Accepted Name - Basionymum / Basionym - Synonyms - Ind. loc. [Indicatio locotypica (type locality)] - Lectotypus [Lectotype] - Designated by - Host - Comments - Chromosomatic number - Ic. [Images] - Distribution - Specimens Examined - References - Authors - Cite us

ISSN: 2386-9666 - Last Updated: 11 November 2018


Accepted Name:

Orobanche kochii F.W. Schultz in Flora (Regensb.) 30(5): 66 [t. 2 f. 1] (1847 [7 Feb 1847])

Synonyms:

Heterotypic synonyms:

= Orobanche ritro Gren. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 2: 635 (1853) (Zázvorka, 2010: 82). Syn.: Orobanche rhytrosepiphyta St.-Lag., Cat. Fl. Bass. Rhône: 610 (1883) ["O. Ritro G. G."], nom. illeg.; Orobanche echinophya St.-Lag. in Cariot, Etud. Fl. ed. 8(2): 650 (1889); Orobanche major subsp. ritro (Gren.) Bonnier, Fl. Ill. France 8: 97 (1926) ["2.160. Orobanche major L. ... 2.160 b. O. ritro G. G."]; Orobanche major var. ritro (Gren.) Willk., Suppl. Prodr. Fl. Hispan.: 188 (1893) ["Orobanche major L. β Ritro (Gr. Godr., fl. Fr. II, p. 635! pro specie)"]; Orobanche major f. ritro (Gren.) Beck, Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 171 (1890); Orobanche major r. ritro (Gren.) Rouy in Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 11: 181 (1909) ["race (proles)"], nom. illeg. Ind. loc.: "Hab. Sur les racines de l'Echinops Ritro; collines sčches des environs de Gap, en allant ŕ Rabou et ŕ la Grangette (Gren.) [Hautes-Alpes, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France]; Guillestre [Hautes-Alpes, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France]! (Boullu) Ч Juillet". Ic.: Reichenbach f., 1862: 97 t. 170 [sub O. Ritro, yellow flowering form]. Herbarium Specimens: "Orobanche ritro Gren. / Lagarde prčs Gap / Leg. Blanc / Herbier donné par M. le Dr. Grennier, en 1875" (P 04406079); idem (P 04419053 - hb. Grenier [Reichenbach f., 1862: 97 t. 170]); "Orobanche ritro Gren. / Rabou Lagarde, juillet / style ... / ... stygmate qui est jaune / Blanc 1854" (P 00654041 - hb. Grenier, topotype); "Lectotype (designated here): Orobanche ritro - nob. / couleur jaune pâle. / Rabou prčs Gap. Sur l’Echinops ritro / 14 aoűt 1848 / Grenier / (handwritten by Grenier) // In addition, the sheet contains the following handwritten label by Reuter: Belle espčce que je ne connais pas! / probablement nouvelle. / (Reuter) 1851 / (P! [P 00654040])" (Pujadas, 2012: 68); "Orobanche elatior Sutton / 05 Hautes-Alpes / Risoul [Guillestre] / leg. J. Monet / 1993-7-22 / MHN AIX PH-2009-5-1047 (AIX 021123; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2017 [the specimen, apparently parasitic on Echinops ritro, corresponds to O. kochii (terra class. of O. ritro)]).

= Orobanche strictiflora Knaf (1857), nom. inval. [in schedis] (Zázvorka, 2010: 82)

? = Orobanche comosa Schur, Enum. Pl. Transsilv.: 505 (1866 [Apr-Jun 1866]) ["O. comosa Schur herb. (non Wallr.) Schur Oesterr. bot. Zeit. 1861, p. 19" ?], non Orobanche comosa Wallr., Sched. Crit. 1: 314 (1822) [pro syn.]. Syn.: ? = Orobanche stigmatodes Wimm., Fl. Schles.: 280 (1841). Ind. loc.: "Auf sandigen Hügeln bei Hammersdorf [Gușterița, Sibiu County, in southern Transylvania / Siebenbürgen, Romania] und Salzburg [Ocna Sibiului / Vízakna, centre of Sibiu County, in southern Transylvania / Siebenbürgen, central Romania], auf Centaurea Scabiosa und verwandten Arten, die grösste unserer Orobanchien bis 2 Fuss hoch. Jun. Jul.". Herbarium specimens: 1. "No. 3034 / Orobanche comosa Schur / in pratis montis Semmering [Semmering Pass, Northern Limestone Alps, Lower Austria, Austria] 18-7 69 / (inter Galium Mollugo!) Dr. Schur" – 2. "3036 / Orobanche comosa Schur! / Corolla ... sordide / flava inodora ... / ... / stigma / cericino-flavens..." – 3. "N. 8833 / Orobanche comosa Schur / In monte Nagy Eged [Nagy-Eged Hill] prope Agriam (Eger Erlan) — Comisas Heves [Heves County, Northern Hungary / Észak-Magyarország] in Hungaria [Hungary]. — / 12 Jul. 1867 / Vrabelyi // Herb. Schur" (P 04384969 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [the sheet contains three different gatherings, these seem to correspond a three different species (n. 3034 O. gracilis; 3036 O. kochii; 8833 O. elatior)]);

= Orobanche echinopis Pančić, Oesterr. Bot. Z., 18: 80 (1868) (Zázvorka, 2010: 82). Syn.: Orobanche salviae subsp. echinopis (Pančić) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 560 (1881). Ind. loc.: "Habitat copiosissima in arena mobili ad Vakarec [Serbia (Vojvodina, Banatus), Vakarec Hill 5 km S-SW of Banatski Karlovac town] et Fontina fetje [Serbia (Vojvodina, Banatus), Deliblato Sands, Devojacki bunar (Girl´s well), 9 km S of Alibunar town] agris Romanorum in Banatu parasitica in radice Echinopis Ritronis (?). Floret Julio" (Zázvorka, 2010: 88). Herbarium Specimens: "Flora selecta exsiccata / Publié par Ch. Magnier / 3825.– Orobanche echinopis Pančić ... / Hongrie [Hungary]: Liofok [Siófok] (comté de Wesprem); prčs sablonneux sur les bordes du Balaton [Lake Balaton]. – Parasite sur les Echinops. / Legit Hermann. 16 juillet 1884. Richter." (MA 170768; rev. L. Carlón, M. Laínz, Moreno Mor. & Ó. Sánchez May 2011); idem (P 04384963, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2012); idem (P 04410483; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [only host-plant]); idem (P 04406422; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2017)

= Orobanche Echinopis Petrov. (1883) [in sched.]. Herbarium Specimens: "F. Schultz, herbarium normale, nov. ser. Cent. 17. / 1639. Orobanche Echinopis Petrov. / M. Juliii 1883. / Prope oppidum Nisch [Ниш / Niš, Nišava District / Нишавски округ / Nišavski okrug, Southern and Eastern Serbia / Јужна и источна Србија / Južna i istočna Srbija]. Serbia. Leg. Dr. S. Petrovic." (P 04384965; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017)

= Orobanche rhytrosepiphyta St.-Lag., Cat. Fl. Bass. Rhône: 610 (1883) ["O. Ritro G. G."], nom. illeg. Syn.: Orobanche ritro Gren. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 2: 635 (1853)

= Orobanche echinophya St.-Lag. in Cariot, Etud. Fl. ed. 8(2): 650 (1889). Syn.: Orobanche ritro Gren. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 2: 635 (1853). Herbarium Specimens: "Herbier Constant Chatenier / Bourg-de-Péage (Drôme) / Orobanche echinopophya Saint.-Lag. / ... O. ritro G. et G. ... / Drôme: Reauriéres / liure incultes / 23 Aoűt 1894" (CLF 209764; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2017)

= Orobanche borbasiana Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 173 [t. 3 f. 46] (1890) (Zázvorka, 2010: 82). Ind. loc.: "Croatia litoralis prope Porto Ré [Kraljevica / Porto Re town, Kvarner region, Croatia (located between Rijeka and Crikvenica)] Junio leg. Borbás" (Zázvorka, 2010: 82)

? = Orobanche coryphea Schur ex Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 170 (1890), ["Exsicc.; vidi spec."], pro syn.

= Orobanche forojuliensis [(Coss.) Nyman] ex Bég. in Fiori & Paol., Fl. Italia 2: 480 (1902) ["Coss. ex Nyman"], pro syn. Syn.: Orobanche elatior var. forojuliensis Coss., Notes Pl. Crit.: 8 (1849). Ic.: Béguinot, 1902: 474 f. 13, sub O. major

= Orobanche forojuliensis [(Coss.) Nyman] ex Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 247 (1930), pro syn. (Beck, 1930: 247, sub O. major L.). Syn.: Orobanche elatior var. forojuliensis Coss., Notes Pl. Crit.: 8 (1849). Obs. "varitates linea longiori (—) ante nomen" (Nyman, 1881: iv, 560 "— Orobanche forojuliensis (Coss.)") (Carlón & al., 2011: 90)

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= Orobanche speciosa subsp. tommassinii (Rchb. fil.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 558 (1881) ["*O. tommassinii ... - Dalm."]. Syn.: Orobanche elatior var. tommassinii Rchb. fil., Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 20: 118 [t. 216, f. I 2-4] (1862)

= Orobanche salviae subsp. echinopis (Pančić) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 560 (1881) ["41. O. Salviae ... *O. Echinopis Panc. - Banat."]. Syn.: Orobanche echinopis Pančić, Oesterr. Bot. Z., 18: 80 (1868)  Obs. "Subspecies ideo (litteris minimis impressae) notantur asterisco (*)" (Nyman, 1881: iv, 560)

= Orobanche major subsp. ritro (Gren.) Bonnier, Fl. Ill. France 8: 97 (1926) ["2.160. Orobanche major L. ... 2.160 b. O. ritro G. G."] ["2.160. Orobanche major L. ... 2.160 b. O. ritro G. G."] (Zázvorka, 2010: 82). Syn.: Orobanche ritro Gren. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 2: 635 (1853)

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= Orobanche elatior var. forojuliensis Coss., Notes Pl. Crit.: 8 (1849) ["var. Foro-Juliensis"]. Syn.: Orobanche elatior var. maritima Coss. (1848) ["ined.", in schedula]; Orobanche forojuliensis [(Coss.) Nyman] ex Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr., Orobanchac.: 247 (1930), pro syn. Ind. loc.: "recueillie, au mois de juin 1848, par M Bourgeau, au bord du chemin entre Fréjus et Saint-Raphaël [Var, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France], oů elle étuit parasite sur le Centaurea aspera!" (Cosson, 1848: 9, ["exsicc. Toulon, 1848, n. 302, sub nomine var. maritima."]). Ic.: inflorescences (near Orange, France; rosaceous form) (Carlón & al., 2011: 90). Herbarium Specimens: Lectotype [the sheet contains two specimens, the right-hand specimen is a suitable lectotype for O. elatior var. forojuliensis Coss.]: 1. "E. Bourgeau, Env. de Fréjus. n.ş 302 / Orobanche elatiorSutton ex Reut. in prodr. var. maritima, Coss. ined. / Parasite sur le Centaurea aspera! / Bords de la route entre Fréjus et S.Ş Raphaël. / 4 Juin, 1848.". – 2. "Herb. Mus. Paris / Orobanche major L. / Herbier donné au Muséum par M.A. Ramond, en juillet 1880." (P 04385331). Isolectotype (P 04384972 - Hb. E. Cosson [only the central specimen, close to its label]). Isolectotype (P 04384973 - Hb. E. Cosson [only one specimen next to the host-plant])

= Orobanche elatior var. tommassinii Rchb. fil., Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 20: 118 [t. 216, f. I 2-4] (1862) ["b. Tommassinii"]. Syn.: Orobanche speciosa subsp. tommassinii (Rchb. fil.) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur.: 558 (1881). Ind. loc.: "Ex localitale insulae Pergarsnik [islet of Pregaznik, near the island of Zeča, Primorje-Gorski kotar County / Primorsko-goranska županija, Croatia] prope Levreram (Quarnero [Kvarner]) de Tommasini!" (Carlón & al., 2011: 90); "in insulâ Pregarmik prope Levrera leg. Sendtner! (Tomm. in h. Boiss.)" (Reuter, 1847: 25, sub O. elatior Sutt.)

= Orobanche major var. ritro (Gren.) Willk., Suppl. Prodr. Fl. Hispan.: 188 (1893) ["Orobanche major L. β Ritro (Gr. Godr., fl. Fr. II, p. 635! pro specie)"]. Syn.: Orobanche ritro Gren. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 2: 635 (1853)

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= Orobanche major f. exigua Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 170 (1890) (Zázvorka, 2010: 82). Type: LE (Distr. Sysran [Syzran / Сызрань, Samara Oblast, Russia], 22.06.1885, leg. S. Korzchinsky)

? = Orobanche major f. karelini Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 171 (1890) (Zázvorka, 2010: 82). Ind. loc.: "In Turkestania, Songaria". Herbario Specimens: 1. "1802 Orobanche alba Steph. / [Turkestania (Kazakhstan)] in apricis montium Alatau inter fl. Baskan et Sarchan [Prov. Taldy-Kurgan (Алматы облысы / Almaty Region), Dzhungariskiy Alatau, river Sarkhan, a tributary of the river Aksu (pers. comm. D. Podlech) (M 0030458)] / leg. Karelin et Kiriloff a. 1841 / Soc. Imp. Nat. Cur. Mosqu.". – 2. "No 1802.". – 3. "Orobanche major L. / ssp. Karelini (G. Beck) ? / 12.VII.1949 / Det. Novopokrovskii" (MW 0878178; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); 1. "leg. Karel. et Kiriloff a. 1841 / Soc. Imp. Nat. Cur. Mosqu.". – 2. "No 1798.". – 3. "Orobanche major L. / ssp. Karelini / 12.VII.1949 / Det. Novopokrovskii" (MW 0878179; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); 1. "Orobanche alba Stephan / Songaria". – 2. "Orobanche major L. / 12.VII.1949 / Det. Novopokrovskii" (MW 0878177; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018)

= Orobanche major f. microphyla Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 171 (1890) (Zázvorka, 2010: 82). Ind. loc.: "Specimen unicum legi prope Moosbrunn, Austriae inferioris [Wien-Umgebung, Lower Austria, Austria]; in monte Uralensi australi [Ural Mountains, Bashkortostan, Russia] (leg. Lessing)"

? = Orobanche major f. oreites Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 171 (1890) (Beck, 1930: 250). Ind. loc.: "In monte Gisyl Deppe [Kiziltepe, Mardin Province, Turkey] Ciliciae (leg. Kotschy) ad radices Cirsii paniculati in monte Berytdagh [Berit Da., Kahramanmaraş / Maraş Province, Turkey] Cataonia cum forma typica (leg. Haussknecht, in herb. Vindob.)." (Gilli, 1982: 90, sub O. elatior). Herbarium specimens: "741 Dr. Fr. Nábělek, Iter turcico-persicum 1909-10 / Orobanche major L. f. oreites Beck ... / Kurdistan, bor. orient. [Hakkâri, Turkey]: mons Siares supra pagum Hašitha / inter Amadia et Gulamerik; alt. ca. / 1700 m. Ad Polygonum alpestre. leg. Dr. Fr. Nábělek" (SAV 0003269; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2016, the two specimens do not correspond to O. kochii); idem (SAV 0003270; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2016, the two specimens do not correspond to O. kochii)

? = Orobanche major f. trichocheilon Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 171 (1890). Ind. loc.: "In monte Berytdagh [Berit Da., Kahramanmaraş / Maraş Province, Turkey] Cataonia (leg. Haussknecht) vidi in herb. suo" (Gilli, 1982: 90, sub O. elatior)

= Orobanche major f. ritro (Gren.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 171 (1890) (Zázvorka, 2010: 82). Syn.: Orobanche ritro Gren. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 2: 635 (1853). Obs. "Italia!: O. Ritro in valle Cerviere [Cervičres / Cervčira, Briançon, France] alpinum cottiarum [Alpi Cozie / Alpes cottiennes / Cottian Alps] (leg. Rostan)" (Beck, 1890: 172, sub O. major L.)

