom. illeg. Syn.: Orobanche epithymum DC. in Lam. & DC., Fl. Franç. ed. 3, 3: 490 (1805)

= Orobanche thymonepiphyta St.-Lag., Cat. Fl. Bass. Rhône: 609 (1883), nom. illeg. Syn.: Orobanche epithymum DC. in Lam. & DC., Fl. Franç. ed. 3, 3: 490 (1805)

= Orobanche chassia Formánek in Verh. Naturf. Vereins Brünn 35: 178 (1897) (Beck 1930: 152 "et in Dutsch. Bot. Monastsschr.: 197 (1897)")

= Orobanche hians D. Brândză, Fl. Dobrogei: 307 (1898), nom. illeg. Syn.: = Orobanche hians Steven in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 30: 354 n. 1096 (1857); = Orobanche alba var. typica Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 151 (1930) (Beck 1930: 152). Ind. loc. "in der rumänischen Karpaten [Carpathian Mountains] (Brandza)"

= Orobanche psilostemon Novopokr. in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R. 13: 324 (1950) (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 93[88], sub O. alba; Schiman-Czeika 1964: 18, sub O. alba; Schlauer & al. 2012+, sub O. alba). Syn.: ? = Orobanche glabrata C.A. Mey. in Eichw., Pl. Casp. 1: 16[-17] t. 17 (1831) (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 94[89], sub O. alba). Ind. loc.: Tadzhikistan: "near Siun pass, Farak ridge, Daschti-dshum distr., S TJ, 24.6.1935, I. Linczevsky & N. Gontscharov 557 (LE)" (Schlauer & al. 2012+, type of O. grigorjevii). Obs. "O. alba var. wiedemanii (Boiss.) G. Beck [Monogr. Orob. (1890) 212], as well as O. psilostemon Novopokr., probably are identical to var. glabrata (C.A.M.) G. Beck." (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 94[89], sub O. alba)

? = Orobanche consimilis Schiman-Czeika in Rech. f., Fl. Iranica 5: 5 [in clavi], 19, t. 6 f. 2 et t. 8 f. 3 (1964). Type: "Iraq: Kurd.: Sirsang, 13 km W Amadiyah [Dahuk Governorate], 1.6.1947, Leatherdale 79, BM!". Obs. According to Flora of Pakistan it is = Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd. (1800)

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? = Orobanche pubescens subsp. squalida (Stev.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 561 (1881) ["* ["Subspecies"] O. squalida Stev. Suppl. 24. - Taur.]. Syn.: Orobanche squalida Steven in Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 30: 354 n. 1100 (1857)

= Orobanche alba subsp. xanthostigma Rätzel & Uhlich in Feddes Repert. 115(1-2): 198[-201], f. 4 (2004 [May 2004]). Syn.: = Orobanche grigorjevii Novopokr. in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk SSSR 13: 326 (1950) (Tzvelev 2015: 205). Ind. loc.: "Republik Adygeja [Russia], NW-Kaukasus, Maikopskij Rajon, Siedlung Novoplochladnoje (= Sachrai), c. 700m", 2002-6-30, Rätzel 2329, holotype B, isotype Herb. Rätzel". Herbarium Specimens: Type: "Orobanche alba subsp. xanthostigma Rätzel & Uhlich / Russia / NW-Kaukasus (Großer Kauk.); Rep. Adygeja / Maikopskii Raion [Maykopsky District / Майкопский район], Novoprochladnoie [Novoprokhladnoe / Новопрохладное ] (= Sachrai [Sakhray / Сахрай]), Thac-Region, Mt Sibaba [Gora Shibaba / Гора Шибаба], c. 1,8 km ESE Sachrai ... / leg. 30.06.2002 S. Rätzel / holotypus stigma yellow; host: Origanum vulgare L. (root attachment verified) / c. 44°08'07.0"N 40°18'44.0"E c. 700 m" (B 10 1037922 - http://herbarium.bgbm.org/object/B101037922 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=1465933 - https://https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=1465933). Distribution: "Krasnodar [Russia] (North Caucasus, Caucasus, Asia-Temperate); Azerbaijan (Transcaucasus, Caucasus, Asia-Temperate); Turkey (Western Asia, Asia-Temperate)" (https://www.ipni.org/n/77060240-1)

= Orobanche alba subsp. cuprea (Boiss. & Balansa ex Boiss.) Uhlich, Kreutz & Rätzel in Phytotaxa 222(1): 4 (2015 [7 Aug 2015, epublished]). Syn.: Orobanche cuprea Boiss. & Balansa ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4(2): 510 (1879 [Apr-May 1879]); Orobanche alba f. cuprea (Boiss. & Balansa ex Boiss.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 213 (1890) (Uhlich & al. 2015; Flora of Cyprus, accessed Aug 2016). Ic.: "Figure 6. Orobanche alba subsp. cuprea, Cyprus: Tsada, Mynthis hills, phot. Christodoulos Makris 26.03.2010." (Uhlich & al. 2015); "Figure 8. Orobanche alba subsp. cuprea, Cyprus, foothills of Troodos mts., 500 m, phot. Gerhard Loidolt 21.-25.04.2011 (Uhlich & al. 2015)

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= Orobanche epithymum var. epithymoides Duby, Bot. Gall.: 349 (1828) ["β. epithymoides"]. Syn.: Orobanche du Thym vulgaire Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 53 (1827)

= Orobanche epithymum var. grandiflora Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 33, t. 889 [DCLIX] (1829). Syn.: = Orobanche du Thym vulgaire Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 53 (1827); = Orobanche epithymum var. epithymoides Duby, Bot. Gall.: 349 (1828) (Beck 1930: 152); = Orobanche alba f. subalpina Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 210 (1890). Ind. loc.: "pr. Moguntium: cl. Ziz [bei Mainz [Rhineland-Palatinate / Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany]: Hr. D. Ziz.]"

= Orobanche epithymum var. origani F.W. Schultz in Ann. Gew. Regensb. 5: 505 (1830) ["β. Origani"]. Ind. loc.: "auf Origanum vulgare bei Salzburg [Austria]. Stigma violetttroth" (Schultz 1830: 505). Herbarium Specimens: 1. "Orobanche Epithymum / var. Origani / In rad. Orig. ... / Salzburg". – 2. "Orobanche alba ... / Det. F.M. Muller, 1982 ..." (https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1141132 - WAG 1141132.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2021)

? = Orobanche cruenta var. leiostemon Griseb., Spicil. Fl. Rumel. 2 : 55 (1844 [Jul 1844]). Syn.: = Orobanche annulata Griseb., Reise Rumel. 2: 188 (1841) ("It. II, p. 188" Grisebach 1844: 55; "Reise ii. 188" view IPNI entry; "It. II, p. 188 ex ipso" Beck 1890: 198); ? = Orobanche epithymum DC. in Lam. & DC., Fl. Franç. ed. 3, 3: 490 (1805) (Boissier 1879: 509); ? = Orobanche gracilis var. spruneri (F.W. Schultz) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 198 (1890) (Beck 1890: 198). Ind. loc.: "In regione montana Macedoniae [Republic of Macedonia]: copiose in format. Pteridis alt. 2400'-4600' in m. Peristeri pr. Bitolia (parasit in Thymo Serpyllo)! [?]"

