Accepted Name - Basionymum / Basionym - Synonyms - Ind. loc. [Indicatio locotypica (type locality)] - Lectotypus [Lectotype] - Designated by - Host - Comments - Chromosomatic number - Ic. [Images] - Distribution - Specimens Examined - References - Authors - Cite us

ISSN: 2386-9666 - Last Updated: 5 January 2020


Accepted Name:

Orobanche elatior Sutton in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 4: 178[-179], t. 17 (1798)

Synonyms:

Heterotypic synonyms:

? = Orobanche de la Centaurée scabieuse Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 61 (1827), nom. inval. [not validly published]. Syn.: = Orobanche elatior Sutton in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 4: 178[-179], t. 17 (1798) (Vaucher 1827: 61); = Orobanche elatior sensu Wallr., Orobobanches Gen. Diask.: 51[-52] (1825), saltem p.p. (Wallroth 1825: 51). Ind. loc.: "Je l'ai trouvée en 1825, aux męmes lieux que la précédente, dans les Appennins, au-dessus du Ranco [Ronco Scrivia, Genova, Liguria, Italy], entre Gęnes [Genoa / Genova] et Novi [Novi Ligure, Alessandria, Piedmont, Italy] ... Elle est plus petite dans toutes ses parties que l'Orobanche de la Picride Epervičre. La description que j'en donne se rapporte assez bien ŕ celle de Wallroth; mais non pas avec celle de Sutton, qui dit que l'épi est formé de cent fleurs, et que le stigmate est jaune. Il ajoute qu'elle croît quelquefois sur le Trčfle des prés [Trifolium pratense L.]" (Wallroth 1825: 52; Duby 1828: 350; Beck 1930: 246)

? = Orobanche centaureae-scabiosae Duby, Bot. Gall. 1: 350 (1828) ["O. Cent. scabiosae Vauch. l.c. p. 61. ic. (v. v.)"], pro syn. (Duby 1828: 350). Syn.: = Orobanche elatior Sutton in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 4: 178, t. 17 (1798) (Duby 1828: 350, "Fl. fr. 3 p. 490" [Lamarck & Candolle 1805: 490, sub "Orobanche elatior Sutt. ... — Orobanche amethystea Thuill."]); = Orobanche de la Centaurée scabieuse Vaucher, Monogr. Orobanch.: 61 (1827), nom. inval. [not validly published] (Duby 1828: 350, "v.v.")

? = Orobanche centaureae-scabiosae F.W. Schultz in Bot. Lit. Blätt. 5: 500 (1830) ["O. Cent. Scabiosae (O. elatior W.)"], nom. illeg. (Wallroth 1825: 51, sub O. elatior Sutton; Vaucher 1827: 61; Beck 1930: 246; Zázvorka 2010: 90). Syn.: = Orobanche elatior var. microglossa Wallr., Orobobanches Gen. Diask.: 51 (1825)

= Orobanche fragrans W.D.J. Koch in Röhl., Deutschl. Fl., ed. 3, 4: 463 (1833) (Nyman 1854-1855: 132; Beck 1890: 170). Ind. loc.: "Von Dr. Schiede im Unteröstreich gesammelt und mir als O. major mitgelheilt.". Obs. see Orobanche fragrans W.D.J. Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv., ed. 2: 619 (1846) in Tela Botanica (accessed Oct 2008)

= Orobanche centaureae Mutel, Fl. Franç. 2: 346 (1835) ["O. Centaureae"], pro syn.

= Orobanche stigmatodes Wimm., Fl. Schles.: 280 (1841) (Godron 1843: 176, sub O. major L.; Zázvorka 2010: 90). Ind. loc.: "Auf lettigen Aeckern, bei den Gypsgruben bei Dirschel [Dzierżysław, Gmina Kietrz, Głubczyce County, Opole Voivodeship, Poland] in OS., an Wurzeln von Centaurea scabiosa von Kelh i. 1840, entdeck und mitgetheilt. Juni" (Zázvorka 2010: 90); "In agris et locis incultis, (bei den Gypsgruben unweit Dirschel in Oberschlesien auf Centaurea Scabiosa, Wimmer" (Koch 1844: 616); "ad fodinas sulf calc. prope Dirschel Silesiae, Centaurea scabiosae parasitica" (Reuter 1847: 26). Obs. Orobanche stigmatodes sensu Reuter (1847), non Wimm. (1841), p.p., = Orobanche elatior Sutton (1798) ["exclus. loco Gratz"] et = Orobanche kochii F.W. Schultz (1847) (Reuter 1847: 718, sub O. elatior)