= Orobanche major f. ritro (Gren.) Bég. in Fiori & Paol., Fl. Italia 2: 480 (1902 [Jun 1902]) ["b. Ritro [Gr. et Godr.])"], comb. superfl. Syn.: Orobanche ritro Gren. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 2: 635 (1853) Obs. "la forma b. nella Valle Cerviere [Cervičres / Cervčira, Briançon, France] nelle Alpi Cozzie [Alpi Cozie / Alpes cottiennes / Cottian Alps] (Rostan ex Beck)."

= Orobanche major f. typica Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 170 t. 3 f. 45(1) (1890), nom. illeg. (Zázvorka, 2010: 82) [p.p.]. Syn.: = Orobanche echinopis Pančić, Oesterr. Bot. Z., 18: 80 (1868) (Beck, 1890: 170)

= Orobanche major f. moravica Beck in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 18: 36 (1922) (Beck, 1930: 250; Zázvorka, 2010: 82). Ind. loc.: "Moravia: in monte Hadyberg juxta "Schembera Felsen" prope Obran in ditione oppidi Brünn [Brno / Bruna, Brno-City District, South Moravian Region, Moravia, Czech Republic], m. Junio 1886 (Formanek)"

= Orobanche major f. remotiflora Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 250 (1930) (Zázvorka, 2010: 82). Ind. loc.: "Hinc inde [here and there] obvia"

= Orobanche kochii f. citrina Piwow. & Krajew. in Acta Soc. Bot. Poloniae 84: 106 (2015). Ind. loc.: "Type. Southern Poland, Boria (N of Ćmielów [Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship]), xerothermic grassland on the slope of the Kamienna river valley, inclination SE, 50°58'15" N, 21°32'53" E, alt. 167 m, 27 June 2013, R. Piwowarczyk (holotype KTC!)."

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= Orobanche major r. ritro (Gren.) Rouy in Rouy & Foucaud, Fl. France 11: 181 (1909) ["race (proles)"], nom. illeg. (Zázvorka, 2010: 82). Syn.: Orobanche ritro Gren. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 2: 635 (1853)

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Misapplied names:

– Orobanche major auct., non Orobanche major L., Sp. Pl.: 632 (1753), nom. rej. [= Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. (1798)] (e.g., Saint-Lager, 1883: 611, sub O. major L. [p.p.]; Beck, 1890: 170-172, sub O. major L. [p.p.]; Béguinot, 1902: 474 f. 13, 480; Bonnier, 1926: 97)

– Orobanche elatior auct., non Orobanche elatior Sutton in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 4: 178, t. 17 (1798) (e.g., Reuter, 1847: 25, "in insulâ Pregarmik prope Levrera [Kvarner Gulf, Croatia] leg. Sendtner! (Tomm. in h. Boiss.)"; Chater & Webb, 1972: 363 "292(34)"; Uhlich & al., 1995: 134; Foley, 2001: 71; Pusch 2009: 72; Domina & Raab-Straube, 2010)

– Orobanche lutea auct., non Orobanche lutea Baumg., Enum. Stirp. Transsilv. 2: 215 (1816)

– Orobanche amethystea Maly (1840) ["herb. Kochii"], non Orobanche amethystea Thuill., Fl. Env. Paris ed. 2: 317 (1799) (Schultz, 1847: 66; Nyman, 1881: 560; Zázvorka, 2010: 82)

– Orobanche stigmatodes sensu W.D.J. Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv., ed. 2: 616 (1844) [p.p.] et auct., non Orobanche stigmatodes Wimm., Fl. Schles.: 280 (1841) (Schultz, 1847: 66 "p. 616. quoad loc. "Grätz"; Reuter, 1847: 718, "quoad locum Gratz"; Koch, 1849: 665; Nyman, 1881: 560). Ind. loc.: "am Schlofsberge bei Grätz [Graz / Gradec / Grác, Styria / Steiermark / Štajerska, Austria / Österreich], auf mehreren Pflanzen, auch auf Anthericum ramosum, Maly"

– Orobanche stigmatodes sensu Reut. in DC., Prodr. 11: 26 (1847) [p.p.], non Orobanche stigmatodes Wimm., Fl. Schles.: 280 (1841). Obs. O. stigmatodes sensu Reuter (1847), p.p. [= Orobanche elatior Sutton (1798) et = Orobanche kochii F.W. Schultz (1847)]

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Ind. loc.: "In radice Antherici ramosi [Anthericum ramosum L. (Asparagaceae) ?] aliarumque plantarum ad monten arcis prope Gratz, Styriae [Graz / Gradec / Grác, Styria / Steiermark / Štajerska, Austria / Österreich]" (Schultz, 1847: 66; Nyman, 1854-55: 131).

Lectotypus / Lectotype: "Lectotypus (hoc loco designatus, Fig. 12): "Orobanche amethystea Thuill.? Auf mehreren Pflanzen des Gratzer Schlossberges [Grazer Schloßberg], auch auf Anthericum ramosum !! – Blüht im Juli – August wenn an derselben Orten die O. rubens et O. Galii ganz vertrocknet sind. 1840. Dr. Maly" (L 0835152)." (Zázvorka, 2010: 82).

Designated by: J. Zázvorka in Acta Musei Moraviae, Sci. Biol. (Brno) 95(2): 77-119 (Zázvorka, 2010: 82).

Host: exclusively on Centaurea s.l. (incl. Cyanus, Psephellus, Rhaponticoides) and Echinops species, Compositae [Asteraceae] (Annotated Checklist of Host Plants of Orobanchaceae, accessed Dec 2016). "O. kochii is primarily (approx. 90 per cent) a parasite on Centaurea scabiosa and infrequently parasitic on C. jacea and C. triumfettii subsp. axillaris (Bohemia, Moravia), C. stoebe (Slovakia), C. sadleriana (Slovakia, Hungary), C. montana (Austria) and C. ruthenica (Russia, Saratov province). O. kochii occasionally parasitizes Echinops ritro (incl. subsp. ruthenicus) as well." (Zázvorka, 2010: 83). In the Crimean peninsula also seems to be parasitic on Ptilostemon echinocephalus (Willd.) Greuter [Cnicus echinocephalus Willd.], this is apparently a new host.

Comments:  

Taxonomic observations: "Previously, all material of broomrapes in central Europe that parasitize Centaurea scabiosa, had generally been considered as Orobanche elatior Sutton (e.g., Chater & Webb 1972: 292; Kreutz 1995: 92-95; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev] 1958: 107-108; Pusch 2009: 72-75; Teryokhin et al. 1993: 27; Tzvelev [Cvelev] 1981: 334; Uhlich et al. 1995: 134-137; Zhiyun & Tzvelev 1998: 238 [Zhang & Tzvelev [Cvelev] 1998]). Further study revealed that the plants parasitic on Centaurea scabiosa belong to two distinct and nonrelated species, correctly classified as Orobanche kochii F.W. Schultz and O. elatior Sutton" (Zázvorka, 2010). Orobanche kochii F.W. Schultz [O. ritro Gren. (O. ritri Gren. in Gren. & Godr., Fl. France 2: 634 (1853) (Tela Botanica, accessed Oct 2006)], Orobanche leptantha Pomel [O. curvata Pomel; O. icterica Pau], Orobanche loscosii L. Carlón & al. [O. ritro auct. hisp.] and Orobanche elatior Sutton are considered conspecific by many authors (e.g., Chater & Webb, 1972: 292; Greuter & al., 1989: 260; Foley, 2001: 71; Domina & Raab-Straube, 2010). But in our taxonomic treatment we have preferred to consider these taxa as different species, which have different morphological characters and, frequently, different host plants.

Morphological observation: "corolle ... beau jaune de soufre ... Plante fraîche, de beau jaune-paille [yellow flowering form]" (Grenier, 1853: 635, sub O. ritro).

Phylogenetic relationships: Carlón & al. in Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 2: 31-32, 40 t. 17  [vide Orobanche major L. β Ritro] (2003); Carlón & al. in Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 3: 56 [vide Orobanche major L. β Ritro] 61 f.4 ["Phylogenetic relationships"], 64 ["AY209275: Greece, WG (Herb. Gutermann 35220)", sub O. elatior] (2005); Carlón & al. in Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 6: 13 f. 2 ["Phylogenetic relationships"], 15 [EU655621: France, herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12584, sub O. elatior, s.l.; EU655622: France, herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12588, sub O. elatior, s.l.; EU655623: France, herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12593, sub O. elatior, s.l.] (2008).

Controversial taxa (provisional treatment):

Orobanche rosea Tzvelev in Komarov, Fl. SSSR 23 [Addenda 22]: 687 [105] (1958). Ind. loc.: "Described from Nakhichevan ASSR [Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, Republic of Azerbaijan] (peaks of low mountains 1.5-2 km east of city of Ordubad, 9 VI 1956, T. Egorova, N. Tzvelev and S. Czerepanov). Type in Leningrad (LE)". Host: "Parasitic on Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. (Umbelliferae)" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev, 1958: 105-106). Distribution: "Caucasus: Southern Transcaucasia, Talysh. Soviet Central Asia: mountainous Turkmenia. General distribution: Armenia-Kurdistan, Iran." (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev, 1958: 105-106). Ic.: "Цветущее растение. Армения, обл. Котайк, близ г. Гутанасар [Armenia, Yerevan, near Gutanasar], разнотравная степь. 27.05.2012. Владислав Куропаткин, 2012; растение определил(а) Холгер Улих" (photo 166947 et 166946 by Владислав Куропаткин [Vladislav Kuropatkin], det. Холгер Улих [Holger Uhlich] in Plantarium, accessed May 2015 [just behind it, its host plant Prangos ferulacea]). Obs. In the opinion of the authors, it is a different species, but seems closely related to O. kochii.

Chromosomatic number: n = 19, 2n = 38.

Ic.: a, Schultz, 1847: 66 [t. 2 f. 1]; b, Reichenbach f., 1862: 98, t. 215 [sub O. Kochii, reddish-brown form]; c, Reichenbach f., 1862: 118, t. 216, f. I 2-4 [sub O. elatior var. tommassinii, reddish-brown form]; d, Reichenbach f., 1862: 97, t. 170 [sub O. Ritro, yellow flowering form]; e, Beck 1890: t. 3 f. 45(1); f, Bonnier 1926: t. 466 f. 2160, sub "Orobanche major L. sur (Centaurea Scabiosa ["corolla with straight dorsal line"])" et t. 466 f. 2160b, sub "O. Ritro sur (Echinops Ritro)" [yellow flowering form]); g, inflorescences (near Orange, France; rosaceous forms); h, inflorescences (near Maucoil, France; carrot-red forms); i, "Orobanche ritro Gren. / Lagarde prčs Gap / Leg. Blanc / Herbier donné par M. le dr. Grennier, en 1875" (P 04406079, terra class. of O. ritro).

Distribution: "Eurasian, continental, stretching from central [and Mediterranean] Europe to central Asia, central China and India." (Zázvorka, 2010: 84).

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Specimens examined and literature records.

Armenia / Hayastan / Armenien [need be confirmed]

"Armenia-Kurdistan" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L.); "Armenia" (Schiman-Czeika, 1964: 17, sub O. maior); Transcaucasia / South Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia)] (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L.; Schiman-Czeika, 1964: 17, sub O. maior).