= Orobanche epithymum var. rubiginosa (A. Dietr.) Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 3: 480 (1844 [12-14 Sep 1844]). Syn.: Orobanche rubiginosa A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 3: 252 [t. 252] (1836) (Reuter 1847: 22). Obs. "Stigma aurantiaco" (Reuter 1847: 22)

= Orobanche major var. epithymum (DC.) Neilreich, Flora von Wien: 395 (1846). Syn.: Orobanche epithymum DC. in Lam. & DC., Fl. Franç. ed. 3, 3: 490 (1805)

? = Orobanche epithymum var. sordida (K. Koch) K. Koch in Linnaea 22: 664 (1849) ["β. Sordida"]. Syn.: = Orobanche alba f. rubra (Sm.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 211 (1890); ? = Orobanche alba f. stenophyllon Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 210 (1890) (Beck 1930: 153, sub O. alba). Ind. loc.: "Ebenfalls im südlichen Daghestan [North Caucasus, Russia]" (Koch 1849: 664; Beck 1890: 211). Obs. "unterscheidet sich durch schmutzig-braun-gelbe Blüthen und dass sie auf Leguminosen-Wurzeln schmarotzet. Ebenfalls im südlichen Daghestan" (Koch 1849: 664)

? = Orobanche epithymum var. ferruginea (K. Koch) K. Koch in Linnaea 22: 664 (1849) ["γ Ferruginea"]. Syn.: Orobanche ferruginea K. Koch in Linnaea 17: 291 (1844) (Beck 1890: 210); ? = Orobanche alba f. stenophyllon Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 210 (1890) (Beck 1890: 210)

= Orobanche epithymum var. lutescens Boreau, Fl. Centre France 2: 341 (1840). Syn.: = Orobanche epithymum var. pallescens Gren. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 2: 632 (1853); = Orobanche alba f. lutescens (Boreau) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 212 (1890)

= Orobanche epithymum var. pallescens Gren. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 2: 632 (1853). Syn.: = Orobanche epithymum var. lutescens Boreau, Fl. Centre France 2: 341 (1840); = Orobanche alba f. lutescens (Boreau) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 212 (1890)

= Orobanche epithymum var. superba Solms ex Čelak. in Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. Prag: 110 (1864). Syn.: Orobanche alba var. superba (Solms ex Čelak.) Uhlich & Rätzel in Phytotaxa 222(1): 7 (2015 [7 Aug 2015, epublished]); = Orobanche epithymum var. major Čelak., Prodr. Fl. Boehm.: 341 (1871); = Orobanche alba subsp. major (Čelak.) J. Zázvorka in Preslia 72(1): 88 (2000). Ind. loc.: "Die prachtvolle var. superba Solms, die nach Graf Solms bisher nur in Böhmen gefunden worden, über 1-2' hoch, mit langer lockerblüthiger Aehre aus grossen (1'' langen) lichtblaurothen und dunkler geaderten Blüthen, sammelte Winkler an der Bielalehne bei Bilin, (Juli 1853); sie soll auf Trifolium alpestre, Salvia silvestris schmarotzt haben, während die normalen Formen auf Thymus serpyllum aufsitzen" (Čelakovsky 1864: 110). "The taxon was collected first time in July 1853 by Winkler at the "Bielalehne bei Bilin" [Bílina, Ústí nad Labem Region, Czech Republic]" (Uhlich & al. 2015)

= Orobanche epithymum var. major Čelak., Prodr. Fl. Boehm.: 341 (1871) ["Var. ... β) major, 1—2" hoch, Ähre lang, viel- und lockerblüthig"]. Syn.: Orobanche alba subsp. major (Čelak.) J. Zázvorka in Preslia 72(1): 88 (2000)

= Orobanche epithymum var. minor Čelak., Prodr. Fl. Boehm.: 341 (1871) ["Var. α) minor, nur 36" hoch"]

Orobanche epithymum var. bushei (Reut.) Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4(2): 509 (1879) (Boissier 1879: 509, sub O. epithymumBeck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 111, sub O. caryophyllacea). Syn.:  Orobanche buhsei Reut. in Nouv. Mém. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 12: 169 (1860); Orobanche caryophyllacea var. typica f. bushei (Reut.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 160 (1890) (Beck 1890: 160)

= Orobanche epithymum var. hololeuca Borbás in Magyar Tud. Akad. Értes. 11(8): 82 (1881) ["O. Epithymum DC.? var. hololeuca m. füves h. a vasut m. O."]. Syn.: Orobanche alba f. hololeuca (Borbás) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 212 (1890). Ind. loc.: Hungary, Békés County. Obs. "Tota planta, ne stigmate quidem excepto, alba erat." (Borbás 1881: 82);

= Orobanche caryophyllacea var. nissana Beck in Petrović, Addit. Fl. Agr. Nyssani: 143 (1885) ["rectius"]. Syn.: Orobanche alba f. nissana (Beck) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 211 (1890)

= Orobanche alba var. parviflora Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 210 (1890) [in sched.]. Syn.: Orobanche alba f. minutiflora Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 210 (1890)

= Orobanche alba var. wiedemannii (Boiss.) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 154 (1930) ["Var. β Wiedemannii (Boissier) G. Beck"]. Syn.: Orobanche wiedemannii Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4(2): 510 (1879) (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 114)

= Orobanche alba var. bidentata (Beck) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 155 (1930) ["Var. ε. bidentata G. Beck"]. Syn.: Orobanche alba f. bidentata Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 211 (1890)

= Orobanche alba var. glabrata (C.A. Mey.) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 154 (1930) ["Var. ? γ glabrata (C.A. Meyer) G. Beck"]. Syn.: Orobanche glabrata C.A. Mey. in Eichw., Pl. Casp. 1: 16[-17] t. 17 (1831) (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 88-89[113-115]); Orobanche alba f. glabrata (C.A. Mey.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 212 (1890)

= Orobanche alba var. nissana (Beck) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 155 (1930) ["Var. ζ nissana G. Beck"]. Syn.: Orobanche alba f. nissana (Beck) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 211 (1890); Orobanche caryophyllacea var. nissana Beck in Petrović, Addit. Fl. Agr. Nyssani: 143 (1885) ["rectius"]

= Orobanche alba var. superba (Solms ex Čelak.) Uhlich & Rätzel in Phytotaxa 222(1): 7 (2015 [7 Aug 2015, epublished]). Syn.: Orobanche epithymum var. superba Solms ex Čelak. in Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. Prag: 110 (1864)

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= Orobanche alba f. bidentata Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 211 (1890). Syn.: ? = Orobanche du Satureia de montagne Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 54 (1827), nom. inv.; ? = Orobanche saturejae-montanae F.W. Schultz in Ann. Gew. Regensb. 5: 500 (1830)

= Orobanche alba f. campanulata Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 210 (1890)

= Orobanche alba f. capitata Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 209 (1890)

= Orobanche alba f. communis Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 209, t. 4 f. 64 (1890). Syn.: = Orobanche du Thym serpolet Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 52 t. 6 (1827); = Orobanche epithymum var. minor Čelak., Prodr. Fl. Boehm.: 341 (1871)

= Orobanche alba f. cuprea (Boiss. & Balansa ex Boiss.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 213 (1890). Syn.: Orobanche cuprea Boiss. & Balansa ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4(2): 510 (1879 [Apr-May 1879]); Orobanche alba subsp. cuprea (Boiss. & Balansa ex Boiss.) Uhlich, Kreutz & Rätzel in Phytotaxa 222(1): 4 (2015 [7 Aug 2015, epublished]) (Uhlich & al. 2015; Flora of Cyprus, accessed Aug 2016)

= Orobanche alba f. glabrata (C.A. Mey.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 212 (1890) ["16 (Orobanche) glabrata"]. Syn.: Orobanche glabrata C.A. Mey. in Eichw. Pl. Casp. 1: 16[-17] t. 17 (1831); Orobanche alba var. glabrata (C.A. Mey.) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 154 (1930)

= Orobanche alba f. hololeuca (Borbás) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 212 (1890). Syn.: Orobanche epithymum var. hololeuca Borbás in Magyar Tud. Akad. Értes. 11(8): 82 (1881)

= Orobanche alba f. lactea (C.A. Mey.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 212 (1890)

= Orobanche alba f. leptocalamus Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 210 (1890) ["Forma 2" (Beck 1930: 152)]

= Orobanche alba f. longebracteata (Beck) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 211 (1890)

= Orobanche alba f. lutescens (Boreau) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 212 (1890) (Beck 1930: 153 ["Forma 19"]). Syn.: = Orobanche epithymum var. lutescens Boreau, Fl. Centre France 2: 341 (1840); = Orobanche epithymum var. pallescens Gren. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 2: 632 (1853). Obs. yellow form

= Orobanche alba f. maxima Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 210 (1890) ["4 (Orobanche) maxima"] (Beck 1930: 153 ["Forma 8"]). Syn.: ? = Orobanche epithymum var. major Čelak., Prodr. Fl. Boehm.: 341 (1871) (Beck 1890: 210; Beck 1930: 153 ["Forma 8"]); = Orobanche alba subsp. major (Čelak.) J. Zázvorka in Preslia 72(1): 88 (2000)