= Orobanche centaureae-scabiosae Holandre, Nouv. Fl. Moselle (ed. 2): 520 (1842), nom. superfl. (Godron 1843: 176, sub O. major L.; Schultz 1847: 66; Grenier 1853: 637, sub O. major L., "Holandre, fl. Mosel. 320"; Beck 1930: 247 "sec. Godron"; Zázvorka 2010: 84). Ind. loc.: "Metz [Moselle, Lorraine, France] (Côtes de Lessy, de Rosérieules, des Genivaux: Holandre)" (Godron 1843: 176, sub O. major L.)

= Orobanche confusa F.W. Schultz, Fl. Pfalz: 339 (1846), pro syn. [Flora 30: 66, t. 2 f. 2 (1847)] (Schultz 1847: 66; Beck 1930: 247; Zázvorka 2010: 84). Syn.: = Orobanche stigmatodes Wimm., Fl. Schles.: 280 (1841)

= Orobanche centauriophya St.-Lag. in Cariot, Etud. Fl. ed. 8(2): 649 (1889), nom. illeg.

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= Orobanche elatior var. microglossa Wallr., Orobobanches Gen. Diask.: 51[-52] (1825) ["β microglossa"]. Syn.: = Orobanche elatior Sutton in Trans. Linn. Soc. London 4: 178, t. 17 (1798) (Wallroth 1825: 51). Ind. loc.: "In agris nemoribusque Angliae, Galliae et Germaniae ad Centaurea Scabiosae aliarumque radices. Jul.". Obs. "stigmate obcordato (flavo)" (Wallroth 1825: 51, sub O. elatior Sutton)

? = Orobanche lutea var. buekiana W.D.J. Koch, Syn. Fl. German., ed. 2: 619 (1844) (Zázvorka 2010: 84) [Orobanche buekiana W.D.J. Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv., ed. 2: 619 (1844 [Nov 1844]). Syn.: Orobanche rubens var. buekiana (W.D.J. Koch) Rchb. fil., Icon. Fl. Germ. Helv. 20: 99 t. 186 (1862); Orobanche lutea var. buekiana (W.D.J. Koch) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 166, t. 3 f. 44(2) (1890)]. Ind. loc.: Frankfurt on Oder, Germany, leg. Buek. Obs. see Orobanche lutea Baumg.

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Misapplied names:

Orobanche major auct. [saltem p.p.], non Orobanche major L., Sp. Pl.: 632 (1753), nom. rej. [= Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. (1798)]

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Ind. loc.: "radici lignosae Centaureas Scabiosae et Trifolii pratensis imprimis adhaerens ... Habitat in agris Trifolii pratensis, non in sementis anno; et in marginibus agrorum juxta Centaureas scabiosam, Scabiosam arvensem, &c. Gunton, Kelling, Sheringham, Catton, Costesey [Costessey], in glareosis" [Norfolk, East, England] (Sutton 1798: 178-179).

Lectotypus / Lectotype: "Lectotype designated here: Herb. Smith 1087.14 n.ş 1 (LINN!) ... Norfolk" (Foley 2001a: 230).

1. "1. Norfolk. Rev. C. Sutton. 1798. / 2. Oxfordshire ". – 2. "O. elatior. M. Sutton_ ...". – 3. "1087.14". – 4. "1087.14.1 / Orobanche elatior Sutton / Lectotype Selected / Det.-Rev. M.J.Y. Foley 1999" (LINN-HS1087-14-1 [the sheet contains three specimens, two on the left side with the number 2 [1087.14.2] of Oxfordshire and one specimen on the right side with the number 1 [1087.14.1] of Norfolk, this latter is the lectotype]).

Designated by: M.J.Y. Foley in Anales Jard. Bot Madrid 58 (2): 230 (2001a).

Host: it almost exclusively parasitizes Centaurea scabiosa L. (Compositae [Asteraceae]), rarely on other Centaurea species (Beck 1890; Beck 1930; Rumsey & Jury 1991; Kreutz 1995; Zázvorka 2010; Annotated Checklist of Host Plants of Orobanchaceae, accessed Jun 2011).