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Austria / Österreich / Autriche (Zázvorka, 2010: 82, 99 "Fig. 2. Distribution of Orobanche kochii in Central Europe. Triangle – the type locality Schlossberg in Graz, Austria.", 115)

Lower Austria / Niederösterreich: 1. "No. 3034 / Orobanche comosa Schur / in pratis montis Semmering [Semmering Pass, Northern Limestone Alps, Lower Austria, Austria] 18-7 69 / (inter Galium Mollugo!) Dr. Schur". – 2. "3036 / Orobanche comosa Schur! / Corolla ... sordide / flava inodora ... / ... / stigma / cericino-flavens...". – 3. "N. 8833 / Orobanche comosa Schur / In monte Nagy Eged [Nagy-Eged Hill] prope Agriam (Eger Erlan) — Comisas Heves [Heves County, Northern Hungary / Észak-Magyarország] in Hungaria [Hungary]. — / 12 Jul. 1867 / Vrabelyi // Herb. Schur" (P 04384969 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [the sheet contains three different gatherings, these seem to correspond a three different species (n. 3034 O. gracilis; 3036 O. kochii; 8833 O. elatior)]); "Ex Herbario Dris Guntheri Beck. / Orobanche major L. / vera ! / ad radic. Centaurea Scabiosa / Austria inf: In agris cessalis prope / Liesing VII.82 / G. Beck [m. Beck]" (CLF 209731; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); "Specimen unicum legi prope Moosbrunn, Austriae inferioris [Wien-Umgebung]" (Beck, 1890: 171, loc. class. of O. major f. microphyla); "Fotos [sub O. elatior]: H. Schön / 18.7.2004 / Nappersdorf [Hollabrunn] im Weinviertel (Dernberg)" (accessed Jun 2011); "Fundnummer: 100299109 / Orobanche major L. / Österreich, Kronawetberg bei Hagenbrunn (Korneuburg) / 290 m / 19.06.1948 / leg: Hans Metlesics / coll: Biologiezentrum, Linz-Dornach; Hans Metlesics / Bild Nummer: 00016796" (LI 283952 in OÖ Landesmuseen 2010; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2013); "Fundnummer: 100292471 / Orobanche major L / Österreich, Bei Göllersdorf, Osthang / 350 m / leg: Hans Metlesics / coll: Biologiezentrum, Linz-Dornach; Hans Metlesics / Bild Nummer: 00016794 / Bild Nummer: 00016795" (LI 283964 in OÖ Landesmuseen 2010; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2013); "Steinberg near Niederhollabrunn, district Korneuburg, Lower Austria - ca. 375 m a.s.l.", 22 June 2014 (photo sl6, sl9 et sl2 by in Stefan Lefnaer in Wikimedia Commons, accessed Sep 2016).

Salzburg / Sĺizburg: "Orobanche kochii F. Sz. / Salzburg: auf Wiesen bei Mauterndorf / 3.8.[18]96  Kalk 1130 mt. / auf Thymus  leg. Louis Keller" (P 04410458 - hb. L. Giraudias; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2014 [the sheet contains two specimens which seem to correspond to O. alba]).

Styria / Steiermark / Štajerska: "In radice Antherici ramosi [Anthericum ramosum L. (Asparagaceae) ?] aliarumque plantarum ad monten arcis prope Gratz [Graz / Gradec / Grác], Styriae" (Schultz, 1847: 66, loc. class. of O. kochii; Nyman, 1854-55: 131); "Orobanche Kochii F. Schultz / Stiria. Ad montem Schlossberg, prope Gratz. Juli-August. Dolomit. Flora 1847 / pag. 66. — Perrara. Leg. et comm. Eq. de Pittoni" (P 04441482; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2014 (Zázvorka, 2010: 115)); idem // Herb. Al. de Bunge (P 04384978 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 (Zázvorka, 2010: 115)); "Grätz; Schlossber [Grazer Schloßberg]. August; auf Anthericum ramosum und ander Pflanzen Maly! Pittoni von Dannenfeldt!" (Reichenbach fil., 1862: 99, t. 215 [sub O. Kochii]); "Gratz, Schlossberg (1840 leg. Dr. Maly, L 0835152, lectotype of O. kochii); Stiria, Schlossberg (1840 leg. J. Maly PRC; 10.8.1847 leg. J.C. Eq. Pittoni a Dannenfeldt PRC) [Graz, Schlossberg Hill]; Kärnten, am Homitzberge bei Jauenstein (VIII.1912 leg. G. Beck ut O. major f. microphya Beck PRC) [Kärnten, Homitzberg W of Jaunstein village near Globasnitz]." (Zázvorka, 2010: 115).

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Azerbaijan / Azərbaycan / Азәрбајҹан / Azerbaiyán / Aserbaidschan / Azerbaďdjan [need be confirmed] (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L., "southern Transcaucasia, Talysh"

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Bosnia and Herzegovina / Bosnia y Herzegovina / Bosna i Hercegovina / Босна и Херцеговина (Zázvorka, 2010: 116, sub O. kochii)

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Bulgaria / България / Bulgarie / Bulgarien (Zázvorka, 2010: 82, 99 "Fig. 2. Distribution of Orobanche kochii in Central Europe. Triangle – the type locality Schlossberg in Graz, Austria.", 116)

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Caucasus / Cáucaso (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev] 1958: 102[132], sub O. major L., "Caucasus: Ciscaucasia, Dagestan, western Transcaucasia (southern part), southern Transcaucasia, Talysh"; Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1981: 458, sub O. elatior).

Ciscaucasia / North Caucasus (Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia)] (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L.).

Transcaucasia / South Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia)] (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1958: 102[132], sub O. major L.; Schiman-Czeika, 1964: 17, sub O. maior).

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China [distribution needs to be confirmed] (Beck, 1930: 249, sub O. major L.; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L., "Dzungaria-Kashgar"; Flora of China sub Orobanche elatior, "S Gansu, W Hubei, Xinjiang" (accessed June 2011); Zázvorka, 2010: 84, sub O. kochii)

Hubei [unconfirmed]: Zentral-China: in der Provinz Hupeh (A. Henry n. 6742), ungewiß weil abgeblüht!" (Beck, 1930: 249, sub O. major L.).

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: "In Turkestania, Songaria" (Beck, 1890: 171, loc. class. of. O. major f. karelini); "Turkestania: in montosis apricis Alatau inter Bajkan et Sarchan (leg. Karel . et Kiriloff) , in faucibus Talki [Talkibach, East of Lake Sairam, N. of Kuldga?] alt. 6—7000' (f. 3 [O. major f. karelini] leg. Regel Julio 1877 [Iter Turkestanicum 1877]), Tersk Alatau 6500' (leg. Felissow), ad fl. Borgaty ad mt. Kasch [Nilki] 5-6000 ' (f. 3 [O. major f. karelini] Regel [Iter Turkestanicum 1879])" (Beck, 1890: 172, sub O. major f. karelini).

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Croatia / Hrvatska Croacia / Kroatien / Croatie (Zázvorka, 2010: 116, sub O. kochii)

Primorje-Gorski kotar County / Primorsko-goranska županija: "in insulâ Pregarmik prope Levrera leg. Sendtner! (Tomm. in h. Boiss.)" (Reuter, 1847: 25, sub O. elatior Sutt.); "Ex localitale insulae Pergarsnik [islet of Pregaznik, near the island of Zeča] prope Levreram (Quarnero [Quarnaro / Carnaro / Kvarner]) de Tommasini!" (Reichenbach fil., 1862: 118, t. 216, f. I 2-4 [sub O. elatior var. tommassinii, reddish-brown form]; Nyman, 1881: 558, sub O. speciosa subsp. tommassinii, "Dalm."; Carlón & al., 2011: 90); "Dalm. (ins. Cherso)" [Cres / Kersch / Crepsa / Chčrsos, Kvarner Gulf]" (Nyman, 1881: 560, sub O. major L.); "Croatia litoralis prope Porto Ré [Kraljevica / Porto Re town, Kvarner region, Croatia (located between Rijeka and Crikvenica)] Junio leg. Borbás" (Beck, 1890: 173 [t. 3 f. 46], loc. class. of O. borbasiana; Zázvorka, 2010: 82).

Karlovac County / Karlovačka županija: "Flora Croatica, in montibus ad Ogulin (VI.1884 leg. V. Borbás BP) [Mountains near the town of Ogulin]" (Zázvorka, 2010: 116, sub O. kochii).

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Czech Republic / República Checa / Česká republika (Zázvorka, 2010: 82, 99 "Fig. 2. Distribution of Orobanche kochii in Central Europe. Triangle – the type locality Schlossberg in Graz, Austria.", 104-111)

Central Bohemian Region / Středočeský kraj

Benešov: Šibenični vrch (S Moravia, CZE), phot.1 and 2 H. Uhlich 13.07.2011 (Uhlich, 2010).

Kolín: "Orobanche kochii from mt. Deblik [Církvice] (N Bohemia, CZE), phot.1 and 2 H. Uhlich 07.07.2001" (Uhlich, 2010).

South Moravian Region / Jihomoravský kraj

Brno-City District: "Moravia: in monte Hadyberg juxta "Schembera Felsen" prope Obran in ditione oppidi Brünn [Brno / Bruna, Brno-City District, South Moravian Region, Moravia, Czech Republic], m. Junio 1886 (Formanek)" (Beck, 1922: 36, loc. class. of O. major f. moravica); Ústí nad Labem Region / Ústecký kraj / Okres: Ústí nad Labem / Kraj: Ústecký / Stanoviště: stráň / Půda: hlinito-kamenitá, sušší / Světelné podmínky: slunné / Určil: Petr Kocián / Fotografoval: Karel Nepraš / Datum fotografie: 2.7.2004" (sub O. kochii by Petr Kocián 2003-2011, accessed Jun 2011).

Ústí nad Labem / Ústecký kraj / Region Aussigm

Chomutov: "Kadaň, Úhošť Hill - 13.7.2005" (photos 3974, 3975 and 3976 by Ivan Bílek (sub O. elatior) in www.naturephoto, accessed Jun 2011).

Louny: "Czech Republic, Podbořansko [Podbořanský Rohozec]" (photo by Daniel Koutecký, sub O. elatior in www.biolib.cz, accessed Jun 2011); "Fotografováno ve dnech 13. 7. 2005 a 7. 7. 2006 (Buškovice [Buskovice / Puschwitz / Podersam, Louny District / Okres Louny, Ústí nad Labem Region / Ústecký kraj])" (sub O. kochii by Daniel Koutecký in Botany.CZ, accessed Jan 2011).

Most: "Herb. Čechoslovenicum Musei Nat. Pragae / Flora Bohemica   No. Duplicatum. / Orobanche kochii Schultz / In vicinitate Most: in Centaurea / scabiosa, ad viam supra vicum České Zlatníky [Böhmisch-Zlatnik] / 26.VI.1889  Legit: Fr. Bubák" (P 04405888; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2014 (Zázvorka, 2010: 104)); "Distr. Most: Windmühlberg bei Püllna nächst Brüx [Bylany village, Větrov Hill] (18.7.1889 leg. F. Bubák PRC)" (Zázvorka, 2010: 104).

Ústí nad Labem: "L. Chevallier, Précigné // Flora bohemica / Orobanche kochii F. Schultz / Sattelberg bei Aussig [Ústí nad Labem] / 10.7.1894  leg.: Dr. J. Sterneck / Prag." (P 04527921; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2014 (Zázvorka, 2010: 105)); "Aussig, Sattelberg bei Aussig (28.7.1890 leg. J. Sterneck PRC, det. Beck u f. laxiflora)" (Zázvorka, 2010: 105); "Flora Bohemica. // O. major L. [manu ignota] // Orobanche Kochii F. Sch. / Aussig [Ústí nad Labem] / auf Centaur. Scab. [Centaurea scabiosa L.] / leg. Rob. Missbach / Dresden. / juli 1913" (SLA 048413 - hb. Coste; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018).

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France / Francia / Frankreich (Cosson, 1848: 9, sub O. elatior var. forojuliensis; Grenier, 1853: 637, sub O. major L., p.p.; Nyman, 1854-1855: 131; Reichenbach f., 1862: 97 t. 170 [yellow flowering form], sub O. ritro Gren.; Saint-Lager, 1883: 610, sub O. rhytrosepiphyta; Saint-Lager, 1883: 611, sub O. major L. [p.p.]; Nyman, 1878-1882: 560, sub ? O. ritro Gren.; Beck, 1890: 171, O. major f. ritro (Gren.) Beck; Coste, 1904: 70, f. 2820  [O. kochii (Zázvorka, 2010: 81, "straighter corolla back in the middle")], sub O. major L., p.p., "Sur les Centaurea et Echinops, dans l'Est, le Centre et le Midi"; Bonnier, 1926[1990]: 887, f. 2160 sub "Orobanche major sur Centaurea Scabiosa" [O. kochii, rosaceous form (Zázvorka, 2010: 81, "straighter corolla back in the middle, leaves markedly broad and short")] et 2160b sub O. ritro sur Echinops Ritro" [O. kochii, yellow flowering form]; Beck, 1930: 251, O. major f. ritro (Gren.) Beck; Charpin & Salanon, 1985: 256, sub O. elatior; Orobanche major L., p.p. in Tela Botanica [accessed Jun 2011]; Zázvorka, 2010: 116, sub O. kochii; Tison & al., 2014: 1445, sub O. elatior [p.p. (only the plants indicated as parasitic on Centaurea and Echinops species)]; Tison & Foucault, 2014: 863, sub O. kochii [incl. O. ritro]; Pavon, 2015: 68, sub O. kochii)

Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes [Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes]

Drôme (26): "Herbier - Abbé Toussaint - Montaure (Eure) / Orobanche ritro G. G. / Rhône: = Chemins de Risous [Mont La Vanige (Mont Risoux)] / Leg. fr. Clément - 1854" (P 04405878, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011 [three specimens bad preserved, determination doubtful]); "N.ş... / Joseph Hervier, Saint-Étienne (Loire) / Orobanche ritro G.G. / sur l'Echinops ritro / Drôme. Crest coteaux calcaires / autour de la ville / Juin 1870" (CLF 170273, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); "44881 / Herbier Mouillefarine / Orobanche ritro G.G. / Chastel Arnaud prčs Saillans / Drôme / 23 Aout 1888" (P 04393742, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "L. Chevallier, Précigné / Orobanche ritro G.G. / Drôme / St Féréol [Saint-Ferréol-Trente-Pas], coteaux d' Eyroles / VI. 94 [1894] / Legit Tourasse" (P 04405598, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); idem (P 04393743, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); idem (MPU 502693, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018); idem (SLA 048145, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018); "Herbier Constant Chatenier / Bourg-de-Péage (Drôme) / Orobanche echinopophya Saint.-Lag. / ... O. ritro G. et G. ... / Drôme: Reauriéres / liure incultes / 23 Aoűt 1894" (CLF 209764, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2017); "Herbier P. Litzler / Orobanche major L. var. ritro Beck (G.G.) / France (Drôme): pr. Valence / Valenssolles / sur Echinops ritro 9.07.1898 / leg. Decrozant" (MPU 339619, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2017); "Orobanche major 5349 / F. Drôme. Lepms / Herb. Escoffier, L.25 (FL.)" (AV 0017167; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2018); "Herbier / Ch. d'Alleizette / Orobanche / ... / Env. de Valence, coteaux du Rhône / Sur Centaurea Jacea / Juillet 1905" (CLF 170200; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2018).