= Orobanche alba f. microsepala Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 211 (1890)

= Orobanche alba f. minutiflora Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 210 (1890). Syn.: Orobanche alba var. parviflora Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 210 (1890) [in sched.]. Herbarium Specimens: "Orobanche epithymum var. parviflora / ... / circa Tibur [Tivoli] ad radicis / Thymus Zygis / M. Mauri. 1833 // Herbier d'Adrien de Jussieu, donné au Muséum / par ses enfants, en 1857." (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p04384478 - P 04384478.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/464794174; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2013); idem (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p04384484 - P 04384484.jpg - hb. Richard; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Aug 2016)

= Orobanche alba f. nissana (Beck) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 211 (1890). Syn.: Orobanche epithymum var. nissana (Beck) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 211 (1890) [in litt.]; Orobanche alba var. nissana (Beck) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 155 (1930); Orobanche epithymum var. nissana Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 155 (1930) [in litt.]; Orobanche caryophyllacea var. nissana Beck in Petrović, Addit. Fl. Agr. Nyssani: 143 (1885) ["rectius"]. Ind. loc.: "Serbia australis (Petrović)"

= Orobanche alba f. rubiginosa (A. Dietr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 212 (1890). Syn.: Orobanche rubiginosa A. Dietr., Fl. Boruss. 3: 252 [t. 252] (1836) (https://www.ipni.org/n/662661-1)

= Orobanche alba f. rubra (Sm.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 211 (1890). Syn.: Orobanche rubra Sm., Engl. Bot. t. 1786 (1805); Orobanche rubra Hook., Fl. Scot. 19 (1821) (view IPNI entry); = Orobanche epithymum var. sordida (K. Koch) K. Koch in Linnaea 22: 664 (1849)

= Orobanche alba f. stenophyllon Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 210 (1890). Syn.: ? = Orobanche ferruginea K. Koch in Linnaea 17: 291 (1844); ? = Orobanche epithymum var. ferruginea (K. Koch) K. Koch in Linnaea 22: 664 (1849) (Beck 1890: 210). Ind. loc.: "Orel (Jeletz [Yelets / Elets / Елец], Liwny [Livny / Liwny / Ливны])" (Beck 1890: 214, sub O. alba); "Orel [Орёл / Oryol / Orel] [Zinger, Grüner], Liwny [Zinger] (Beck 1930: 148, sub O. alba). Herbarium Specimens: 1. "Orob. alba Steph. / f. stenophyllon Beck [m. Beck] / N.ş 40. (unic.) / Gouv. Orel [Oryol Governorate, Russia] / Kr. Lywny [Livny / Liwny /Ливны, Livensky District / Ливенский район] / Leg. Belin" (https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW0513722-1 - MW 0513722-1.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2021); "Елецк. у. Галичья гора [Yeletsky District / Елецкий район at. Galichya Gora / Галичья Гора, Russia] / 19 июня 1882 г. / № 10 / Orobanche". – 2. "Orobobanche alba Steph. / f. stenophylla, rubra / G. Beck" (https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW0513722-2 - MW 0513722-2.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2021)

= Orobanche alba f. subalpina Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 210 (1890). Syn.: ? Orobanche subalpina (Beck) ["Herb. ex Fodor (1974)"] ex Uhlich, Pusch & Barthel, Sommerwurzarten Eu.: 98 (1995); = Orobanche du Thym vulgaire Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 53 (1827); = Orobanche epithymum var. epithymoides Duby, Bot. Gall.: 349 (1828) (Beck 1930: 152; Piwowarczyk 2012: 24); = Orobanche epithymum var. grandiflora Rchb., Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 7: 33, t. 889 [DCLIX] (1829) (Beck 1930: 153)

= Orobanche alba f. wiedemannii (Boiss.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 212 (1890). Syn.: Orobanche wiedemannii Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4(2): 510 (1879) (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 88[113])

= Orobanche alba f. ampla Beck in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 38 (1922) ["Forma 11" (Beck 1930: 153)]

= Orobanche alba f. areschensis Beck in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 38 (1922) ["Forma 22" (Beck 1930: 155)]. Ind. loc.: "Vidi e Transcaucasia [Transcaucasia] e prov. Jelisawetpol [Elisabethpol Governorate / Елизаветпольская губерния, Ganja, Azerbaijan] prope Teokmona, m. Majo 1903 (Schelkownikow)" (Beck 1930: 155)

? = Orobanche alba f. ingens Beck in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 38 (1922) ["Forma 21" (Beck 1930: 155)]. Syn.: Orobanche ingens (Beck) Tzvelev (1990). Ind. loc.: "Vidi ex Ciscaucasiae [Northern Caucasus] prov. Daghestan [Dagestan] (Alexeenko)". Obs. https://www.gbif.org/es/species/3732894.

= Orobanche alba f. viscidula Beck in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 38 (1922). Ind. loc.: "Ciscaucasia [Northern Caucasus] in prov. Terek [Terek Oblast, Russia] et alibi cum formis affinibus"

= Orobanche alba var. typica f. ankylantha Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 152 (1930) ["Forma 6" (Beck 1930: 152)]

= Orobanche alba var. typica f. dasythrix Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 153 (1930) ["Forma 14" (Beck 1930: 153)]

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Misapplied names:

Orobanche caryophyllacea sensu Fraas et auct. tauricus, non Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 4: 169 (1798) (Schultz 1843: 130)

–  Orobanche sparsiflora sensu Holl & Heynhold, Fl. Sachsen 1: 480 (1842), non Orobanche sparsiflora Wallr., Sched. Crit. 1: 309 (1822). Ind. loc.: Germany: "Auf trocknen Triften, Seiden, auf Thymus Serpyllum und T. Chamaedrys in Thüringen bei Bottendorf [Burgwald, Waldeck-Frankenberg], Schweinsroda, am südlichen Harze [Harz District]. Juni, Juli" (Holl & Heynhold 1842: 480, sub O. epithymum DC.).

Catodiacrum sparsiflorum sensu Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 370 (1867), non Catodiacrum sparsiflorum (Wallr.) Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 370 (1867) [nom. illeg.]. Ind. loc.: France, Hautes-Pyrénées: "Lourdes (Dev.)"

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Ind. loc.: "in Sibiria versus Mare Caspium [Caspian Sea, North Caucasian Federal District / Северо-Кавказский федеральный округ?, southern European Russia / Россия]" (Willdenow 1800: 350).

Lectotypus / Lectotype: 1. "Or. alba 3 / Rchb. fil.", 2. "Rchb. Icones ... / Me judice hic est Typus [In my judgment this is the type] / vera O. alba ex ... Willdenowianii / Rchb. fil.", 3. "Orob alba Steph. An ab auctore? / In Herb. Petropolitano typus Or albae Steph. / corolla majore ... / det. Dr. G. Beck", 4. "214 W" (B-W 11600 20-03 200) (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 67). "herbarii Willdenowiani transmisit: Nr. 11600 ... quae numero 3 est stignata, typum stephanianum habui ... Crescit in Sibiria versus mare. W. l. c.!" (Reichenbach fil. 1862: 101, sub O. alba ["The Herbarium Willdenow, fortunately, was not destroyed in 1943 and is still kept separate]); "Type: Described from Caucasus (LE)" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 94[89]); "Typus: in Sibiria versus Mare Caspium, Steph. LE" (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 18).

Designated by: Piwowarczyk & al. in Phytotaxa 386(1): 67 (2019).

Host: only on Labiatae [Lamiaceae] species (usually, on Thymus and, more rarely on others, e.g., Clinopodium, Origanum, Salvia, Satureja and Ziziphora (Beck 1930: 146, sub O. alba, Annotated Checklist of Host Plants of Orobanchaceae, accessed Aug 2016)).