Comments:

Taxonomic observations: "Previously, all material of broomrapes in central Europe that parasitize Centaurea scabiosa, had generally been considered as Orobanche elatior Sutton (e.g. Chater & Webb 1972: 292; Kreutz 1995: 92-95; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev] 1958: 107-108; Pusch 2009: 72-75; Teryokhin et al. 1993: 27; Tzvelev [Cvelev] 1981: 334; Uhlich et al. 1995: 134-137; Zhiyun & Tzvelev 1998: 238 [Zhang & Tzvelev [Cvelev] 1998]). Further study revealed that the plants parasitic on Centaurea scabiosa belong to two distinct and nonrelated species, correctly classified as Orobanche kochii F.W. Schultz and O. elatior Sutton" (Zázvorka 2010).

Orobanche elatior Sutton, O. centaurina Bertol. [O. kochii F.W. Schultz; O. ritro Gren.], Orobanche leptantha Pomel [O. icterica Pau] and Orobanche loscosii L. Carlón & al. [O. ritro auct. hisp.] are considered conspecific by many authors (e.g., Chater & Webb 1972: 292; Greuter & al. 1989: 260; Foley 2001: 71; Domina & Raab-Straube 2010). But in our taxonomic treatment we have preferred to consider these taxa as different species, which have different morphological characters and, frequently, different host plants.

Chromosomatic number: n = 19, 2n = 38.

Ic.: a, Sutton 1798: 178, t. 17 ("Norfolk [Sutton 1798, p. 187, Tab.17; type illustration !" (Zázvorka 2010: 85)]); b, inflorescence (Tredňs, Spain); c, flowers (ib.); d, habit (on Centaurea scabiosa in Wiltshire, UK - Ch. Thorogood); e, inflorescence [on Centaurea scabiosa in Francia, Foley in Flora iberica 14: 251, photo 35 (2001)]; f, habit (Shootacre Corner, Lacey Green, Buckinghamshire [phot. Tiggrx, accessed Aug 2010]); O. elatior by Madalski, 1973 in Europeana.

Distribution: Armenia [in error for O. kurdica (O. rosea)], Austria, Belarus, Belgique, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Netherlands, North Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Ukraine [unconfirmed]. "The distribution area of O. elatior in the sense of the type (excluding O. kochii [O. leptantha Pomel (O. icterica Pau) and O. loscosii L. Carlón & al. (O. ritro auct. hisp.)] is restricted to western and central Europe" (Zázvorka 2010: 85); Orobanche elatior aggr. distribution (Domina & Raab-Straube 2010); Hectad map of O. elatior (Knapweed Broomrape) in GB and Ireland (BSBI, Vascular Plant Atlas Update Project; accessed Jun 2011); Iberian Peninsula distribution.

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 Specimens examined and literature records.

Armenia / Hayastan / Armenien / Arménie / Әрмәнстан / Армения [in error for Orobanche kurdica Boiss. & Hausskn. (1879) (Orobanche rosea Tzvelev) (Piwowarczyk & al. 2019: 84, 85 f. 57))]

Ararat Province / Араратская область: "[Khosrov Forest State Reserve] Prowincja Ararat, Armenia, 27 May 2016" (Gbif 2013764195 - iNaturalist 9924130 by Grzegorz Grzejszczak, sub O. rosea, in iNaturalist; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2019).

Vayots Dzor Province / Вайоцдзорская область: "[near Vayk] Prowincja Wajoc Dzor, Armenia, 3 Jun 2016" (Gbif 2013764222 - iNaturalist 9925153 by Grzegorz Grzejszczak, sub O. rosea, in iNaturalist; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2019 [on Prangos sp. (Apiaceae)]); "[near Vayk] Prowincja Wajoc Dzor, Armenia, 3 Jun 2016" (Gbif 2013764226 - iNaturalist.org/observations/9925154 by Grzegorz Grzejszczak, sub O. rosea, in iNaturalist; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2019 [on Prangos sp. (Apiaceae)]).