Haute-Savoie / Savouč d’Amont / Hiôta-Savouč (74) [unconfirmed]: "Haut-Giffre (Haute-Savoie, France)" (Photo: Alain Rongier (2 juillet 2008), sub "Orobanche - Peut-ętre: Orobanche elatior Sutton", accessed Sep 2011) [the specimen is not yet in full bloom, which makes its determination unsafe. Also, do not know the host plant (cf. Laserpitium siler L., see O. laserpitii-sileris Reut. ex Jord.)].

Isčre (38) [unconfirmed]: "Grenoble" (Saint-Lager, 1883: 611, sub O. major L.).

Puy-de-Dôme (63): "Orobanche major L. / Sur Centaurea scabiosa / Puy-de-Dôme: Puy de Ocouël [?], prčs Clermont / 29 Juin 1939" (CLF 170270; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018).

Occitanie / Occitŕnia [Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées] (Bonnier, 1926: 97, "Languedoc", sub O. major)

Gard (30): "Hab., parasite, sur le centaurea scobiosa et le C. aspera, ŕ Tresques, ŕ la Chartreuse de Valbonne [between the gorges of the Ardčche and the Cčze Valley]" (Pouzolz, 1862: 149, sub O. major L.) [James Molina, pers. comm., 28 Aug 2017]; "dans le Gard ŕ Tresques, Chartreuse de Valbonne" (Saint-Lager, 1883: 611, sub O. major L.); "30" (Tison & al., 2014: 1445, sub O. elatior).

Hérault (34): 1. "Nş. 14 / Orobanche elatior / Cette [Sčte / Seta] - Sur le Centaurea / aspera / Godron 1851". – 2. "... Grenier avril 1852" (P 04419064 - hb. Grenier; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2012); "... Orob.  Sur le Centaurea / aspera ŕ Cette [Sčte / Seta]" (P 04419054; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017); "dans l'Hér. ŕ Cette [Sčte / Seta]" (Saint-Lager, 1883: 611, sub O. major L.); "O. elatior Sutt.; O. major L.?; Gren. et Godr. / RR. Cette, sur le Centaurea aspera" (Loret & Barrandon, 1886: 371, sub O. elatior Sutt.); "Monspellier [Montpellier], Cette [Sčte / Seta]" (Beck, 1890: 172, sub O. major L.); "Herault (Cette [Sčte / Seta], Monspellier [Montpellier])" (Beck, 1930: 248, sub O. major L.); "F Sčte 5.6.09" (O. lutea f. 12 et 13 in guenther-blaich.de, accessed Jun 2012 [these records seem to correspond to O. kochii]); "34" (Tison & al., 2014: 1445, sub O. elatior); "Orobanche kochii parasitic on Centaurea aspera, on dunes at Bassin du Thau [Étang de Thau], Med coast of France. / 25 jun. 2016" (photo by Alexis FitzGerald in Twitter, accessed Sep 2016).

Pyrénées-Orientales / Eastern Pyrenees / Pirineus Orientals / Pirenčus Orientals / Pirineos Orientales (66): "Habite les olivettes de Malloles [Mailloles, near Fillols]; tous les champs des buttes des environs de Perpignan; les coteaux de la vallée de Réart oů vit l'Echinops ritro" (Companyo, 1864: 514, sub O. ritro); "Pyr.-Or.: envir. de Perpignan, Malloles [Mailloles, Perpignan / Perpinyŕ], vallée du Réart" (Saint-Lager, 1883: 610, sub O. rhytrosepiphyta); "dans les Pyr.-Or.: á Céret, Vernet-les-Bains, vallée de l'Agly" (Saint-Lager, 1883: 611, sub O. major L.).

Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (Cosson, 1848: 9, sub O. elatior var. forojuliensis; Reichenbach f., 1862: 98, sub O. Ritro; Bonnier, 1926: 97, sub O. major)

Alpes-de-Haute-Provence [Basses-Alpes] (04): "Saint-Laurent-du-Verdon (04) - 23 juin 2009" (photos 000283905O [apparently parasitizing Echinops ritro] 000283904O, 000283903O and 000283902O by George Fowler, sub O. kochii, in Tela botanica, accessed Sep 2016).

Alpes-Maritimes (06): "Alpes-Maritimes" (Bonnier, 1926: 97, sub O. major); "Antibes, dunes du Golfe Jouan [Golfe-Juan], ad radices Centaurea aspera, [s.d.] (herb. G. Thuret)" (Charpin & Salanon, 1985: 256, sub O. elatior); "(06)" (Tison & al., 2014: 1445, sub O. elatior).

Bouches-du-Rhône (13): "Marseille (Castagne [Castagne, Cat. Pl. Marseille: 80. 1845, sub O. major L.])" (Grenier, 1853: 637, sub O. major L.; Nyman, 1854-1855: 131, sub O. major L.); "Flore du D.ment des Bouches-du-Rhône / Orobanche major Lin / 17 juin 1860 / Dans les lieux incultes ŕ Roque favour [aqueduc de Roquefavour, Ventabren] / Herbier H. Roux (Marseille)" (P 04419058; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2012 [three specimens and the host-plant very well preserved]); "Specimina herbarii ill. Grenier: lieux incultes ŕ Roque favour [aqueduc de Roquefavour, Ventabren]. Roux! Sur le Centaurea aspera, l'Echinops Ritro: sables de Mazarque [Marseille-Mazargues]. Roux et Blaise! ... Ego habeo: Marseille in vineis. Sonder!" (Reichenbach f., 1862: 98, sub O. Ritro); "Herbier de M. L'Abbę Leličvre / ... / Orobanche major / 23 juin 61[1861] / Montredon [8e arrondissement de Marseille]" (P 04395290; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2012); "Marseille" (Nyman, 1881: 560, sub "42. ? O. Ritro G.G."); "Aix [Aix-en-Provence], Marseille" (Saint-Lager, 1883: 611, sub O. major L.); "Orgon, ... Marseille ... etc." (Beck, 1890: 172, sub O. major L.); "Orobanche ritro Gr. Godr. / Major L. / sur la Centaurea aspera, l'Echinops Ritro / Sables de Mazargues [Marseille-Mazargues, France] / 8 juin 1896 / Roux et Blaise" (P 04406078; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "Herbier Bernard de Retz / N.ş 39727 / Orobanche / major L. / (sur Centaurea aspera) / 10 juin 1956 / Saint Chamas (Bouches du Rhone) / Boras de l'Etang de / Berre, garrigues et friches / Leg. B. de Retz / 5349" (P 04410940; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "Herbier Fiéreck / ... / Orobanche major L. / var. Ritro G.G. / (sur Echinops Ritro) / Mai 1931 / Salon [Salon-de-Provence] (B. du Rhône) / Legit M. Georgel" (AIX 004215; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2014); "04/06/07 France 13 Saint-Estčve Janson [ancre11, etc.] ... 10/06/09 13 Peyrolles [Peyrolles-en-Provence, ancre18, etc.] ... 18/06/11 13 Alpilles [ancre12, etc.]" (photos by Jean Pierre Chabert, sub O. elatior); "13/05/07 France 13 Calanques [Calanques de Marseille]" (photos P11543 by Jean Pierre Chabert, sub O. elatior [the photos seem to correspond to O. fuliginosa parasitizing Cineraria maritima L.]); "13" (Tison & al., 2014: 1445, sub O. elatior); "Photos 20–21. Orobanche kochii. 20 (ŕ gauche): vue d’ensemble (Peyrolles, 06/06/2015). 21 (ŕ droite): deux inflorescences (Aix-en-Provence, Roquefavour, 05/06/2014)", photos by D. Pavon (Pavon, 2015: 68, sub O. kochii).

Hautes-Alpes (05): 1. "Orobanche ritro - nob. / couleur jaune pâle. / Rabou prčs Gap. Sur l’Echinops ritro / 14 aoűt 1848 / Grenier // Type". – 2. "Belle espčce que je ne connais pas! / probablement nouvelle. / (Reuter) 1851" (P 00654040; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011, lectotype of Orobanche ritro); "Hab. Sur les racines de l'Echinops Ritro; collines sčches des environs de Gap, en allant ŕ Rabou et ŕ la Grangette [Cręte des Grangettes, région du Briançonnais] (Gren.); Guillestre! (Boullu) Ч Juillet" (Grenier, 1853: 635, loc. class. of Orobanche ritro Gren.; Nyman, 1854-1855: 130, sub O. Ritro G. et G.; Nyman, 1881: 560, sub "42. ? O. Ritro G.G."; Zázvorka, 2010: 116); "Orobanche ritro Gren. / Rabou Lagarde, juillet / style ... / ... stygmate qui est jaune / Blanc 1854" (P 00654041 - hb. Grenier, topotype); "Orobanche ritro Gren. et God. / Chemin de Babon [Rabou] prčs Gap / Juillet 1860 / ... / F. de Valon" (P 04419057 - hb. Grenier; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2012); "Specimina herbarii ill. Grenier: ... Chemin de Babon [Rabou] prčs Gap. de valon! Rabon [Rabou] prčs Gap. 16 Aoűt 1848 Grenier! (ibi tum detecta videtur ab ipso cl. auctore)" (Reichenbach f., 1862: 98, t. 170, sub O. Ritro); idem (P 04419053 - hb. Grenier [Reichenbach f., 1862: 97 t. 170]; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017); "Guillestre" (Nyman, 1881: 560, sub "42. ? O. Ritro G.G."); "Orobanche / our le Mt. Auroure prčs Gap / 20 aoűt 1862 / Grenier" (P 04419052 - hb. Grenier; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2012); "Herbier Burle, A Gap / Orobanche ritro G. G. / Les Ronstrans prčs Gap / Htes Alpes 9 Aoűt 1868 / Legi E A Burle" (CLF 209765; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2017); "Orobanche ritro Gren. / Lagarde prčs Gap / Leg. Blanc / Herbier donné par M. le Dr. Grennier, en 1875" (P 04406079; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "Parasite sur l'Echinops pauciflora (Ritro L.).— H. Alp.: Cervičres, Guillestre, Charance [Domaine de Charance, Gap], Rabou, les Roustans prčs Gap, Roche-des-Arnauds [Gap-Campagne], Ventavon" (Saint-Lager, 1883: 610, sub O. rhytrosepiphyta); "Italia!: O. Ritro in valle Cerviere [Cervičres / Cervčira, Briançon] alpinum cottiarum [Alpi Cozie / Alpes cottiennes / Cottian Alps] (leg. Rostan)" (Beck, 1890: 172, sub O. major var. ritro var. ritro f. ritro); "la forma b. nella Valle Cerviere [Cervičres / Cervčira, Briançon] nelle Alpi Cozzie [Alpi Cozie / Alpes cottiennes / Cottian Alps] (Rostan ex Beck)" (Béguinot, 1902: 480, sub O. major var. ritro f. ritro); "Herbier / Chevallier / Nş / Le 13 / 8 1905 [13 Aug 1905] / Orobanche ritro / Col de Glaise - Gap / Htes Alpes" (P 04243434, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "Herbier Cl. Legros / Orobanche ritro G & G. / sur Echinops ritro - le long de la / route entre Champolla et le / hameau des Pasques / (Hts Alpes) / 26.VII.67   J. Weill" (P 00598668, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2012); "Herbier de Ch. d'Alleizette / Orobanche major L. / race O. Ritro G. & G. / Sur Echinops Ritro / Hautes-Alpes - env. Gap / Juillet 1927" (CLF 170272; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2017); "Herbier G. Didier / Orobanche platystigma Rchb. / var. scabiosae (Koch) Ry / stigmate pourpre noiâtre / Hte Alps: La amont de Chateau Queyras [Château-Ville-Vieille, Briançon] sous Megriis[?], sur Echinops Ritro? / 28-7-1936 / A." (P 04432503; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2013 [the specimen seems to correspond to O. kochii]); "Aspres-sur-Buëch Région [Gap]: Hautes-Alpes (05). Date prise de vue: 15/06/2009 [sub O. major L.]" (photos 1, 2, and 3 by Franck Le Driant in FloreAlpes.com, accessed Jun 2011); "Orobanche elatior Sutton / 05 Hautes-Alpes / Risoul [Guillestre] / leg. J. Monet / 1993-7-22 / MHN AIX PH-2009-5-1047 (AIX 021123; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2017 [the specimen, apparently parasitic on Echinops ritro, corresponds to O. kochii]).