"Radicibus sequentium specierum insidentem eam observavi: Thymus angustifolius Pers. (T. angustifolius Pers., nom. illeg. (Thymus serpyllum L. subsp. serpyllum)), Th. arenarius Bernh. (Thymus ×arenarius Bernh. ex Rchb. (T. serpyllum var. arenarius (Bernh. ex Rchb.) Nyman) [Germany]), Th. conspersus Čelak. (Thymus spinulosus Ten. [Italy]), Th. comosus Heuff. (T. comosus Heuff. ex Griseb. & Schenk (T. serpyllum subsp. comosus (Heuff. ex Griseb. & Schenk) Lyka [Romania])), Th. chamaedrys Fr.  (T. pulegioides subsp. chamaedrys (Fr.) Guşul. [Austria, Germany]), Th. dalmaticus Reich. (T. dalmaticus (Rchb. f.) Freyn; = Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis), Th. humifusus Bernh. (T. humifusus Bernh. ex Link; = T. praecox Opiz subsp. praecox), Th. Marschallianus Willd. (T. pulegioides subsp. pannonicus (All.) Kerguélen = T. marschallianus Willd.), Th. montanus W. K. (T. montanus Waldst. & Kit., nom. illeg.; = T. pulegioides subsp. montanus (Benth.) Ronniger)], Th. serpyllum L., Th. subcitratus Schreb. (Thymus serpyllum L. subsp. serpyllum), Th. vulgaris L., Th. zygis L., Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav. (Satureja capitata L. [Greece]), Salvia nutans L., S. pratensis L., S. silvestris L., Satureja montana L., S. variegata Host, Stachys crenata L., Origanum vulgare L., Calamintha alpina L., Clinopodium vulgare L., Brunella spec. — Indicantur porro: Calamintha nepeta Clairv. (f. Alexeenko [Russia]), C. rotundifolia Benth. (f. Petrović [Serbia]), C. thymifolia Host (f. Pančić [Serbia]), Melissa officinalis L. (f. Unger), Brunella vulgaris L. (f. Kohts), Satureja graeca L. (f. Lojacono), S. thymbra L. (Clinopodium thymbra (L.) Kuntze (f. Heldreich)), Teucrium montanum L. (f. Sauter), Thymus acicularis W. K. (f. Wierzbicki), Th. bracteosus Vis. (f. Grisebach), Th. capitatus Hoffm. (Thymus capitatus (L.) Hoffmanns. & Link; Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav.; Satureja capitata L.) (f. Heldreich [Greece]), Th. marginatus Kern. (f. Simkovic), Th. nummularius M. B. (f. Simkovic), Th. pannonicus All. (f. Hausmann); Salvia rotundifolia (f. Sintenis)" (Beck 1930: 146, sub O. alba).

"These host variants are geographically vicariant and morphologically differentiated in the Czech Republic (Zázvorka 2000, 2003)" (Kaplan & al. 2019: 316, sub O. alba).

"Only on Lamiaceae, usually on Thymus sp., less commonly on Ziziphora sp., rarely Origanum sp. [in Tavush province] and Satureja sp. [Syunik prov.], like T. transcaucasicus Ronn., T. kotschyanus subsp. migricus (Klok. & Shost.) Menitsky, T. kotschyanus Boiss. & Hohen. subsp. kotschyanus, T. sipyleus Boiss. [T. rariflorus K. Koch], T. fedtschenkoi Ronn., Z. clinopodioides Lam., Z. clinopodioides subsp. rigida (Boiss.) Rech. f. [Z. rigida (Boiss.) Heinr. Braun], O. vulgare L." (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 67).

Comments:

Chorological obs.: Aedo & al. in Fontqueria 36: 363-364 (1993); Bol. Cien. Nat. R.I.D.E.A. 46: 70 (2000); Carlón & al. in Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 1: 14 t. 6, 18-20 (2002); Aedo & al. Bol. Cien. Nat. R.I.D.E.A. 48: 30-34 [NW of Spain distribution (records and map)] (2003); Carlón & al. in Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 2: 15 (2003).

Morphological obs.: Pollen Description (Halbritter & Svojtka 2015). "Our results show that seeds and pollen characters singly are not very useful for identification of all taxa (Abu Sbaih et al. 1994; Abu Sbaih & Jury 1994; Plaza 2004; Halamski 2011) at the species level, but they can be helpful in addition to other morphological characters." (Zare & Dönmez 2013: 600).

Phylogenetic relationships: Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 3: 36, 61 f. 4 ["Phylogenetic relationships"], 63 (2005); Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 6: 13 f. 2 [phylogenetic relationships] (2008).

Controversial taxa (provisional treatment):

Orobanche alba subsp. major (Čelak.) J. Zázvorka in Preslia 72(1): 88 (2000). Syn.: Orobanche epithymum var. major Čelak., Prodr. Fl. Boehm.: 341 (1871) ["Var. ... β) major, 1—2" hoch, Ähre lang, viel- und lockerblüthig"] [basionymum / basionym]

= Orobanche epithymum var. superba Solms ex Čelak. in Sitzungsber. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. Prag: 110 (1864); Orobanche alba var. superba (Solms ex Čelak.) Uhlich & Rätzel in Phytotaxa 222(1): 7 (2015 [7 Aug 2015, epublished]). Ind. loc.: "Die prachtvolle var. superba Solms, die nach Graf Solms bisher nur in Böhmen [Czech Republic] gefunden worden, über 1—2' hoch, mit langer locker-blüthiger Aehre aus grossen (1" langen) lichtblaurothen und dunkler geäderten Blüthen, sammelte Winkler an der Bielalehne bei Bilin [Bílina], (Juli 1853); sie soll auf Trifolium alpestre, Salvia silvestris schmarotzt haben, während die normalen Formen auf Thymus Serpyllum aufsitzen" (Čelakovsky 1864: 110); "Bielathal bei Bilín [Bílina] (Hampel, mit der var. superba G-f. Solms [O. epithymum var. superba])!" (Čelakovsky 1868: 100). Obs. this is the correct name at varietal rank according to Uhlich & al. 2015, that opinion certainly seems to be correct.

= Orobanche alba f. maxima Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 210 (1890) ["?"] (Beck 1890: 210; Piwowarczyk 2012: 24)

Ind. loc.: "Bielathal bei Bilin [Bílina] (... β. [O. epithymum var. superba] Winkler !) ... Milayer Berg bei Lann [Louny] (β. [O. epithymum var. superba] 1869 nur 1 Ехрl.) !" (Čelakovský 1871: 341); "the hill Milá N of the town of Louny [Laun], České středohoří Mts. [Böhmische Mittelgebirge / České středohoří / Central Bohemian Uplands], Nortern Bohemia. In original wording it is: Milayer Berg bei Laun, leg. Čelakovský 1869 (Čelakovský 1871: 341)" (Piwowarczyk 2012: 25).

Ic.: a, Zázvorka 2000: 497 t. 80 f. 3-3a; b, habit and flowers [Napsal Ladislav Kovář in Botany.cz, 10 July 2007 (accessed Aug 2008)]; c, North Kuban, Kushchyovsky District, env. Shkurinskaya, on Salvia nutans L., 23.05.2012 (http://www.plantarium.ru/page/image/id/134608.html by Андрей Любченко [Andrey Lyubchenko] in Plantarium, accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2016); d, ibidem (http://www.plantarium.ru/page/image/id/18435.html by Андрей Любченко [Andrey Lyubchenko] in Plantarium; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2016).

Host: "Hostitelé: Salvia pratensis L., a S. nemorosa L., ojediněle též [also occasionally] S. verticillata L." (Labiatae [Lamiaceae]) (Zázvorka 2000: 502).

Obs. Zázvorka 2000: 501-502, 497 t. 80 f. 3-3a; https://www.ipni.org/n/1014322-1.

Herbarium Specimens: "A. Callier: Iter Tauricum tertium anni 1900. / curavit I. Dörfler. / No. 691. / Orobanche alba Steph. / forma major. / In Salvia silvestri [Salvia sylvestris auct. plur., non L.] / prope pagum Molbai [Crimean peninsula]. / 2.VI. / det. v. Beck." (P 02982372); idem (P 02982332); idem (P 04410448); Восточный Крым. Карадаг. Луговина на склоне Сюрю-кая, 28.06.1928. Собр. Сырейщиков Д., № 570 [East Crimea. Kara Dag. Lugovina on the slope of Syuryu-kaya [Skala Syuryu-Kaya], 28.06.1928. Coll. Syreyshchikov D., No. 570] (MW 0626306); Eastern Crimea, Kara Dag (MW 0626308); Eastern Crimea, Kara Dag (MW 0626307).