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Austria / Österreich / Autriche (Pusch 2009: 74 Abb. 97, sub O. elatior s.l. [incl. O. kochii])

Burgenland / Őrvidék: "Orobanche elatior agg., NSG Marzer Kogel (Bez. Mattersburg). Foto: Josef Weinzettl, 08. 06. 2013, CC BY-SA 2.0 AT" and "Orobanche elatior agg., Goberling (Bez. Oberwart). Foto: Josef Weinzettl, 08. 06. 2005, CC BY-SA 2.0 AT" (burgenlandflora; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018).

Carinthia / Kärnten: "Jeanpert, Plantes de Carinthie / N.ş 94 / Orobanche major L. / (Orobanche stigmatodes Wimm.) / Heiligenblut [Heiligenblut am Großglocknerm, Spittal an der Drau] / Juillet 1906  1300-1400 m / Sur Centaurea Scabiosa" (P 04384976 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [the sheet contains two specimens, the right hand specimen (n. 94) correspond to O. elatior Sutton and the left hand specimen (n. 3031, leg. Johann von Csató) correspond to O. kochii]).

Lower Austria / Niederösterreich: "Von Dr. Schiede im Unteröstreich gesammelt und mir als O. major mitgelheilt." (Koch 1833: 463, loc. class. of O. fragrans); "Fundnummer: 100301934 / Orobanche major L. / Österreich, Hoher Lindkogel bei Baden, Bergkuppe zw. Kalkgraben u.Weichseltal / 510 m / 24.06.1958 / leg: Hans Metlesics / coll: Biologiezentrum, Linz-Dornach; Hans Metlesics / Bild Nummer: 00016797" (LI 283940 in OÖ Landesmuseen 2010; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2013); "Orobanche elatior Sutton / Niederösterreich, Thermenlinie, nördlich von Gumpoldskirchen, östlich vom Richardshof entlang des markierten Weges, 340 m, leg. W. Till 100449, 2010-09-26" (WU 0046225; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2013 [the sheet contains only one specimen which does not seem to correspond to O. elatior]).

"To date, it has not been confirmed for Austria, Hungary, Ukraine, Russia, Belorussia and Slovakia. The occurrence of O. elatior in Slovakia, Hungary and Austria is, however, very probable" (Zázvorka 2010: 86).

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Belarus / Беларусь / Bielorrusia / Biélorussie / Weißrussland (Pusch 2009: 74 Abb. 97, sub O. elatior s.l.; photo in Красная книга Республики Беларусь / Red Book of the Republic of Belarus, 2006; accessed Nov 2012)

"В Беларуси находится на северной границе европейской части ареала. Достоверно известно три местонахождения: в Миорском р-не Витебской обл. (окрестности д. Олищенцы), Волковысском р-не Гродненской обл. (окрестности д. Карповцы) и Минском р-не Минской обл. (окрестности д. Новый Двор) . По данным литературы указывался ранее также для окрестностей г.г. Витебск , Гродно и Могилевской губернии (без точного указания местонахождения)." (cf. photo in Красная книга Республики Беларусь / Red Book of the Republic of Belarus, 2006; accessed Nov 2012).

Grodno / Hrodna Oblast / Гродзенская вобласць / Hrodzienskaja Vobłasć / Гродненская область / Grodnenskaya oblast: Volkovysk / Vawkavysk district (Karpovtsy neighborhood) (Красная книга Республики Беларусь / Red Book of the Republic of Belarus, 2006; accessed Nov 2012).

Minsk Oblast / Мі́нская во́бласць / Минская о́бласть / Minskaya Oblast: Minsk district (Красная книга Республики Беларусь / Red Book of the Republic of Belarus, 2006; accessed Nov 2012).

Vitebsk Oblast / Ві́цебская во́бласць / Vitsebskaya Voblast / Ви́тебская о́бласть: Miory / Мiёры / Миоры (near Olischentsy village) ... Vitebsk / Viciebsk / Ві́цебск / Ви́тебск (Красная книга Республики Беларусь / Red Book of the Republic of Belarus, 2006; accessed Nov 2012).

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Belgique / Belgium / België / Bélgica (Nyman 1854-1855: 131, sub O. major, "Belg. (rariss.)")

"Zeer zeldzaam in de zuidelijke Ardennen" (Orobanche elatior Sutton, 2001-2011 Klaas Dijkstra; accessed Jun 2011).