Var (83): 1. "E. Bourgeau, Env. de Fréjus. n.ş 302 / Orobanche elatiorSutton ex Reut. in prodr. var. maritima, Coss. ined. / Parasite sur le Centaurea aspera! / Bords de la route entre Fréjus et S.Ş Raphaël. / 4 Juin, 1848.". – 2. "Herb. Mus. Paris / Orobanche major L. / Herbier donné au Muséum par M.A. Ramond, en juillet 1880." (P 04385331; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011, lectotype of O. elatior var. forojuliensis); "E. Bourgeau, Env. de Fréjus. n.ş 302 / Orobanche elatior Sutton ex Reut. in prodr. var. maritima, Coss. ined. / Parasite sur le Centaurea aspera! / Bords de la route entre Fréjus et S.Ş Raphaël. / 4 Juin, 1848." (P 04384972 - Hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2012, isolectotype of O. elatior var. forojuliensis [only the central specimen, close to its label. However, the two specimens on the left of the sheet seem to correspond to O. lutea from Romania]); idem (P 04384973 - Hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja July 2012, isolectotype of O. elatior var. forojuliensis [only one specimen next to the host-plant]); idem (P 04419063; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017); "recueillie, au mois de juin 1848, par M Bourgeau, au bord du chemin entre Fréjus et Saint-Raphaël, oů elle étuit parasite sur le Centaurea aspera!" (Cosson, 1848: 9, ["exsicc. Toulon, 1848, n. 302, sub nomine var. maritima."], loc. class. of O. elatior var. forojuliensis); "Fréjus (Bourgeau)" (Grenier, 1853: 637, sub O. major L.; Nyman, 1854-1855: 131, sub O. major L.); "Frejus Gall. mer. (Bourg. exs. telon. 302: var. marit. Coss.)" (Nyman, 1881: 560, sub "— Orobanche forojuliensis (Coss.)"); "Toulon [Touloun / Tolon]" (Robert)" (Grenier, 1853: 637, sub O. major L.; Nyman, 1854-1855: 131, sub O. major L.); "Plan d'Aups [Plan-d'Aups-Sainte-Baume] prčs de la Stebaume [Sainte-Baume / Massís de la Santa Bauma]" (Saint-Lager, 1883: 610, sub O. rhytrosepiphyta); "Toulon [Touloun / Tolon], Fréjus" (Saint-Lager, 1883: 611, sub O. major L.); "Toulon [Touloun / Tolon]" (Beck, 1890: 172, sub O. major L.); "Herbier de Ch. d'Alleizette / Orobanche major L. / β Forojuliensis Coss. / (O. elatior Sutt. var. maritima Coss.) / Var: Parasite sur le Centaurea aspera / Bords de la route entre Fréjus et S.t Raphaël / Juin 1904" (CLF 170271; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); "Herbier de C. Bertrand / Instituteur ŕ Roquebrune (Var) / Orobanche major L. / Lieux sablonneux / Fréjus (Var) / SŞ Aygulf [Saint-Aygulf] / Juin 1906" (P 04405595, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "Herbier de C. Bertrand / Instituteur ŕ Roquebrune (Var) / Orobanche major L. / Dans un champ, au / pied du Coudon / La Valette [La Valette-du-Var] (Var) / 28 mai 1904" (P 04419062, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2012 [only the specimen over anthesis]); idem (P 04410941; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2012 [host plant only]); "Herbier de C. Bertrand / Instituteur ŕ Roquebrune (Var) / Orobanche major L. / Lieux sablonneux / Fréjus (Var) / SŞ Aygulf [Saint-Aygulf] / 5 Juin 1910" (SLA 048415 - hb. Coste; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); "Sur les racines de l'Echinops Ritro ... Saint-Cyr [Saint-Cyr-sur-Mer]; Toulon (Huet). Entre Saint-Cyr et le Bausset [Le Beausset] (Autheman). Le Plan d'Aups [Plan-d'Aups-Sainte-Baume], commun dans les champs au-dessous du village (Roux). Ampus, au Plan de Lagnes (Albert)" (Albert & Jahandiez, 1908: 371, sub O. ritro G.G.); "Sur les racines des Centaurea Scabiosa, aspera, collina, etc. ... Toulon (Robert). La Sainte-Baume (Shuttleworth). Fréjus, ŕ Villepey, ŕ Saint-Aygulf (Bertrand)" (Albert & Jahandiez, 1908: 371, sub O. major L.); "Péalp. Castellane [Préalpes de Castellane / Castellan Preals, French Prealps / Préalpes]: sur l'Echinops ritro, prčs de Comps [Comps-sur-Artuby], 17.7.1877" (Charpin & Salanon, 1985: 256, sub O. elatior); at the entrance of the airport of Hyčres, next to Hyčres-Plage, apparently parasitic on Centaurea aspera in sandy soils (at the roadside and on grassy area which was shaded by Pinus sp.), G. Gómez Casares & G. Moreno Moral MM0113/2006, 31 May 2006 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12584) (Carlón & al., 2008: 13 f. 2 ["Phylogenetic relationships"], 15 [EU 655621: France, herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12584, sub O. elatior, s.l.]); "Sainte Beaume", 14 février 2012 (photo by Fred in floreal, accessed June 2014); "83" (Tison & al., 2014: 1445, sub O. elatior).

Vaucluse (84): 1. "O. stigmatodes Wimm. / Sables d'Avignon Sur / le Centaurea aspera / Maillard 1844". – 2. "Herb Mus. Paris / Orobanche Scabiosa Kch / ... " (P 04419092 - hb. Grenier; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar. 2013 [the specimen seems to correspond to O. kochii]); "Flassan, Bédoin" (Saint-Lager, 1883: 610, sub O. rhytrosepiphyta); "Herbier Mouillefarine / Orobanche major / Rocher des Doms a Avignon / 8 Juin 1884" (P 04393951; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2012 [only the specimen on the left-hand of the sheet appears to correspond to this species]); Orobanche major L. / Orange, au Mourré-Rougé / J.-H. Fabre / 1871-5 / Sur le Centaurea aspera" (FABR 06053); Orobanche major L. / Orange / J.-H. Fabre / 1871-6 / Sur le Centaurea aspera et le Centaurea (FABR 06054 [Herbarium of harmas de J. H. Fabre (FABR)]); 1. "5349 / Orobanche / major / Visan / 44şN 5şE". – 2. "0 007 703 / Orobanche major  5349 / F. Vaucluse. Visan (44şN 5şE) / Herb. Escoffier, L. 25 (FL.)" (AV 0017166; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018); military maneuvers camp of Aglanet, near Orange, 31TFJ4587, 50 m, beside Centaurea aspera in very dry and sunny sandy soils, L. Carlón, M. Laínz, G. Gómez Casares, G. Moreno Moral MM0106/2003 & J.M. Tison, 28 May 2003 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 11371) (Carlón & al., 2011: 90, 94 f. 2); above Breteaux, near Mornas, parasitic on (!) Centaurea aspera in sandy soils of the shadowy roadside, beside the large quarry, G. Gómez Casares & G. Moreno Moral MM0117/2006, 2 Jun 2006 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12588 [today few specimens with few fresh flowers]); near Maucoil (between Orange and Châteauneuf-du-Pape [deep roadside (road to Roquemaure, D72 (at 500 m W of the roundabout)]), apparently parasitic on Centaurea aspera, G. Gómez Casares & G. Moreno Moral MM0121/2006, 2 June 2006 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12593) (Carlón & al., 2008: 13 f. 2 ["Phylogenetic relationships"], 15 [EU 655622: France, herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12588, sub O. elatior, s.l.; EU 655623: France, herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12593, sub O. elatior, s.l.]); "16/06/07 France 84 Mormoiron" (photos by Jean Pierre Chabert, sub O. elatior); "84" (Tison & al., 2014: 1445, sub O. elatior).

Unknown location: "Herbier Reynier ... Orobanche major L. / (Legit De Selles)" (AIX 002055; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jun 2014 [the sheet contains two specimens, but only the right hand specimen seems to correspond to O. ritro (O. kochii)])

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Georgia / Sakartvelo / Georgien [need be confirmed]

Transcaucasia / South Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia)] (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L.; Schiman-Czeika, 1964: 17, sub O. maior).

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Germany / Deutschland / Alemania / Allemagne (Zázvorka, 2010: 82, 99 "Fig. 2. Distribution of Orobanche kochii in Central Europe. Triangle – the type locality Schlossberg in Graz, Austria.")

Bavaria / Bayern / Baviera: "07. júl 2010, BA, Sandberg [Rhön-Grabfeld]" (photo by Monika Zaklaiova accessed Jun 2011).

Sachsen / Saxony / Sakska / Sajonia: "Abb. 116: Orobanche elatior (karottenrote Farbvariante), Bonanischer Garten Dresden, 2. Juli 1988" (Uhlich & al., 1995: 111 sub O. elatior; Zázvorka, 2010: 83, sub O. kochii).

Saxony-Anhalt / Sachsen-Anhalt / Sajonia-Anhalt: "Abb 145: Orobanche elatior im NSG "Steinklöbe", Krs. Querfurt/Thür., 5 juni 1989 (Uhlich & al., 1995: 166 sub O. elatior).

Thuringia: "63. Orobanche elatior Sutt. / Rchb. p. crit. VII. ic. 899. 900. / Auf Brachäckern bei München [Upper Bavaria / Oberbayern:] am 1 Juli ges. v. Spitzel. / O. rubens Wallr. Auf Wurzeln von Trifol. flexuosum am / Kalkfesen der Webelsburg in Thüringen: Wallroth." (K 000806999; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [the specimen corresponds to O. lutea Baumg. (Schultz, 1829: 8; Reichenbach, 1831-32: 37, sub O. elatior (O. lutea, O. rubens)]); idem (P 04384979; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [the specimen corresponds to O. lutea Baumg. (Schultz, 1829: 8; Reichenbach, 1831-32: 37, sub O. elatior (O. lutea, O. rubens)]); "Abb. 117: Orobanche elatior (reingelbe Farbvariante), Ochsenburg [N 51° 23' 0'' E 11° 2' 0''] im Kyffhäusergebirge [Kyffhäuser-Gebirge], 11. Juni 1988" (Uhlich & al., 1995: 111 sub O. elatior ["Subcylindrical, below lax" (Zázvorka, 2010: 82)]).

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Greece / Grecia / Ελλάδα / Hellas [distribution needs to be confirmed] (Hartving, 1991: 274-275, sub O. major; Sarlis, 1994: 249, sub O. elatior Sutton; Zázvorka, 2010: 83-84, sub O. kochii)

Attica Region / Περιφέρεια Αττικής: "PN (Penteliko)" (Sarlis, 1994: 249, sub O. elatior Sutton).

Thessaly / Θεσσαλία

 Trikala / Τρικάλων: "AY209275: Greece, Southern Pindos, province of Trikálon, gorge ca. 1 km SW of Pertoúli along the road to Neraidohóri, 1125 m, on Centaurea chrysocephala (Asteraceae), WG (Herb. Gutermann 35220)" (Carlón & al., 2005: 64, sub O. elatior) [N.B. "The included accession of O. elatior is from Greece and might be differentiated from O. elatior elsewhere. Therefore, including further accessions from O. elatior from all over the distribution range might help to corroborate the inferred relationship between O. elatior and O. ozanonis."] (Carlón & al., 2005: 62).

Thessaly / Θεσσαλία-Macedonia / Μακεδονία

 Pieria-Larissa: "reported Olympus also on Staehelina uniflosculosa, Hartving, 1991" (Zázvorka, 2010: 83-84, sub O. kochii).

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Hungary / Hungría / Magyarország (Zázvorka, 2010: 82, 99 "Fig. 2. Distribution of Orobanche kochii in Central Europe. Triangle – the type locality Schlossberg in Graz, Austria.", 114-115)

Northern Hungary / Észak-Magyarország: 1. "No. 3034 / Orobanche comosa Schur / in pratis montis Semmering [Semmering Pass, Northern Limestone Alps, Lower Austria, Austria] 18-7 69 / (inter Galium Mollugo!) Dr. Schur". – 2. "3036 / Orobanche comosa Schur! / Corolla ... sordide / flava inodora ... / ... / stigma / cericino-flavens...". – 3. "N. 8833 / Orobanche comosa Schur / In monte Nagy Eged [Nagy-Eged Hill] prope Agriam (Eger Erlan) — Comisas Heves [Heves County, Northern Hungary / Észak-Magyarország] in Hungaria [Hungary]. — / 12 Jul. 1867 / Vrabelyi // Herb. Schur" (P 04384969 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [the sheet contains three different gatherings, these seem to correspond a three different species (n. 3034 O. gracilis; 3036 O. kochii; 8833 O. elatior)]).

Transdanubia / Dunántúl [Central Transdanubia / Közép-Dunántúl-Southern Transdanubia / Dél-Dunántúl]

Fejér [Central Transdanubia / Közép-Dunántúl]-Somogy [Southern Transdanubia / Dél-Dunántúl]-Veszprém [Central Transdanubia / Közép-Dunántúl]: "Flora selecta exsiccata / Publié par Ch. Magnier / 3825.– Orobanche echinopis Pančić ... / Hongrie: Liofok [Siófok, Somogy] (comté de Wesprem); prčs sablonneux / sur les bordes du Balaton. –  Parasite sur les Echinops. / Legit Hermann. 16 juillet 1884. Richter." (MA 170768; rev. L. Carlón, M. Laínz, Moreno Mor. & Ó. Sánchez May 2011); idem (P 04384963, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2012); idem (P 04410483; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [only host-plant]); idem (P 04406422; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2017); idem (SLA 048146; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); "Flora Exsiccata Austro-Hungarica. / 913. Orobanche major. / ... / Hungaria. Inter Lepsény [Fejér] et Siófok [Somogy] ad Pelsionem lacum [Lake Balaton / Pelso] in radicibus / Echinopis. / Staub. / ... Beck." (P 04384967, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2012 [the specimens were not well mounted]); idem (P 04384970 - hb. E. Cosson, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2012); idem (PE 01476039, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jun 2015); idem (LE; Piwowarczyk, 2014); idem (USF 165236; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); "Sziklafüves- és pusztafüves lejtőkön, homokpusztákon, irtásréteken", Nagy vajvirág - Orobanche elatior (photos by Vidéki Róbert, sub O. elatior, accessed Jun 2011); Hungary (photos [sub O. elatior] by Attila Huber, József Szabó and Viktor Virók in The Carpathian Basin; accessed Jul 2011).

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India / Indien [unconfirmed] (Beck, 1930: 249, sub O. major L.; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1958: 102[132], sub O. major L., "India-Himalayas"; Schiman-Czeika, 1964: 17, sub O. maior; Flora of China sub Orobanche elatior (accessed Jun 2011); Zázvorka, 2010: 84)

"Hindostan: prope Belaspur [Dailekh District, Bheri Zone, western-central Nepal] ad Pir Panjohl [Pir Panjal Range, Himalayas, India-Nepal-Pakistan] (leg. Hügel , herb. Pal. Vind.) 31° lat. sept." (Beck, 1890: 172, sub O. major L.; Beck, 1930: 249, sub O. major L.).

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Iran / Irán / Persia / Persien [distribution needs confirmation] (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L., "Iran"; Schiman-Czeika, 1964: 17, sub O. maior; Gilli, 1979: 300, sub O. elatior; Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1981: 458, sub O. elatior)

Kermanshah / Kermānshāh / Kirmaşan: "Qasr Shirin prope Rajab, Nab. 729!" (Schiman-Czeika, 1964: 17, sub O. maior).