Orobanche alpigena K. Koch, Linnaea 22: 668 (1849) (Beck 1890: 163, "?"). Syn.: ? = Orobanche marginata Reut. [in Balansa & Huet exs., 1866] ex Boiss., Fl. Orient. 4(2): 508 (1879 [Apr-May 1879]), pro syn. Syn.: = Orobanche betonicae Reuter in B. Balansa, Plantes d'Orient (1866) [in sched., unpublished name]; = Orobanche teucrii Holandre (1829), p.p. (Boissier 1879: 508); = Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd. (1800) p.p. (Beck 1930: 236, sub O. teucrii)

Ind. loc.: "Im pontischen [Pontic Mountains / Doğu Karadeniz Dağları, Black Sea Region / Karadeniz Bölgesi, Anatolia, Turkey] Hochgebirge, 5500-6000' Koch." (Koch 1849: 668).

Host: Betonica grandiflora Steph. ex Willd. (= Stachys macrantha (K. Koch) Stearn), Labiatae [Lamiaceae].

Distribution: "Hab. im Ponto Lazico [Lazica / Lazistam] prope Djimil [40°45'23.9"N 40°39'18.0"E, Kaçkar Mountains / Lazistan Mountains, Pontic Mountains / Kuzey Anadolu Dağları] (C. Koch!); ibidem Betonicae grandiflorae [Betonica grandiflora Steph. ex Willd. (= Stachys macrantha (K. Koch) Stearn)] parasitica (Bal!)" (Boissier 1879: 506); "Anatolia [Turkey]: In montibus ponticis prope Djimil alt. 5500-6500' ad radices Betonicae grandiflorae (s. Balansa), leg. C. Koch" (Beck 1890: 163).

Herbarium specimens: "B. Balansa, Plantes d'Orient, 1866. / Orobanche Betonicae n. sp. (Reuter)" / Stigmates jaunâtres .— Parasite sur le Betonica grandiflora. / Région du Lazistam / prčs de Djimil [40°45'23.9"N 40°39'18.0"E, Kaçkar Mountains / Lazistan Mountains, Pontic Mountains / Kuzey Anadolu Dağları], vers ... mętres d'altitude" (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p02982378 - P 02982378.jpg - hb. Balansa - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/438483445; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017, sub O. alpigena K. Koch)

Obs. "sepalis paucinerviis indivisis ... corolla minute glandulosâ ... Affinis O. rubenti" (Boissier 1879: 506). "Sepala lanceolato-linearia, integra ... (Stigma flavidum.)" (Beck 1890: 163). From our point of view, it is a completely different species to O. lutea Baumg.

Orobanche grigorjevii Novopokr. in Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk SSSR 13: 326 (1950) (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 67). Syn.: Orobanche alba f. grigorjevii (Novopokr.) Teryokhin in Opred. Zarazikhovykh Fl. SSSR (ed. Budantsev): 39 (1993); = Orobanche alba subsp. xanthostigma Rätzel & Uhlich in Feddes Repert. 115(1-2): 198[-201], f. 4 (2004 [May 2004]) (Tzvelev 2015: 205, sub O grigorjevii); ? = Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd. (1800) (FRPS et Flora of China 69: 122, t. 31 f. 5 in CVH, accessed Sep 2015); ? = Orobanche reticulata Wallr. (1825) (Hassler in Catalogue of Life, Aug 2015).

Ind. loc.: "Described from eastern Tadzhikistan [Tajikistan] (Khingou [Hingow / Obichingou / Обихингоу / Obi Khingob / Оби-Хингоу] River basin)" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 96[91], sub O grigorjevii).

Ic.: "Соцветие. Кыргызстан, Чаткальский хребет, Сары-Челекский заповедник [Kyrgyzstan (Jalal-Abad Region / Жалал-Абад областы / Джалал-Абадская область), Chatkal Range, Sary-Chelek Reserve]. 8 июня 2010 г." (http://www.plantarium.ru/page/image/id/112130.html by Георгий Лазьков, 2011; растение определил(а) Холгер Улих [Uhlich]; in Plantarium; accessed Dec 2016).

Type: "Described from eastern Tadzhikistan (Khingou [Hingow / Obichingou / Обихингоу / Obi Khingob / Оби-Хингоу] River basin). Type in Leningrad." (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 96[91], sub O grigorjevii); "«Бассейн р. Хингоу, р. Шикель-дара [Tajikistan], 23 IX 1932, № 770, Н. Гончаров и др. [N. Goncharov et al.]» (LE)" (Tzvelev 2015: 205, sub O grigorjevii); "Schikel-dara valley, Chingou R. plain, W TJ, 23.9.1932, N. Gontscharov, G. Grigorjev & V. Nikitin 770 (LE)" (Schlauer & al. 2012+, type of O. grigorjevii).

Host: "Parasitic on species of Origanum L. [Labiatae (Lamiaceae)] Rubbly slopes, subalpine meadows" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 96[91], sub O grigorjevii). Origanum vulgaris L. (FRPS et Flora of China 69: 122, t. 31 f. 5 in CVH, accessed Sep 2015).

Distribution: "Soviet Central Asia: Pamiro-Alai. General distribution: Iran (eastern part), Dzhungaria-Kashgaria (southern part) ... Type in Leningrad (LE)" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 96[91], sub O grigorjevii).

Orobanche raddeana Beck, Biblioth. Bot. 19: 194, t. 3 f. 58 (1890) (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 91[117-118], sub O. raddeana; Tzvelev 2015: 205, sub O. raddeana). Syn.: Orobanche alba var. raddeana (Beck) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 154 (1930) (Piwowarczyk 2012: 24); ? = Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd. (1800) (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 18, sub O. alba).

Ind. loc.: "Tuschetia [Tusheti, Kakheti, Georgia, northern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountains], prope Dshwari Woseli [Jvarboseli / Dzhvarboseli, 42°25'8.3064''N 45°29'54.096''E, c. 1919 m (Rätzel & al. 2018)] Julio 1876 (leg. Radde). Viidi exempl. laesa in herb. Trautvetter, Petrop. [LE - Herbarium Petropolitanum])"; "near Zhvari Voseli [Jvarboseli / Dzhvarboseli], Tushetia, RU [Georgia], 7.1876, Radde (LE)" (Schlauer & al. 2012+ sub O. raddeana). Note: "Novopokrovsky & Tzvelev (1958) supposed that the type of O. raddeana was present in the Herbarium St. Petersburg (LE). However, it has been stated by Dr. Irina Illarionova, pers. comm. 28.04.2014, as well as in a search by one of the present authors (H. Uhlich) in January/February 2015 that the type is not present in LE" (Rätzel & al. 2018).

Ic.: Beck, Biblioth. Bot. 19: t. 3 f. 58 (1890).

Host: not indicated.

Distribution: "Anatolia [Turkey] ... Transcaucasia [South Caucasus: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia] ... Persia [Iran]" (Beck 1930: 155).

Herbarium specimens: "Persia [Iran]: In m. Karnaru lapidosis [near Salmas, West Azerbaijan Province]. / J.A. Knapp s.n., 12.06.1884" (WU 0028146 (Beck 1930: 155, sub O. alba var. raddeana)); 1. "J. Bornmüller, pl. exs. Anatoliae orient a 1889. / N.ş 789 / Amasia: ad Dorycnia (latifolia) mts Ak- dagh [Akdağ Tepesi, Erzurum Province?, Turkey] / (alt.: - 400 m) legi VI.18.1889", 2. "Orob. alba Steph / v. O.  Raddeana Beck Mon. / 194 / Dr. G. de Beck [m. Beck]" (B 10 0591462) (Beck 1930: 155).

Obs. According to Schiman-Czeika (1964: 18) et Flora of Pakistan it is = Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd. (1800). In our taxonomic treatment we have preferred to consider this taxon as a different species, which have different morphological characters and host. However, further studies are needed before a firm conclusions can be made (see O. glabrata).

Orobanche campanulae Rätzel, Ristow & Uhlich in Haussknechtia 14: 10, f. 5-15, 17 (2018). Syn.: Orobanche raddeana auct. plur.