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Czech Republic / República Checa / Česká republika / Tschechischen Republik (Beck 1930: 248, sub O. major, p.p.; Pusch 2009: 74 Abb. 97, sub O. elatior s.l.; Zázvorka 2010: 86, 117-118)

Ústí nad Labem Region / Ústecký kraj

Litoměřice District: "Orobanche elatior Sutt / Flor. Bohemica / Felder b. Bilinka [N 50°31′17″ E 14°00′11″] / âuf Scabiosa arvensis [?]. / 24 Jun. 1877. / leg. G. Poscharsky." (P 04384974; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017) (Zázvorka 2010: 117).

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Denmark / Danmark / Dinamarca / Danemark / Dänemark (Nyman 1854-1855: 131, sub O. major; Beck 1890: 172, sub O. major; Beck 1930: 248, sub O. major; Uhlich & al. 1995: 136; Heide-Jřrgensen 2008: 198 f. 260c!; Pusch 2009: 74 Abb. 97, sub O. elatior s.l.; Stor Gyvelkvćler (Orobanche elatior) in www.fugleognatur.dk, accessed Jun 2011 et Dec 2016; Zázvorka 2010: 85, sub O. elatior)

Midtjylland / Central Denmark / Central Jutland: "Samsö [Samsř municipality]; hierher wohl Sjol Gjorde..." (Beck 1930: 248; Uhlich & al. 1995: 136, [hierher wohl auch "Sjol Gjorde, Boserup, Skov"]).

North Denmark: "Storvorde, Jylland, Danmark", "Storvorde, Himmerland, Danmark" (Photo 1, 2, 3, 4, Biopix: JK Overgaard; accessed Jun 2011); "Sdr Kongerslev, overdrev Ř kalkvćrk" (Photo 1, 2, 3, 4, Biopix: JC Schou; accessed Jun 2011).

Zealand / Sjćlland / Selandia: 1. "Orobanche major L. ! Suec. Fr. Mant. III. / Saelland. Bidstrupgaard prope Roeskilde. Aug. / Leg. Dr. J. Vahl.". – 2. "Herb. Mus Paris / Eliae Fries Herbar. Normale Suecicum / Fasc. XII N.ş 35" (P 04384966; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2012); Roskilde, Bidstrupgaard / Th.M. Fries / 1847 07 (UPS: BOT: V 588821); idem (UPS: BOT: V 588822); Orobanche major / Ved et Markger de SV for Boserup Skov ved Roskilde / 1878 07 21 / H. Mortensen (UPS: BOT: V 588820); "Boserup, Skov im Juli [Mortensen]" (Beck, 1930: 248; Uhlich & al., 1995: 136, [hierher wohl auch "Sjol Gjorde, Boserup, Skov"]); "insel Seeland bei Roskilde (Roskilde Municipality) [Vahl], ..." (Beck, 1930: 248; Uhlich & al., 1995: 136); Stevns Klint [Stevns Municipality], photo by C, H Heide-J et H Madsen (Heide-Jřrgensen, 2008: 198 f. 260c!, 200 f. 262c!); "Mandehoved (Stevns, Sjćlland)" (photo 77735 by Torben Nielsen; accessed Jun 2011).

"Den er meget sjćlden i Danmark og har 6-8 nogenlunde stabile voksesteder, f.eks. pĺ Stevns og Samsř.I Řsthimmerland omkring Storvorde/Kongerslev meget stabile forekomster. Ofte forekommer den i ret ringe antal pĺ lokaliteterne. Den kan undertiden dukke op pĺ nye voksesteder, eller voksesteder hvor den ikke har vćret at se i en ĺrrćkke." (Stor Gyvelkvćler (Orobanche elatior) in www.fugleognatur.dk, accessed Jun 2011 et Dec 2016).

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England / Inglaterra / Angleterre [United Kingdom] (Sutton 1798: 178-179, t. 17, terra class. of O. elatior; Mutel 1835: 346, "Angleterre"; Beck 1890: 172, sub O. major; Beck 1930: 248, sub O. major; Rumsey & Jury 1991: 266-267, 288 f. 14; Pusch 2009: 74 Abb. 97, sub O. elatior s.l.; Kent Red Data Book 2009 [pdf]; Zázvorka 2010: 85, sub O. elatior; Crouch 2012 [pdf]; map of O. elatior in Online Atlas of the British and Irish flora (accessed May 2019).