Gilan / Gilán / Gīlān / Gilān: "N. Gilan: infra Sefid Poshteh inter Asalem (Navrud [Nav Rud, Nāv Rūd]) et Khalkhal (Herowabad) 1600 m, Wdb. & Assadi 18552" (Gilli, 1979: 300, sub O. elatior).

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Italy / Italia / Italien (Beck, 1890: 172, sub O. major L.; Béguinot, 1902: 480, sub O. major L.; Beck, 1930: 248, sub O. major L.; Pignatti, 1982: 132, sub O. elatior, p.p.; Bernardo & Corazzi, 2005: 1178, sub O. elatior Sutton; Zázvorka, 2010: 116, sub O. kochii)

Calabria / Calŕbbria

Cosenza / Cusenza (CS): "Morano Calabria [Morano Calabro] (prov. de Cosenza) base du Mte Pollino [Appennino meridionale] (27.6.1891. leg. Saint-Lager ut O. ritro Gr. et Godr., G)" (Zázvorka, 2010: 116, sub O. kochii); "+ Cal: Versante meridionale di Serra del Prete [Morano Calabro], lungo il sentiero che sale da Belvedere di Malevento (Massiccio del Pollino, Cosenza) (UTM: 33S WE 97.17), 1650 m, pendio calcareo, su Echinops ritro L. subsp. ritro, 12 Jul 2002, L. Bernardo (FI, CLU n. 13256); Pendici del Pollinello presso il Vallone Torta (versante meridionale del Massiccio del Pollino, Cosenza) (UTM: 33S XE00.15), 900 m, pendio calcareo, su Echinops ritro L.subsp. ritro, 2 Jul 2002, L. Bernardo, D. Gargano et L. Peruzzi (CLU n. 13258). – Nuova per la Calabria ... La presente segnalazione sposta notevolmente a sud-ovest il limite di distribuzione della specie. In Italia essa era finora indicata per Piemonte, Lombardia, Liguria, Emilia Romagna, Toscana e Campania. In Piemonte e Campania non č stata trovata in tempi recenti, mentre nel Lazio č dubbia (Conti et al., 2005)." (Bernardo & Corazzi, 2005: 1178, sub O. elatior Sutton).

Emilia-Romagna

Modena (MO): "Moden. (Montegibbio [Sassuolo])" (Pignatti, 1982: 614, sub O. elatior).

Liguria (Pignatti, 1982: 614, sub O. elatior, "Riviera Lig.")

Genoa / Genova (GE): "Orobanche elatior Sutt. / Rapallo, Liguria / Sur Centaurea paniculata / 23 avril 02 / H. Gysperger" (P 04405595; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011).

Imperia (IM): "bei Bordighera im Mai (Bicknell!), auf dem Berge Toraggio [Monte / Mont Toraggio, Alpi Liguri] (Bicknell!)" (Beck, 1930: 248, sub O. major L.); "Rég. litt.: sur la Centaurea aspera, lieux sablonneux prčs de Bordighera, 1.6.1894, leg. C. Bicknell; Bordighera entre Vintimiglia [Ventimiglia / Vintimille] et Bordighera, sur le Centaurea aspera, sables prčs de la mer, 22.5.1886, leg. id. [Bicknell]" (Charpin & Salanon, 1985: 256, sub O. elatior).

Savona (SV): "Ligurien, an der Meeresküste bei Albissola [Albissola Marina] (Piccone!) und bei Capo di Noli auf Centaurea aspera L. ...  (Bicknell!)" (Beck, 1930: 248, sub O. major L.); "Riviera Lig." (Pignatti, 1982: 132, sub O. elatior); "Capo Noli, aprile 2008" (photos by Daniela Longo, sub O. elatior, in Acta Plantarum; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "Orobanchaceae: Succiamele ametistino / Noli (SV), 10 m, apr 2007" (photos 16104_77763 and 16104_77762.jpg by Marco Esposito, sub O. amethystea, in Acta Plantarum; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2017); "Noli (SV), quota 10, 21/4/2007 (photos by Marco Esposito, sub O. amethystea, in Acta Plantarum; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "Orobanche elatior Sutton / Orobanchaceae: Succiamele della Centaurea / Capo Noli (SV), apr 2008 / Foto di Daniela Longo" in Acta Plantarum; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jun 2014; "Orobanche elatior Sutton / Orobanchaceae: Succiamele della Centaurea / Varigotti (SV), apr 2008 / Foto di Gianluca Nicolella" in Acta Plantarum; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jun 2014; Albenga [Arbénga] (photos IMGP3142-w.jpg_200759155813_IMGP3142-w.jpg, IMGP3380-w.jpg_20075916237_IMGP3380-w.jpg, IMGP3379-w.jpg_20075916515_IMGP3379-w.jpg by Angelo p in www.naturamediterraneo.com; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2016).

Marches

Ascoli Piceno (AP): "Pretare (AP), 1420 m, lug 2011 (photos 30344_142872 et 30344_142871 by Davide Sassi, sub O. elatior [on Echinops sp.], in Acta Plantarum; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "Orobanche elatior Sutton [on Echinops sp.] / Orobanchaceae: Succiamele della Centaurea / Pretare (AP), 1420 m, lug 2011" (Foto di Davide Sassi in Acta Plantarum; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jun 2014).

Pesaro-Urbino (PU): "Orobanche kochii from Furlo [on Centaurea sp.] (Italy), phot. Gerhard Röhner 25.05.2011" (Uhlich, 2010).

Piemonte [unconfirmed]

Cuneo (CN) [unconfirmed]: "Italia!: O. Ritro in valle Cerviere [Cervičres / Cervčira, Briançon, Hautes-Alpes, France] alpinum cottiarum (leg. Rostan)" (Beck, 1890: 172, sub O. major var. ritro f. ritro); "la forma b. nella Valle Cerviere [Cervičres / Cervčira, Briançon, France] nelle Alpi Cozzie [Alpi Cozie / Alpes cottiennes / Cottian Alps] (Rostan ex Beck)" (Béguinot, 1902: 480, sub O. major var. ritro f. ritro); "Piem. (V. Cerviere)" (Pignatti, 1982: 132, sub O. elatior).

Sardinia / Sardegna / Cerdeńa [unconfirmed, see Orobanche denudata Moris]

Nuoro (NU) [unconfirmed]: "Orobanche elatior Sutt. in collinis Arizzo [Aritzo]: junio" (Moris, 1827: 35, sub O. elatior); "Aritzo: R" (Pignatti, 1982: 132, sub Orobanche denudata).

Tuscany / Toscana (Pignatti, 1982: 132, sub O. elatior)

Massa and Carrara (MS): "O. elatior ... fotografate nelle cave di Marmo di Carrara (quota m 300 -localitá Fantiscritti) ... Centaurea arachnoidea Viv. ... 21.12.2005" (photo 18500 in www.funghiitaliani.it - Associazione Micologica Italiana Naturalistica Telematica (AMINT); accessed et rev. G. Moreno Moral 23 Aug 2006, sub O. kochii).

Veneto [unconfirmed]

Verona [unconfirmed]: "Habui ex pratis montis Pastello [Monte Pastello, Monti Lessini, Prealpi Venete, Alpi] in districtu Veronensi a De Brachtio" (Bertoloni, 1846: 429, sub O. elatior).

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Kazakhstan / Қазақстан / Qazaqstan / Казахстан / Kazajistán (Beck, 1890: 171, loc. class. of. O. major f. karelini; Beck, 1930: 249, sub O. major L., "Turkestan!"; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L., "Soviet Central Asia: Aralo-Caspian, Baltic Region, Dzhungaria-Tarbagatai, Tien Shan, Syr Darya"; Flora of China sub Orobanche elatior, "Kazakhstan" (accessed Jun 2011)

Алматы облысы / Almaty Region: 1. "1802 Orobanche alba Steph. / [Turkestania] in apricis montium Alatau inter fl. Baskan et Sarchan [Prov. Taldy-Kurgan (Алматы облысы / Almaty Region), Dzhungariskiy Alatau, river Sarkhan, a tributary of the river Aksu (pers. comm. D. Podlech) (M 0030458)] / leg. Karelin et Kiriloff a. 1841 / Soc. Imp. Nat. Cur. Mosqu.". – 2. "No 1802.". – 3. "Orobanche major L. / ssp. Karelini (G. Beck) ? / 12.VII.1949 / Det. Novopokrovskii" (MW 0878178; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); 1. "leg. Karel. et Kiriloff a. 1841 / Soc. Imp. Nat. Cur. Mosqu.". – 2. "No 1798.". – 3. "Orobanche major L. / ssp. Karelini / 12.VII.1949 / Det. Novopokrovskii" (MW 0878179; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); 1. "Orobanche alba Stephan / Songaria". – 2. "Orobanche major L. / 12.VII.1949 / Det. Novopokrovskii" (MW 0878177; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); "In Turkestania, Songaria" (Beck, 1890: 171, loc. class. of. O. major f. karelini); "Turkestania: in montosis apricis Alatau inter Bajkan et Sarchan (leg. Karel. et Kiriloff), in faucibus Talki [Talkibach, East of Lake Sairam, N. of Kuldga?] alt. 6—7000' (f. 3 [O. major f. karelini] leg. Regel Julio 1877 [Iter Turkestanicum 1877]), Tersk Alatau 6500' (leg. Felissow), ad fl. Borgaty ad mt. Kasch [Nilki] 5-6000' (f. 3 [O. major f. karelini] Regel [Iter Turkestanicum 1879])" (Beck, 1890: 172, sub O. major f. karelini).

Unknown location: Orobanche major L.  ... на Chartolepis intermedia Boiss. [Centaurea chartolepis Greuter] 27 июля 1945 (MW 0878182; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); ibidem (MW 0878181; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018).

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Kurdistan / Curdistan [unconfirmed] (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L., "Kurdistan"; Schiman-Czeika, 1964: 17, sub O. maior).

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Kyrgyzstan / Кыргызстан / Киргизстан / Kirguistán / Kirgisistan / Kirgiziya (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L., "Pamir-Alai [Pamir-Alay / Памиро-Алай]"; Flora of China sub Orobanche elatior (accessed Jun 2011)

"Herbarium Universitatis Mosquensis (MW) / Orobanche kochii F.W. Schultz / 42ş17'18" 72ş21'13E / Киргизия / Талаcский Алaтаy [Talas Alatau], / ... / ... Талас [Talas], / ... / 23.07.2016 Nş A-1596 / Oпределилa [det.]" R. Piwowarczyk  (MW 0878165).

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Nepal [unconfirmed]

"Hindostan: prope Belaspur [Dailekh District, Bheri Zone, western-central Nepal] ad Pir Panjohl [Pir Panjal Range, Himalayas, India-Nepal-Pakistan] (leg. Hügel , herb. Pal. Vind.) 31° lat. sept." (Beck, 1890: 172, sub O. major L.).

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Pakistan / Pakistán / Paquistán [unconfirmed]

"Hindostan: prope Belaspur [Dailekh District, Bheri Zone, western-central Nepal] ad Pir Panjohl [Pir Panjal Range, Himalayas, India-Nepal-Pakistan] (leg. Hügel , herb. Pal. Vind.) 31° lat. sept." (Beck, 1890: 172, sub O. major L.).

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Poland / Polska / Polonia / Polen (Zázvorka, 2010: 113-114, sub O. kochii; Piwowarczyk, 2012: 8, f. 5, 9 f. 7, 12 t. 12, 19 Appendix 8; Piwowarczyk & Krajewski, 2015: f. 4)

Lublin: "16. júl 2009, Huta Tarnawacka k. Tomaszowa Lubelskiego, PL [Gmina Tarnawatka, Tomaszów Lubelski County]" (photo by Mgr. Piotr Chmielewski accessed Jun 2011); "18. júl 2010, Okolice wsi Tarnawatka [Tarnawatka, Tomaszów Lubelski County], Roztocze Środkowe, PL" (photo by Mgr. Piotr Chmielewski accessed Jun 2011); "pokrój; 24.06.2007, Wesołówka k. Tarłowa; znal. BG070624.4 [sub O. elatior]" (photos by Błażej Gierczyk; accessed Jun 2011).

Lesser Poland: "22.06.2006, murawy naskalne w dolinie Kobylańskiej [Dolina Kobylańska, Gmina Trzebinia, Chrzanów County]; znal. BG060622.8 [sub O. elatior]" (photos by Błażej Gierczyk; accessed Jun 2011); "Type. Southern Poland, Boria (N of Ćmielów [Ostrowiec County, Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship]), xerothermic grassland on the slope of the Kamienna river valley, inclination SE, 50°58'15" N, 21°32'53" E, alt. 167 m, 27 June 2013, R. Piwowarczyk (holotype KTC!)." (Piwowarczyk & Krajewski, 2015: 106, loc. class. of O. kochii f. citrina).

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Romania / Rumania / România (Grecescu, 1898: 450, sub O. major; Zázvorka, 2010: 15, sub O. kochii)

Dobruja / Добруджа / Dobrogea

Constanța County: "Prin dunele maritime, parazitic pe rădăcinele de Centaurea arenaria; lingă Constața [lângă Constanţa?]" (Grecescu, 1898: 450, sub O. major).

Transylvania / Siebenbürgen / Erdély

Alba County / Fehér megye / Județul Alba: "No 3031 / Orobanche stigmatodes Wimm. / 1867 21 Juni  Koncza [Kútfalva / Kokt] / ... / ... auf Centaurea Scabiosa / ... / Johann von Csató" (P 04384976 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [the sheet contains two specimens, the right hand specimen (n. 94, Austria) correspond to O. elatior Sutton and the left hand specimen (n. 3031, leg. Johann von Csató) correspond to O. kochii]); "Koncza, Erdély, A Kutfalvi határza rugo szántoföldoken, Centaurea scabiosa án (21.6.1867 leg. J. Csató BP) [Transilvania, in the field on C. sc. between the villages of Cunţa / Koncza / and Cut / Kutfalva /, SE of Alba Iulia, E of Sebes town]" (Zázvorka, 2010: 116, sub O. kochii).