Holotype: Russia (Border region between Autonomous Republic Adygea and Krasnodarskiy Kray), NW Greater Caucasus, Thač region, Mt. Asbestnaja (N part), 44°01'01.3''N, 40°26'52.8''E), subalpine pastures with scattered cliffs and sparse vegetation, just below summit ridge, ca. 2,120 m a. s. l., paras. on Campanula ciliata Steven (verified), 01.09.2013, S. Rätzel 2830 (holotype: B 10 0521677 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=1439707 [the very well preserved sheet contains two entire specimens and a photograph, the holotype corresponds to the upper specimen and the photograph, the lower specimen is a isotype]; fig. 5; isotypes: B [B 10 0521677 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=1439707], E, GLM, LE, PRC, herb. Rätzel).

Ic.: Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 63[81] t. 5 f. 9, sub O. raddeana "Цветущее растение паразитирующее на Campanula ciliata. [Russia] Карачаево-Черкесия [Karachay-Cherkessia], Зеленчукский р-н [Zelenchuksky District], гора Пастухова [Mount Pastukhov]. 22.08.2013" (http://www.plantarium.ru/page/image/id/205017.html, 205018, 205019 and http://www.plantarium.ru/page/image/id/205020.html by Сергей Банкетов [Sergey Banketov] 2013; таксон определил(а) Stefan Rätzel, Michael Ristow & Holger Uhlich, sub O. campanulae, in Plantarium, accessed Feb 2020).

Host: "Parasitizes on species of Campanula L., usually on C. collina M.B. [C. collina Sims]" (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 96[92], sub O. raddeana; Carlón & al. 2005: 61 f. 4 ["Phylogenetic relationship"], 65 ["Campanula sp."]; C. ciliata Steven (Сергей Банкетов [Sergey Banketov] 2013 in Plantarium, accessed Sep 2015).

Campanula L. (Novopokrovsky & Tzvelev 1958: 96[92], sub O. raddeana)

Campanula alliariifolia Willd. [ Medium alliariifolium (Willd.) Spach; Campanula ochroleuca (Kem.-Nath.) Kem.-Nath.]. Georgia (WU: S&T 8041 - WU 0032445; Rätzel & al. 2018: 13, sub O. campanulae; Georgia, South Ossetia (MW 0723351?).

Campanula ciliata Steven. Azerbaijan (Rätzel & al. 2018: 13, sub O. campanulae); Russia, Autonomous Republic Adygea (B 10 0521677; Rätzel & al. 2018: 13, sub O. campanulae); Russia, Karachay-Cherkessia (https://www.plantarium.ru/page/image/id/205017.html by Сергей Банкетов [Sergey Banketov] 2013, sub O. campanulae; https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78373861 - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/3113682569 by Shilnikov Dmitry Sergeevich [Shilnikov Dmitry], 2019, sub O. alba subsp. alba).

Campanula collina Sims [= C. collina M.B.]. Caucasus: All regions besides Talysh [Tal] (Novopokrovsky & Tzvelev 1958: 96[92], sub O. raddeana); Georgia (WU 0027657; WU 0032467; Carlón & al. 2005: 65, sub O. raddeana; Rätzel & al. 2018: 13, sub O. campanulae).

Campanula rapunculoides L. [= C. cordifolia K. Koch; = C. grossheimii Charadze]. Azerbaijan (Rätzel & al. 2018: 13, sub O. campanulae).

Distribution: "Distribution: Caucasus: All regions besides Talysh [Tal]. General distribution: Asia Minor, Armenia-Kurdistan, Iran-Afghanistan (western part)" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev 1958: 92[118], sub O. raddeana).

Herbarium specimens: "Georgia / Mts'khet'is Raioni — 42.53° / 44.47° / Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Great Caucasus: Eastern slope close to Baidarar river 2 km NE below Jvaris ugheltekhili (Cross pass), 2220-2300 m. 44°28'31'' E, 42°32'05'' N., G. Schneeweiß et al. 8538" (WU 0027658 - https://wu.jacq.org/WU0027658 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=33174 et WU 0027657 - https://wu.jacq.org/WU0027657 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=33173 [on C. collina Sims (Rätzel & al. 2018: 13)]); "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/AY209259: Turkey, NE Anatolia, between Tofiel and Gümüşane, 1000-1150 m, G. Schneeweiss & CJ (WU: S&T 7763) ... https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/AY209257: Georgia, province Racha-Lechkhumi, Great Caucasus, from Shovi along the road to Mamisoni pass, 1860 m, on Campanula sp. (Campanulaceae), G. Schneeweiß, AT, MS & PS (WU: S&T 8041 - WU 0032445 - https://wu.jacq.org/WU0032445 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=39008 [on C. alliariifolia Willd. (Rätzel & al. 2018: 13)]); http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/ay209258: Georgia, province Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Great Caucasus, from church Tsminda Sameba in direction of Mt. Kasbek, 2390-2650 m, on Campanula sp. (Campanulaceae), G. Schneeweiß, AT, MS & PS (WU: S&T 8703 - WU 0032467 - https://wu.jacq.org/WU0032467 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=38987 - https://www.europeana.eu/en/item/11602/HERBARWUXWUXAUSTRIAX38987)" (Schneeweiss & al. 2004, sub O. raddeana; Carlón & al. 2005: 65, sub O. raddeana); WU 39011 - https://wu.jacq.org/WU0039011 - https://www.jacq.org/detail.php?ID=66260 - https://www.gbif.org/species/8168420 in https://www.europeana.eu/en/search?page=1&view=grid&query=Orobanche%20raddeana, accessed Aug 2016, sub O. raddeana, accessed Feb 2020); "Юго-Осетинский [South Ossetia, Georgia] Горно-Луговой Стационар [Mountain-Lugovoi Station] / Академии наук СССР [Academy of Sciences of the USSR] / под руководством Е.А. Буш. [under the leadership of E.A. Bush.] / Orobanche  / Эрмани [Gora Ermani], правый берег Эрмани-Дон [Ermanistskali River / Эрманидон] / ... / 2300 m / 4.VI.1947. г. Собр. [Coll.] Гогина Е.Е. [Gogina E.E.]" (https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW0723351 - MW 0723351.jpg rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2020); Russia, "Карачаевский р-н [Karachayevsky District, 43°46'53.6"N 42°12'16.4"E, near Verkhnyaya Mara / Верхняя Мара]", 7 Jul 2019 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/78373861 - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/3113682569 by Shilnikov Dmitry Sergeevich [Shilnikov Dmitry], sub O. alba subsp. alba, in iNaturalist, accessed May 2022).

Chromosomatic number: n = 19 (Ubera, 1983 "Córdoba, Spain"); 2n = 38 (Tzvelev [Cvelev] 1981: 455; Albers & Pusch 1999; Schneeweiss & al. 2004).

Ic.: a, habit (on Thymus zygis Loefl. ex L.; Amaya, Spain); b, flowers (ib.); c, flowers (yellowish form on Thymus zygis Loefl. ex L.; Las Quintanillas, Spain); d, flower in lateral view and in partial long-section and gynoecium (Torozos, Spain); e, sheet (Mundilla, Spain); f, abnormal pistil (on Satureja intricata subsp. gracilis (Willk.) Rivas Mart. ex G. López, Cilleruelo de Abajo, Spain); g, Reichenbach fil. 1862: 101, t. 215 (type of O. alba); h, Reichenbach fil. 1862: 98, t. 163 (sub O. epithymum DC.); i, Beck 1890: 219, t. 4 f. 64.

Distribution: Afghanistan [unconfirmed], Albania, Algeria [unconfirmed], Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China, Crete, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain [United Kingdom], Greece, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq [O. consimilis], Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Krim, Kyrgyzstan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morroco, Nepal [unconfirmed], North Macedonia, Pakistan [unconfirmed], Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Syria [unconfirmed], Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan [O. grigorjevii et O. psilostemon], Tunisia [unconfirmed], Turkey, Turkmenistan [unconfirmed] and Ukraine.

Distribution (Domina & Raab-Straube 2010); "NW Sichuan, SE Xizang [Afghanistan, Kashmir, Nepal, Pakistan, Turkmenistan; SW Asia, Europe]" (Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. alba); "Most of Europe, C. and N. Asia, S.W. Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kashmir to Tibet" (Jafri 2011, sub O. alba); Hectad map of O. alba in GB and Ireland (BSBI Maps); map in Flora of Northern Ireland (National Museums Northern Ireland 2010); Iberian Peninsula distribution; NW of Spain distribution.