"On chalk and limestone in South & East England North to Northeast Yorks, Glam." (Stace & al. 2005, Orobanche elatior; accessed Jun 2011).

East: 1. "1. Norfolk. Rev. C. Sutton. 1798. / 2. Oxfordshire ". – 2. "O. elatior. M. Sutton_ ...". – 3. "1087.14". – 4. "1087.14.1 / Orobanche elatior Sutton / Lectotype Selected / Det.-Rev. M.J.Y. Foley 1999" (LINN-HS1087-14-1 [the sheet contain three specimens, two on the left side with the number 2 [1087.14.2] of Oxfordshire and one specimen on the right side with the number 1 [1087.14.1] of Norfolk, this latter is the lectotype]); "Habitat in agris Trifolii pratensis, non in sementis anno; et in marginibus agrorum juxta Centaureas scabiosam, Scabiosam arvensem, &c. Gunton, Kelling, Sheringham, Catton, Costesey [Costessey], in glareosis" [Norfolk, East] (Sutton, 1798: 178-179, t. 17, terra class. of O. elatior); "Norfolk" (Foley, 2001a: 230, lectotype of LINN-HS1087-14-1); 1. "Herbarium Regium Monacense / Orobanche elatior Smith / Norwich [Norfolk] / Communicavit Ed. Smith / Herb. Schreberianum", 2. "Orob. major L. / — elatior Sutt. / — — Sm. / det. Dr. G. Beck [m. Beck]" (M 0185487; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2016); "Barnack Hills and Holes (NNR), (Nature Reserve [Barnack, Cambridgeshire, East]), 21st June 2010 (photo by Urban Butterfly Garden 2010-2011; accessed Jun 2011)"; "Broughton & Whitwell, Limestone grassland verges with knapweed broomrape (Orobanche elatior)" (photos by Gill Smith, 23rd July 2005; accessed June 2011); Bedfordshire, 23 June 2009 (photo by ellyukrm; accessed Sep 2011); "The knapweed broomrape grows from the roots of knapweed on Therfield Heath [Hertfordshire], Herts. July 2006" (photo by Peter Herring [flowers in pre-anthesis]; accessed Jul 2012); "Shown here is a form of [O. minor] var. minor, photographed on a road verge in Hertfordshire, 2003" (photos by A.J. Silverside [flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis]; accessed Jul 2012); "Photograph: Hunstanton, Norfolk, 1966" (photo by A.J. Silverside; accessed Jul 2012).

South East England: "Orobanche elatior Sutton / in Centaurea Scabiosa / In collibus, Surrey / 6. '93 / Legit S.T. Dunn" (P 04406423 - hb. E.G. & A. Camus; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "Orobanche elatior Sutton / New Forest. [Hampshire] VII.48 E.D. Le C [E.D. Le Cren]" (FBA - FBAH0483 - fbaia:3510 - 3510/OBJ; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2019); "Orobanche elatior / Funnet NO for Winchester, / Hampshire, Eng- / land, 23 juli 62 / Hano Fr. Rřer" (O-V2254809; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); "The specimen [close-up photograph] shown on this page were photographed at Noar Hill, in Hampshire, in the first half of June" (First Nature; accessed Jun 2011); "10-6-2007  Howell Hill [Howell Hill reserve, Sutton, Surrey, South East England], Peter Follett" (Broomrape, Knapweed in British Wild Flowers, accessed Jun 2011); "North Downs, Surrey" (photo by Stuart Fisher in www.globaltwitcher.com, accessed Sep 2011); "Surrey, Howell Hill" (photos LP005_38, LP0005_49, LP005_50 by Linda Pitkin, accessed Sep 2011); "2nd July 2013, Noar Hill, Hampshire." (photos by Dawn Nelson in Wild Flower Finder; accessed Feb 2017).

South West England: "Orobanche elatior Sutton / On oolite above Weston, / near Bath, N. Sommerset. / July 15th, 1924. / C. and N Sandwith" (L 2817260; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2019); "14-5-2003 W Kent [South West England], Dave Mitchell" (Broomrape, Knapweed in British Wild Flowers; accessed Jun 2011); "... Somerset... Orobanche elatior at Hellenge Hill (2010). Photo: HJC" (Crouch, 2012 [pdf]; accessed Jun 2011); County of Wiltshire [South West England], Great Cursus Barrows (on the tumulus of Greater Cursus of Stonehenge, near Larkhill garrison town), 30UWB86, 100 m, parasitic on Centaurea scabiosa L. (Compositae), G. Moreno Moral MM0071/2008, 29 Jun 2008 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 13186); "Oxfordshire" (photo by Martin Fowler, Jul 2012); on Centaurea scabiosa in Wiltshire, UK - photos by Ch. Thorogood (accessed Jun 2011).