Cluj County: "Flora Romaniae Exsiccata / A Museo Botanico Universitatis Clusiensis Edita / 2898. Orobanche major L. / ... / Transsilvania. distr. Cluj Ad radicis Centaurea spinulosae [Centaurea scabiosa subsp. spinulosa (Spreng.) Arcang.] in agris / incultis jugo montis Ciuha supra pagum Apahida. Alt. cca 419 m s.m. - / 24 Iun. 1933. / leg. G. Bujorean et E.J. Nyárády" (P 04406082; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2012); idem (PE 01476035, PE 01476036 [only host-plant]; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jun 2015).

Sibiu County [needs be confirmed]: "Auf sandigen Hügeln bei Hammersdorf [Gușterița] und Salzburg [Ocna Sibiului / Vízakna], auf Centaurea Scabiosa und verwandten Arten, die grösste unserer Orobanchien bis 2 Fuss hoch. Jun. Jul." (Schur, 1866: 505, loc. class. of O. comosa Schur, non Wallr.).

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Russia / Rusia / Россия (Nyman, 1854-1855: 130, sub O. major L., "Rossia mer., med."; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L., on "Centaurea L. and Echinops L."; Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1981: 458, sub O. elatior [incl. O. kochii], "on Centaurea scabiosa L. s.l. and Echinops ritro L."; Zázvorka, 2010: 17, sub O. kochii)

Central Federal District / Центра́льный федера́льный о́круг

Belgorod Oblast / Белгоро́дская о́бласть: "... 3795b. Orobanche major L. / ... Echinops Ritro L. ... Prov. Kursk, distr. Belgorod, in declivibus cretaceis prope pag. Toplinka. Leg. I. Pallon. / 1902.VII.21" (PE 01476038; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jun 2015); [idem] "Kursk Region: Belgorod district, cretaceous slopes near the village of Toplinka (with E. ritro), 21 July 1902, I. Pallon (LE!)" (Nobis & al., 2014, sub O. ritro).

North Caucasian Federal District / Се́веро-Кавка́зский (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev] 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L.)

Dagestan / Дагеста́н / Daghestan [unconfirmed]: "Aus der Umgegend von Temirchanschura [TemirChanSchura] im nördlichen Daghestan von Dr. Struve erhalten" (Koch, 1849: 665, sub O. elatior); "Dagestan" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev] 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L.).

Karachay-Cherkess Republic / Карача́ево-Черке́сская Респу́блика: "Цветущие растения, паразитирующие на Cirsium pugnax [new host?]. Карачаево-Черкесия, верховья Кубани, ущелье р. Даут, луг. 07.07.2015." (photo 417080 et 417077 by Сергей Банкетов [Sergey Banketov] 2016; растение определил(а) Андрей Ковальчук [Andriy Kovalchuk] in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2016 [need to be confirmed, see O. elatior, dorsal line is evenly curved]).

Stavropol Krai / Ставропо́льский край / Stavropolsky kray: "Цветущие растения. Ставропольский край, окр. Кисловодска, луг по склону горы Малое Седло. 22 июня 2011 г. [Flowering plants. Stavropol Territory, vicinity Kislovodsk, a meadow on the slope of Mount Small Saddle. June 22, 2011]" (photos 119472, 119471 [apparently parasitizing Centaurea sp.] by Владимир Савельев [Vladimir Saveliev], 2012, фото с импортировано molbiol.ru in Plantarium, accessed Jun 2012 [need to be confirmed]).

Southern Federal District / Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг / Yuzhny federalny okrug (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev] 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L.)

Volgograd Oblast / Волгогра́дская о́бласть / Volgogradskaya oblast: "A. Becker. Plantae astrachanicae / Orobanche elatior Sutt. / Sarepta [Old Sarepta / Старая Сарепта, district of Volgograd].  Junio" (P 04384972 - Hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2012 [only the two specimens on the right of the sheet, close to its label. However, the two specimens on the left of the sheet seem to correspond to O. lutea from Romania]); "Volgograd Region: Sarepta (with E. ritro), 1853, Becker (LE!); Flora Sareptana (with E. ritro), 1853, Becker (LE!)." (Nobis & al., 2014, sub O. ritro).

Volga Federal District / Приволжский федеральный округ / Privolzhsky (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev] 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L.)

Bashkortostan / Башкортоста́н / Башҡортостан: "in monte Uralensi australi [Ural Mountains] (leg. Lessing)" (Beck, 1890: 171, loc. class. of O. major f. microphyla); "Цветущее растение, паразитирует на Centaurea sibirica [Psephellus sibiricus (L.) Wagenitz]. Республика Башкортостан, Бурзянский р-н, р. Белая [on Centaurea sibirica. Bashkortostan, Burzyansky District, Kahn river], скалы по правому берегу около 5 км ниже устья р. Кана. 08.07.2007." (photo 60680 by Михаил Князев [Mikhail Knyazev] in Plantarium, accessed Jun 2011); "Фрагмент соцветия. Республика Башкортостан, Бурзянский р-н [Burzyansky District / Бурзянский район / Бөрйән районы], р. Белая, скалы по правому берегу около 5 км ниже устья р. Кана. 08.07.2007." (photo 60681 by Михаил Князев [Mikhail Knyazev] 2010 in Plantarium, accessed Jul 2011); "Соцветие. Башкортостан, Ишимбайский р-н, гора Торатау [Ishimbaysky District, Mountain Toratau], каменистая степь. 05.08.2015." (photo 439563 by Юлай Табульдин [Yulai Tabuldin] 2016; растение определил(а) Михаил Князев [Mikhail Knyazev] in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2016).

Republic of Tatarstan / Респу́блика Татарста́н: Восточная Европа [Eastern Europe], Волжско-Камский район (Россия) [Volzhsko-Kamsky district (Russia)] (MW 0513904; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2018); "Часть соцветия; предполагаемый хозяин растения - Centaurea ruthenica [Rhaponticoides ruthenica (Lam.) M. V. Agab. & Greuter]. Татарстан, Новошешминский район [Novosheshminsky district], окрестности с. Красный октябрь, памятник природы "Склоны Коржинского", участок каменистой степи. 27.06.2011" (photo 106514, 106513, 106512, 106511, 106507, 106503 by Денис Мельников [Elvir Izmaylov] 2011; det. Андрей Ковальчук [Andriy Kovalchuk] in Plantarium, accessed Jun 2015); "Соцветие, хозяин Василёк русский. Татарстан, Ютазинский р-н [Yutazinsky District], остепнённый склон. 11.07.2015" (photo 424828 by Эльвир Измайлов [Elvir Izmailov] 2016 in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2016).

Samara Oblast / Самарская область: "Samara Region: Syzran district [Syzransky District / Сызранский район], near village Podgory, on the western slope of the hill (with E. ritro), 22.06.1885, S. Korzchinsky (LE! [type? of O. major f. exigua Beck]); ... ; Morkvashi near Zhigulevsk [Zhigulyovsk / Жигулёвск], on the second hill on the right side of the Morkvashi gorge (with E. ritro), 06 July 1926, Smirkov, I.I. Sprygina (LE!); Kuybyshevskiy rayon, Zhigulevsky reserve [Жигулёвский им. И. И. Спрыгина], near Vahilova Polana (with E. ritro), 11 July 1988, N.N. Tzvelev (LE!); Zhigulevsky reserve [Жигулёвский им. И. И. Спрыгина], near Vahilovo (with E. ritro), 27 August 1990, N.N. Tzvelev (LE!); Zhigulevsky reserve [Жигулёвский им. И. И. Спрыгина], Mostyri, steppe on a calcareous slope (with E. ritro), 14 July 1988, N.N. Tzvelev (LE!)" (Nobis & al., 2014, sub O. ritro).

Saratov Oblast / Саратовская область: "Saratov Region: Chvalynsk [Khvalynsk / Хвалынск], steppe, the third hill on the left bank tributary of the river Cheremshan (with E. ritro), 13 July 1927, Sacergotov, Smirnov, I.I. Sprygin, Plantae mont Sheguli (LE!); Chvalynsk [Khvalynsk / Хвалынск], southern slopes of calcareous hills, near the former convent for women, Cheremshan, 13 July 1927, leg ? (LE!); Nowouziensk district [Новоузе́нский райо́н] (with E. ritro), 19 June 1902, D. Janishevskyi (LE)." (Nobis & al., 2014, sub O. ritro).

Ulyanovsk Oblast / Ульяновская область: "Uljanowsk district [Ulyanovsky District / Ульяновский район], Zhigulevsk, rocky steppe on the mound (with E. ritro), 26 July 1916, A.P. Shennikov (LE!)" (Nobis & al., 2014, sub O. ritro).

Krim / Crimea (see Ukraine / Russia) (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev] 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L.)

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Serbia / Srbija / Србија (Zázvorka, 2010: 116, sub O. kochii)

Kosovo / Kosovo i Metohija / Kosovë / Kosova / Косово / Косово и Метохија

Kosovska Mitrovica: Trepča, "in radice Echinops Ritro L. ad vallum Romanorum (Běloberdo) [Kopaonik / Копаоник (Beloberdo [Grebenácz])] legionis serbico-banaticae" (cf. Neilreich, 1867: 97, sub "O. Echinopis Pančić exs. in herb. Soc. zool. bot. Vindob. ... spicâ densâ in descriptionem...").

Rasina: "In Serbia: inter Kruschewacz [Kruševac / Крушевац] et m. Kopaunik [Kopaonik / Копаоник] pr. Cozlik (Fiedr. [Friedrichsthal])" (Grisebach, 1844: 56, sub O. elatior Sutt.).

Southern and Eastern Serbia / Јужна и источна Србија / Južna i istočna Srbija

Nišava District / Нишавски округ / Nišavski okrug: "F. Schultz, herbarium normale, nov. ser. Cent. 17. / 1639. Orobanche Echinopis Petrov. / M. Juliii 1883. / Prope oppidum Nisch [Ниш / Niš]. Serbia. Leg. Dr. S. Petrovic. (P 04384965; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017).

Vojvodina / Војводина

Alibunar / Алибунар: "Habitat copiosissima in arena mobili ad Vakarec [Serbia (Vojvodina, Banatus), Vakarec Hill 5 km S-SW of Banatski Karlovac (Банатски Карловац) town] et Fontina fetje [Serbia (Vojvodina, Banatus), Deliblato Sands, Devojacki bunar (Girl´s well), 9 km S of Alibunar town] agris Romanorum in Banatu parasitica in radice Echinopis Ritronis (?). Floret Julio" (Zázvorka, 2010: 88, loc. class. of Orobanche echinopis Pančić).

South Banat District / Јужнобанатски округ: "Orobanche Echinopis Pc. / Hungaricae commit. Turucii. In / collibus arenosis prope p. Ulma / 1896.21.VII / leg. J. Wagner" (P 04410482; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2017); "Commit. Turucii. In collibus arenosis prope pagum Ulma, E. r. (21.7.1896 leg. J. Wagner BP) [Vojvodina, sandy hills near Uljma village]" (Zázvorka, 2010: 116, sub O. kochii).

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Slovakia / Slovensko / Eslovaquia / Slowakei (Zázvorka, 2010: 82, 99 "Fig. 2. Distribution of Orobanche kochii in Central Europe. Triangle – the type locality Schlossberg in Graz, Austria."), 111-113)

Nitra Region / Nitriansky kraj: "Fotografoval Peter Tóth, červenec 2004 (Slovensko, Vŕšok)" (photos by Peter Tóth, sub O. kochii in botany.cz, accessed Jan 2012).

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Slovenia / Slovenija / Eslovenia / Slowenien (Frajman & al., 2011: 59)

Southeast Slovenia Statistical Region / Jugovzhodna Slovenija statistična regija: [Dolenjska / Lower Carniola] "0455/4 (UTM 33TVL93) Slovenija: Kočevsko [Kočevje / Gottschee / Cocevie], o puščena planina Lapinje JV od zaselka Podlesje, travnik, ki se z roba zarašča, 560 m n. m., Kochov pojalnik zajeda takson Centaurea scabiosa subsp. fritschii. Leg. & det. (sub. O. elatior) B. Frajman, 20. 7. 2008, rev. B. Frajman, 9.3.2011, conf. J. Zázvorka, 10. 3. 2011. Herbarij LJU10135630, fotografski posnetki dosegljivi pri B. Frajmanu." (Frajman & al., 2011: 59).

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Tajikistan / Таджикистан / Tadzhikistan / Tayikistán / Tadschikistan [unconfirmed] (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L., "Pamir-Alai [Pamir-Alay / Памиро-Алай]"; Flora of China sub Orobanche elatior (accessed Jun 2011)

Kūhistoni Badakhshon Autonomous Region / Вилояти Мухтори Кӯҳистони Бадахшон: "Kuhistoni Badakhshon. Shokdara Region. Jaushangoz, 80.6 km E of Rhostkala along the Shokdara River. Lower south slope of Schugnan Mountain, Tajikistan 31-jul-2002 by James C. Solomon, Ihsan Al-Shehbaz & Hikmat Hisoriev" (MO) (GBIF 321255118, accessed Apr 2014).

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Turkey / Türkiye / Turquía (Beck, 1890: 171, sub O. major L.; Beck, 1930: 249, sub O. major L.; Gilli, 1982: 20, sub O. elatior; Zázvorka, 2010: 84, sub O. kochii) [the distribution needs to be revised]

"N.W. Turkey [Thrace (European Turkey)], N.E., S. & adjacent E. Anatolia [Anatolia (Asiatic Turkey)]." (Gilli, 1982: 20, sub O. elatior).

Black Sea Region / Karadeniz Bölgesi

Rize Province / Rize ili: "Im pontischen Hochgebirge, im Gaue Hemschin [Hemsin / Hemşin district, Rize Province], c. 5500' hoch." (Koch, 1849: 665, sub O. sitmatodes; Gilli, 1982: 20, sub O. elatior); "A8 Rize [Rize Province]: d. Hemschin (Hemşin), 1790 m, 1843, C. Koch." (Gilli, 1982: 20, sub O. elatior).