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Specimens examined and literature records.

Afghanistan / Afġānistān / Afganistán / Афганистан [uncofirmed] (Jafri in Flora of Pakistan, sub O. alba; Schiman-Czeika 1964: 18, 23, sub O. alba; Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. alba; Jafri 2011, sub O. alba; Podlech 2012, sub O. alba)

Kunar Province: "Kun" (Podlech 2012, sub O. alba).

Nuristan / Nurestan / Nooristan: "Nuristan: Waigel, Edelb. 2055!" (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 18, 23, sub O. alba).

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Albania / Shqipëri / Shqipëria / Shqipnia (Beck 1930: 147, sub O. alba; Chater & Webb 1972: 290, sub O. alba; Greuter & al. 1989: 256, sub O. alba)

Northern Albania / Shqipëria Veriore: "1897 - Iter Albanicum Quintum / 37. Orobanche caryophyllaceae Sm. / Parasitica in Thymo / ad Oukaj sub m. Zukali [Čukali] distr. / Scutari [Shkodër / Qarku i Shkodrës / Shkodra County] 16 Junio / Dott. Antonio Baldacci" (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p04419652 - https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/p04419652 - P 04419652.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/465035154 - https://explore.recolnat.org/occurrence/ADE566096E5544E593172B63D92C8BDA; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2013, sub O. alba).

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Algeria / Argelia / Algérie / Algerien (Greuter & al. 1989: 256) [this needs be confirmed by future researches]

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Armenia / Hayastan / Armenien / Arménie / Әрмәнстан / Армения (Koch 1844: 291, loc. class. of O. ferruginea; Beck 1890: 214, sub O. alba; Beck 1930: 149, sub O. alba; Schiman-Czeika 1964: 18, 23, sub O. alba; Chater & Webb 1972: 290, sub O. alba; Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 67-71 f. 46, sub O. alba)

Aragatsotn Province (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 67-71 f. 46, sub O. alba): "Armenien: bei Mastara (Radde)" (Beck 1930: 149, sub O. alba).

Ararat Province (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 67-71 f. 46, sub O. alba): "Ibidem ["In planitie ad Araxem sita" (Koch 1844: 291, loc. class. of O. ferruginea K. Koch).

Armavir Province (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 67-71 f. 46, sub O. alba).

Gegharkunik Province (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 67-71 f. 46, sub O. alba).

Kotayk Province (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 67-71 f. 46, sub O. alba).

Lori Province (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 67-71 f. 46, sub O. alba).

Shirak Province (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 67-71 f. 46, sub O. alba).

Syunik Province (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 67-71 f. 46, sub O. alba).

Tavush Province (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 67-71 f. 46, sub O. alba).

Vayots Dzor Province (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 67-71 f. 46, sub O. alba).

Yerevan (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 67-71 f. 46, sub O. alba).

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Austria / Österreich / Autriche (Schultz 1830: 505, loc. class. of O. epithymum var. origani; Beck 1890: 213, sub O. alba; Beck 1930: 147, sub O. alba; Chater & Webb 1972: 290, sub O. alba; Aeschimann & al. 2004: 286, 287 photos 2-3, sub O. alba; Pusch 2009: 42, sub O. alba)

Lower Austria / Niederösterreich: "Dr. C. Baenitz, Herbarium Europaeum ... / Orobanche Epithymum DC. / Kalksburg bei Wien. Kalkberge. Auf Thymus. / 23.6.1876 Al. Dichtl S.J." (P 04384479 ; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018).

Salzburg: 1. "Orobanche Epithymum / var. Origani / In rad. Orig. ... / Salzburg". – 2. "Orobanche alba ... / Det. F.M. Muller, 1982 ..." (https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1141132 - WAG 1141132.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2021); "auf Origanum vulgare bei Salzburg. Stigma violetttroth" (Schultz 1830: 505, loc. class. of O. epithymum var. origani); "Flora Exsiccata Austro-Hungarica. / 2598. Orobanche alba. / ... / Salisburgia. ad radices Thymi chamaedrys [Thymus chamaedrys Fr. = T. pulegioides L. subsp. pulegioides] in locis arenosis nemorum ad / fluvium Salzach prope Juvaviam; c. 400 mt. s.m. / Eysn." (https://plant.depo.msu.ru/open/public/item/MW0790993 - MW 0790993.jpg; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2021 [the sheet contains four typical specimens and are very well preserved and digitized] (Beck 1930: 155, "A.Kerner, Fl. exsicc. austro-hung. n. 2598!", sub O. alba); idem (PE 01463704 - https://www.cvh.ac.cn/spms/detail.php?id=ec3333ac; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2021); idem (PE 01463703 - https://www.cvh.ac.cn/spms/detail.php?id=ec333325; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2021).

Tyrol / Tirol: "N.ş 65 / Orobanche epithymum / DC. / Brix. [Brixen im Thale, Brixental valley, Kitzbühel] / Legit : J. Hofmann // Ex Herbario Musei Tirolensis" (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p04384478 - P 04384478.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/464794174; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2013).

"Orobanche epithymum DC. / Bome[?] / ... Bauer [Ferdinand Bauer] // Comptoir d'echanges de Strasbourg" (http://coldb.mnhn.fr/catalognumber/mnhn/p/p04384478 - P 04384478.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/464794174; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2013).

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Azerbaijan / Azərbaycan / Азәрбајҹан / Azerbaiyán / Aserbaidschan / Azerbaďdjan [former Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic [Azerbaijan SSR] / Азербайджанская Советская Социалистическая Республика [Азербайджанская CCP] (Reuter 1847: 20, loc. class. of O. hymenocalyx; Reuter 1860: 169 , loc. class. of O. buhsei; Boissier 1879: 507, sub O. alba; Boissier 1879: 509, sub Orobanche epithymum var. bushei; Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea [O. caryophyllacea var. typica f. bushei (Reut.) Beck]; Beck 1922: 38, loc. class. of O. alba f. areschensis Beck)

Ganja-Gazakh Economic Region / Gəncə-Daşkəsən iqtisadi rayonu / Гянджа-Газахский экономический район

Goygol District / Göygöl rayonu: 1. "Herbarium Vadense (WAG) // Orobanche / Unio itiner. 1838. / In pratis ad radices montis Sarial [Mount Sariah, near Helenendorf [Goygol], Gouv. Jelisawetpol (Elisabethpol Governorate / Елизаветпольская губерния, Elisabethpol / Elizavetpol / Jelisawetpol / Ganja / Gəncə / Kirovabad)] / R.F. Hohenacker. Georg. cauc. Jun. / XI. 17.". – 2. "Orobanche alba Steph.? / Det. F.M. Muller, 1982 Herbarium Vadense (WAG)" (https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/WAG.1141152 - WAG 1141152.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/2515843833; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2021 [O. colorata]); "In Georgiâ Caucasicâ prope Helenendorf [Goygol, Goygol Rayon] (Hohenacker !)" (Reuter 1847: 20, loc. class. of O. hymenocalyx; Beck 1890: 212).

Kapaz District / Kəpəz rayonu-Nizami District / Nizami Rayonu [Elisabethpol Governorate]: "Vidi e Transcaucasia [Transcaucasia] e prov. Jelisawetpol [Elisabethpol Governorate / Елизаветпольская губерния, Ganja] prope Teokmona, m. Majo 1903 (Schelkownikow)" (Beck 1922: 38, loc. class. of O. alba f. areschensis Beck).

Lankaran-Astara Economic Region / Lənkəran-Astara iqtisadi rayonu

Masally District / Masallı rayonu [unconfirmed location]: [Talysh region]: "tractűs Swant [Zuvand / Zouvant, Talysh Mountains (see Zuvand, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran)] (C.A. M.)" (Boissier 1879: 507, sub O. alba); "Talish: Swant, C.A. Mey., Hohen." (Schiman-Czeika 1964: 18, 23, sub O. alba).

Yardimli District / Yardımlı rayonu: "Distretto di Yardımlı, Azerbaigian [38°54'19.6"N 48°08'12.6"E, near Pirembel]", 20 May 2013 (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/66767353 by diegoreggianti in iNaturalist, accessed May 2022 [yellow stigma, see O. alba subsp. xanthostigma]).

Mountainous Shirvan Economic Region / Dağlıq Şirvan iqtisadi rayonu

Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic: 1. "Herb. Buhse, Riga. / Orob. Epithymum β. Bushei / Boiss., Fl. or. IV, 509 / ... / N.ş 345 / Im Alindschathal [valley of Alinjachay / Khndzorut River, near Khanegah village, Julfa District] und Dschagrithal / bei Nachitschewan [Nakhchivan / Naxçıvan] auf Thymus / Serpyllum, mai 1847". – 2. "N.ş 345 / Orob. Buhsei Reuter n. sp.". – 3. "I. Novopokrovsky. Notae criticae. / specimen authenticum! (Syn.: O. caryophyllacea var.  Buhsei / G. Beck / 1949.X)" (LE 01015398 - http://re.herbariumle.ru/01015398; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2022, sub O. caryophyllacea, syntype of O. buhsei); 1. "435 = 345? / Orob. Buhsei Reut.? = 345 / Buhse /  Dzhakhri Thal [Dzhagry / Cəhriçay / Джагричай, Babek District / Бабек] 31.V.47". – 2. "Orob. caryophyllacea / var.  O. Buhsei / det. Dr. G. Beck [m. Beck]". – 3. "Orobanche Buhsei Reut. / Isotypus! / ... / 1960.III.11. Teste: Tzvelev" (LE 01015399 - http://re.herbariumle.ru/01015399 [Record creation: 2020-10-01, Ivan Tatanov, from old scans]; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2022, sub O. caryophyllacea, syntype of O. buhsei); "Im Alindschathal [valley of Alinjachay / Khndzorut River, near Khanegah village, Julfa District] und Dschagrithal bei Nachitschewan [Nakhchivan / Naxçıvan] auf Thymus Serpyllum. Nş 345]" (Reuter 1860: 169, loc. class. of O. buhsei); "Hab. in Armeniâ Rossicâ prope Nachitschewan Thymi serpylli [Thymus serpyllum L.] parasitica (Buhse!)" (Boissier 1879: 509, sub Orobanche epithymum var. bushei); "Vidi spec. orig. in herb. Petrop. collecta in Valle Alindscha et Dschagri pr. Nachitschewan" (Beck 1890: 160, sub O. caryophyllacea [O. caryophyllacea var. typica f. bushei (Reut.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 160 (1890)]).

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Belgique / Belgium / België / Bélgica (Chater & Webb 1972: 290, sub O. alba)

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Bosnia and Herzegovina / Bosnia y Herzegovina / Bosna i Hercegovina / Босна и Херцеговина (Beck 1890: 213, sub O. alba; Beck 1930: 147, sub O. alba; Chater & Webb 1972: 290, sub O. alba)

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Bulgaria / България / Bulgarie / Bulgarien (Beck 1890: 213, sub O. alba; Beck 1930: 147, sub O. alba; Chater & Webb 1972: 290, sub O. alba; Greuter & al. 1989: 256, sub O. alba; Stoyanov 2009, sub O. alba)

Kyustendil Province / Област Кюстендил: "Herb. Lugd. Batav. / Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. / PC van Welzen / N.ş 24 / 13-VII-1979 / [det.] PC van W. 12-I-81 / Bulgarije; Rila klooster [Rila Monastery Nature Park, Rhodopes Mountains / Родопи / Rodopi Ροδόπη)], 42°08'00.0"N 23°20'00.0"E 1060 m / ..." (https://data.biodiversitydata.nl/naturalis/specimen/L.2817739 - L 2817739.jpg - https://www.gbif.org/occurrence/2514552215; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2022, sub O. alba).

Sliven Province / Област Сливен: "Rumelia: prope Sliven Sotira (leg. Skorpil)" (Beck 1890: 213, sub O. alba).

"New and unpublished data (fig. 1) for Southern Black Sea coast, Belasitsa, Slavyanka, Mesta Valley, Southern Pirin and Eastern Rhodopes. The confirmed data covers 16 regions. The hosts of this species are exclusive from Lamiaceae - Acinos suaveolens, Origanum vulgare, Satureja spp., and Thymus spp." (Stoyanov 2009, sub O. alba).

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Caucasus / Cáucaso / Caucasia / Кавказ (Eichwald 1831: 16, loc. class. of O. glabrata; Koch 1844: 291, loc. class. of O. ferruginea; Koch 1849:  664, loc. class. of O. epithymum var. sordida; Steven 1857: 354, loc. class. of O. squalida; Steven 1857: 354, loc. class. of O. hians; Reuter 1860: 169 , loc. class. of O. buhsei; Boissier 1879: 511, loc. class. of O. Wiedemanni; Beck 1890: 194, loc. class. of O. raddeana; Beck 1890: 214, sub O. alba; Beck 1922: 38, loc. class. of O. alba f. ingens; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 94[89], sub O. alba, "Described from Caucasus. Type in Leningrad (LE)"; Chater & Webb 1972: 290, sub O. alba; Tzvelev 1981: 455, sub O. alba; Rätzel & Uhlich 2004: 198, loc. class. of O. alba subsp. xanthostigma; Rätzel & al. 2018: 10, f. 5-15, 17, loc. class. of O. campanulae)

Ciscaucasia / North Caucasus (Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia) (Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 94[89], sub O. alba).

Transcaucasia / South Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia) (Beck 1890: 214, sub O. alba; Novopokrovskij & Tzvelev 1958: 94[89], sub O. alba).

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China / Chine / Китай / 中国 [all Chinese material need to be reviewed, it is not typical] (Beck 1930: 149, sub O. alba; Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. alba, "NW Sichuan, SE Xizang")

Sichuan / Szechuan / 四川: "West Szechuan und Tibet" (Beck 1930: 149, sub O. alba); "NW Sichuan" (Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. alba); Sichuan (PE 01463688 - https://www.cvh.ac.cn/spms/detail.php?id=ec333b32; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2021 [cf.]); Sichuan (PE 01463689 - https://www.cvh.ac.cn/spms/detail.php?id=ec333bbb; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2021 [cf.]); Sichuan (PE 01463690 - https://www.cvh.ac.cn/spms/detail.php?id=ec333a22; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2021 [cf.]); Sichuan (PE 01463692 - https://www.cvh.ac.cn/spms/detail.php?id=ec333913; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2021 [cf.]).

Xizang Autonomous Region / Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) / Tibet / Xizang / 新疆维吾尔自治区: "West Szechuan und Tibet: bei Tachienlu [Kangding / 康定] circa 9000—13500' (A.E. Pratt n. 461) in einer der O. alba Steph. nahestehenden Form. O. alba Steph. wird auch von W. B. Hemsley (in Journ. of Linn. Soc. XXXV. [1902] 137) in Tibet bei Milam in circa 11 000—13000' Seehöhe angegeben" (Beck 1930: 149, sub O. alba); "SE Xizang" (Zhang & Tzvelev 1998, sub O. alba); 1. "... Xizang ...". – 2. "Orobanche sinensis H. Smith". – 3. "Orobanche alba Steph. / Zhang [张志耘] 1985.11.01" (PE 01463696 - https://www.cvh.ac.cn/spms/detail.php?id=ec333801; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2021 [cf.]).

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Croatia / Hrvatska Croacia / Kroatien / Croatie (Beck 1890: 213, sub O. alba; Beck 1930: 147; Chater & Webb 1972: 290, sub O. alba)

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Czech Republic / República Checa / Česká republika (Čelakovsky 1864: 110, loc. class. of O. epithymum var. superba; Čelakovsky 1868: 100, sub O. epithymum and O. epithymum var. superba; Čelakovský 1871: 341, loc. class. of O. epithymum var. major; Beck 1890: 213, sub O. alba; Beck 1930: 147; Chater & Webb 1972: 290, sub O. alba; Zázvorka 2000: 499-502, 497 t. 80 f. 2-2a 3-3a, sub subsp. alba and sub O. alba subsp. major; Pusch 2009: 42, sub O. alba;