Central East Anatolia Region / Ortadoğu Anadolu Bölgesi

Hakkâri Province / Hakkâri ili: "C9 Hakkari [Hakkâri Province]: Siares Da. nr Gulamerik (Hakkari), 1700 m, Nábĕlek 741 ["741 Dr. Fr. Nábělek, Iter turcico-persicum 1909-10 / Orobanche major L. f. oreites Beck ... / Kurdistan, bor. orient. [Hakkâri, Turkey]: mons Siares supra pagum Hašitha / inter Amadia et Gulamerik; alt. ca. / 1700 m. Ad Polygonum alpestre. leg. Dr. Fr. Nábělek" (SAV 0003269, sub O. major f. oreites; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2016, the two specimens do not correspond to O. kochii); idem (SAV 0003270, sub O. major f. oreites; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2016, the two specimens do not correspond to O. kochii)]. C10 Hakkari [Hakkâri Province]: above Talana church, S. of Cilo Da., 2440 m, Trelawny 1601!" (Gilli, 1982: 20, sub O. elatior).

Malatya Province / Malatya ili: "B7 Malatya / Adiyaman [Malatya Province]: Kahta to Malatya, 2450 m, Hand.-Mazz. 2331" (Gilli, 1982: 20, sub O. elatior).

East Black Sea Region / Doğu Karadeniz Bölgesi

Artvin Province / Artvin ili: "A9 Çoruh [Artvin Province]: Ardanuç to Kordevan Da., 1150 m, D. 30091!" (Gilli, 1982: 20, sub O. elatior).

Gümüşhane Province / Gümüşhane ili: "Gümüşhane: hinter Tofiel. 40°33' N 39°19'01'' E 1000-1150 m., Turkey 14-jun-2002 by Schneeweiß, G. & Jang, C.-G. 7763" (WU 0032430) (GBIF 874778916, accessed Apr 2014).

East Marmara Region / Doğu Marmara Bölgesi

Bolu Province / Bolu ili: "A3 Bolu [Bolu Province]: Abant G., 1350 m, A. & T. Baytop (ISTE 18433)!" (Gilli, 1982: 20, sub O. elatior).

Bursa Province / Bursa ili: "A2(A) Bursa [Bursa Province]: Bithynian Olympus (Ulu Da.), Sestini" (Gilli, 1982: 20, sub O. elatior).

Marmara Region / Marmara Bölgesi

"A2(E) Istanbul [Istanbul Province]: around Byzantium (Istanbul)" (Gilli, 1982: 20, sub O. elatior).

Mediterranean Region / Akdeniz Bölgesi

Hatay Province / Hatay ili: "C6 Hatay [Hatay Province]: Cassius (Akra Da.) [Jebel Akra / Kilic Dagi / Kılıç Dağı / Mount Cassius] towards Ain el Aramié, 7.00 m, Wall." (Gilli, 1982: 20, sub O. elatior).

Kahramanmaraş / Kahramanmaraş ili / Maraş Province: "ad radices Cirsii paniculati in monte Berytdagh [Berit Da.] Cataonia cum forma typica (leg. Haussknecht, in herb. Vindob.)." (Beck, 1890: 171, loc. class. of O. major f. oreites); "In monte Berytdagh [Berit Da.] Cataonia (leg. Haussknecht) vidi in herb. suo" (Beck, 1890: 171, loc. class. of O. major f. trichocheilon); "Cataonien! auf dem Berytdagh [Berit Da., Kahramanmaraş / Maraş Province] bei 7000' Seehöhe (Hausknecht) (Beck, 1930: 249, sub O. major L); "auf dem Taurus [Taurus Mountains / Toros Dağları] (Kotschy)" (Beck, 1930: 249, sub O. major L); " B6 Maraş [Kahramanmaraş / Maraş Province]: Berit Da., 2300 m, Hausskn." (Gilli, 1982: 20, sub O. elatior).

Mersin Province / Mersin ili: "C5 Içel [Mersin Province]: Bulgar Da., 2600 m, Kotschy 1853: 171b!" (Gilli, 1982: 20, sub O. elatior).

Southeast Anatolia Region / Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi

Mardin Province / Mardin ili: "In monte Gisyl Deppe [Kiziltepe, Mardin Province] Ciliciae [Cilicia now known as Çukurova] (leg. Kotschy)" (Beck, 1890: 171, loc. class. of O. major f. oreites); "Anatolien!: Cilicien [Cilicia now known as Çukurova]! An felsigen Stellen des Berges Gisyl Deppe [Kiziltepe, Mardin Province] bei 8000' Seehöhe (Kotschy)" (Beck, 1930: 249, sub O. major L).

Unknown location: photos 1 [cf. see O. rosea], 2... in Turkey by Demirkuş, 2011, sub O. elatior.

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Ukraine / Ucrania / Україна / Украи́н (Zázvorka, 2010: 17, sub O. kochii)

Kherson Oblast / Херсонська область: "Orobanche elatior Sutt. / Cherson [Kherson / Херсон] 12 Junii 1864. Herb. Ed. Lindemann" (P 04384979; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [two different specimens on the left hand of the sheet, the little specimen seems to correspond to O. lutea and the bigger to O. alba subsp. major]).

Khmelnytskyi Oblast / Хмельницька область: "Цветущее растение. Украина, Хмельницкая обл., НПП Подольские Товтры [Podil's'ki Tovtry National Park]. 05.06.2014." (photo 242092 by Михаил Дребет, 2014, растение определил(а) Андрей Ковальчук, in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2016 [needs be confirmed, see O. elatior, dorsal line is evenly curved]).

Kirovohrad Oblast / Кіровоградська / Kirovohradschyna / Кіровоградщина: "Orobanche Galii Duby / Elizabethgrad [Kirovohrad / Кіровоград / Yelisavetgrad / Elisavetgrad] / 10 julii 1873  Ed.Lindemann [Eduard Émanuilovichs von Lindemann]" (COI 00056884, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2012).

Odessa Oblast / Odesa / Одеська / Одещина: "Цветущее растение. Украина, Одесская обл., г. Болград [Bolhrad / Болград / Болград / Bolgrad], степь возле парка им. А.С. Пушкина. 03.06.2011" (photo 92415 et 92416 by Виталий Коломийчук [Vitaly Kolomiychuk] in Plantarium, det. Михаил Князев [Mikhail Knyazev]", accessed Jul 2011).

Ukraine / Russia

Krim / Crimea / Кры́мский полуо́стров / Кри́мський піво́стрів (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L., "Crimea"; Nobis & al., 2014, sub O. ritro; Seregin & al., 2015: 42, "Orobanche kochii F.W. Schultz should be listed instead of O. elatior Sutton recorded by (2008) according to Zázvorka (2010)")

Bakhchysarai Raion / Бахчисарайский район / Бахчисарайський район / Bağçasaray rayonı: "Цветущее растение в сообществе. Крым, Бахчисарайский р-н, с. Танковое, склон холма. 23.05.2014" (photo 413463, 413465 et 413466 by Максим Гуляев [Maxim Gulyaev] 2015 in Plantarium, det. Андрей Ковальчук [Andriy Kovalchuk]"; accessed Jun 2015 [apparently parasitizing Ptilostemon echinocephalus (Willd.) Greuter (cf.)]); "Цветущее растение. Крым, предгорья, окр. с. Холмовка [Kholmivka / Holmivka]. 23.05.2016" (photo 451178, 479328 et 479329 by Павел Евсеенков [Pavel Evseenkov] 2016, sub O. ritro, in Plantarium; accessed Sep 2016 [apparently parasitizing Ptilostemon echinocephalus (Willd.) Greuter (cf.)]).

Chornomorske Raion / Чорноморський район / Черноморский район: "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquensis (MW) / Orobanche elatior Sutt. / Крым, окрестности пос. Фарос, обочина дороги [Crimea, the neighborhood of the village. Pharos (Eski-Faros / Esfi-Soros / Tarkhankut Lighthouse, Tarkhankut Peninsula / Тарханкутський півострів / Тарханкутский полуостров), roadside road] / N 44ş 24' 54'' / E 33ş 50' 5'' / 4.06.2015. Собр. Заика М. [Coll. Zaika M.] / 7791" (MW 0631560; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018 [the sheet contains three specimens that seem to correspond to O. minor aggr. (probably O. hederae)]).

Feodosia City Municipality / Феодосійська міськрада / Феодосийский горсовет / Kefe şeer şurası: "Цветущее растение (паразитирует на Echinops ritro). ЮВ Крым, хр. Тепе-Оба. 7 июня 2008 г. [SW Crimea, xp. Tepe-Oba [Gora Teze-Oba / Khrebet Tepe-Oba / Tepe-Oba mountain, near Feodosiya]. 7 June 2008]" (photo 119576 by Павел Евсеенков [Pavel Evseenkov] 2012 in Plantarium); "Цветущее растение (внизу - розетка листьев одуванчика). ЮВ Крым, хр. Тепе-Оба. 7 июня 2008 г. [SW Crimea, xp. Tepe-Oba [Gora Teze-Oba / Khrebet Tepe-Oba / Tepe-Oba mountain, near Feodosiya]. 7 June 2008]" (photo 119578 by Павел Евсеенков [Pavel Evseenkov] 2012 in Plantarium [yellowish form, misidentification of the host-plant which will probably be Echinops ritro picture is in the background]); "Отцветающее растение. Крым, окр. Феодосии, хр. Тепе-Оба [Gora Teze-Oba / Khrebet Tepe-Oba / Tepe-Oba mountain, near Feodosiya], степной склон к морю (паразитирует на Echinops ritro). 23 июня 2016 г. / Положение (географическая точка): 45° 00′ 30″ с.ш., 35° 23′ 00″ в.д. (смотреть на картах Google и Яндекса)" (photos 459040 and 459038 by Александр Фатерыга, 2016, sub O. ritro, in Plantarium, accessed Sep 2016); "Цветущее растение. Крым, Карадагский заповедник, хр. Бешташ [Kara Dag Nature Reserve, Mts. Beshtash], петрофитная степь на гребне скалы. 15 июня 2016 г." (photo 457058 by Александр Фатерыга [Alexander Fateryga], 2016, in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2016); "Цветущее растение вблизи побегов Ptilostemon echinocephalus (Willd.) Greuter [Cnicus echinocephalus Willd.; = Lamyra echinocephala (Willd.) Tamamsch., new host?]. Крым, Карадагский заповедник, хр. Бешташ, петрофитная степь на гребне скалы. 15 июня 2016 г." (photo 457055 by Александр Фатерыга [Alexander Fateryga], 2016; растение определил(а) Холгер Улих [Holger Uhlich], in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2016).

Sevastopol / Севасто́поль / Севасто́поль / Акъяр / Aqyar: "Зацветающее растение. Крым, приморские склоны м. Фиолент [Fiolent]. 28 мая 2009" (photo 21274 by Павел Евсеенков, 2009; det. Денис Мельников in Plantarium, accessed Jun 2011 [apparently parasitizing Centaurea sp.]); "Цветущее растение. Крым, Севастополь [Crimea, Sevastopol], высоты Кая-Баш. 31 мая 2012 г." (photo 135950 et 135951 by Павел Евсеенков [Pavel Evseenkov] 2012; det. Renata Piwowarczyk in Plantarium, accessed Jun 2015 [apparently parasitizing Ptilostemon echinocephalus (Willd.) Greuter (cf.)]); Crimea, around Sevastopol, Mys Fiolent (with E. ritro), 29 June 1981, N.N. Tzvelev (LE!) (Nobis & al., 2014, sub O. ritro); Крым, Севастополь, участок нарушенной петрофитной степи между проспектом Октябрьской революции и ул. Колобова [between the October Revolution Avenue and st. Kolobov]. 04.06.2016. (photo 478519 by Павел Евсеенков [Pavel Evseenkov] 2016, in Plantarium; accessed Dec 2016 [apparently parasitizing Ptilostemon echinocephalus (Willd.) Greuter (cf.)]).

Simferopol City Municipality / Сімферопольська міськрада / Симферопольский горсовет / Aqmescit şeer şurası: "A. Callier, Iter tauricum secundum a. 1896. / Nr. 390 / Orobanche major L. / J. Dörfler. Wien. / Hügel bei Kopsel. [Kopsel'-Bogaz valley, near Simferopol] / 8.VII[.1896] auf Centaurea / determ. de Halácsy" (P 04384964; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2012); idem (P 04384957; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2017 [the sheet contains five specimens, the two thinner with little flowers seem to correspond to O. cumana]).

Sudak Municipality / Судацька міськрада / Судакский горсовет: "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquensis (MW) / Orobanche elatior Sutt. / на Centaurea salonitana [C. reflexa subsp. salonitana (Vis.) Mikheev] / Вост. Крым. Окр. п. Морское. На приморских сланцевых обнажениях у подножья Паная-Кая 12.06.1986. Собр. Шведчикова Н. [Este de Crimea Okr. n. Morske. En los afloramientos costeros de esquisto al pie de Panaya-Kaya 12.06.1986. Coll. Shvedchikova N.]" (MW 0626337; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018); "Крым, окр. г. Судак, п-ов Меганом [env. Sudak, Meganom peninsula], приморский склон. 27 мая 2016 г." (photo 452943 by Александр Фатерыга [Alexander Fateryga], 2016, in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2016 [apparently parasitizing Centaurea salonitana]); "Цветущие растения вблизи листьев Centaurea salonitana [C. reflexa subsp. salonitana (Vis.) Mikheev] (возможный хозяин). Крым, окр. г. Судак, п-ов Меганом [env. Sudak, Meganom peninsula], приморский склон. 27 мая 2016 г." (photo 452942 by Александр Фатерыга [Alexander Fateryga], 2016, in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2016).

Unknown locations: N. 904 Крым (Россия) 20.06.1929. Собр. Сырейщиков Д. [Syreyshchikov D.] (MW 0626339; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); N. 905 Крым (Россия) 20.06.1929. Собр. Сырейщиков Д. [Syreyshchikov D.] (MW 0626338; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); Orobanche elatior - Заразиха высокая (photo by Vladimir Savchuk in crimea.fotopage.ru; accessed Jun 2011).

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Uzbekistan / Uzbekistán / O‘zbekiston / Ўзбекистон [unconfirmed] (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev], 1958: 102[ 132], sub O. major L., "Pamir-Alai [Pamir-Alay / Памиро-Алай]")

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