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Estonia / Estland / Eesti (Beck 1930: 248, sub O. major; Kull & al. 2002: 182-183; Pusch 2009: 74 Abb. 97, sub O. elatior s.l.; Zázvorka 2010: 85, sub O. elatior; Orobanche elatior in An interactive flora of Estonia, accessed Jun 2011; TAA - Estonian University of Life Sciences - Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences - Vascular Plant Herbarium, accessed Feb 2018)

Pärnu County / Pärnu maakond / Pärnumaa: "Toomas Kukk'e herbarium // Eesti Floora / ... / Orobanche elatior Sutton / Lä [Lääne County?]: Virtsu, Mőisa lahe Virtsu poolsel / kaldal / 27 juuni 1993 Leg.-det. Toomas Kukk / 3381" (TAA 0088079; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018).

Saare County / Saare maakond: "587. Orobanche elatior Sutt. / ... Wurzeln von Centaurea scabiosa L. ... / unler Nurms [Nurme] auf der Inseln Mohn [Muhu / Moon / Muhumaa] ... / Superintend. v. S... // Herb. Al. de Bunge" (P 04384971 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2012 [two specimens and the host-plant very well preserved]); idem (TU 269097; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); "Herbarium balticum / Musaei provincialis Estonici / Orobanche major L. / Muhu Il" (TAM 0099172 - label; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); "Estland: auf den Inseln Oesel [Saaremaa / Řsel, Saare County / Saare maakond, West Estonian archipelago / Lääne-Eesti saarestik / Moonsund archipelago] (nach F. Hermann, Fl. Deutschl. 428) und Moon [Muhu / Mohn / Muhumaa, Muhu Parish / Muhu vald, Saare County], Oddro Koppel bei Nurms [Nurme] (Schmidt!)" (Beck, 1930: 248, sub O. major); "Herbarium Instituti Zooloogici et Botanici Academiae / Scientiarum Rei Publicae sovieticae Socialisticae Estonicae / ... / Orobanche major L. / Saaremaa. [Laimjala vald] Tornimäest ca 6 km --> S, / Saare k. kaupluse ja lasteaia vahel / maantee ääres Centaurea scabiosa L. / Leg.-det. J. Krall [et] L. Viljasoo" (TAA 0088078; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); "Herbarium Instituti Zooloogici et Botanici Academiae / Scientiarum Rei Publicae sovieticae Socialisticae Estonicae / ... / Orobanche major L. / Muhu, Liiva kirikust ca 200 m / lőunas pőldheina pőllul / 26.08.1983 / Leg.-det. Linda Viljasoo" (TAA 0088080; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018).

TSB 70626 "University of Tartu, Estonia" (photo 8942 in KeytoNature - Dryades; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017).

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Finland / Suomi / Finlandia

"Orobanche elatior (to the S. of Finland)" (King's College London Act, 1997: 121).

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France / Francia / Frankreich (Mutel 1835: 346; Grenier 1853: 637, sub O. major L., p.p.; Coste 1904: 70, f. 2820, sub O. major L., p.p., "Sur les Centaurea et Echinops, dans l'Est, le Centre et le Midi [see Orobanche kochii]"; Beck 1930: 248, sub O. major L., p.p.; Pusch 2009: 74 Abb. 97, sub O. elatior s.l. [incl. O. kochii (O. ritro Gren.)]; Orobanche major L., p.p. in Tela Botanica [accessed Jun 2011]; Zázvorka 2010: 85, sub O. elatior)

Bourgogne-Franche-Comté [Bourgogne / Burgundy / Borgońa-Franche-Comté / Franco Condado]

Doubs (25): 1. "Orobanche rubens / mt. de Brégille ... Besançon / 15 Juin 1845 [?] / Grenier" – 2. "Orobanche elatior Sutt! / ex Reuter! (1852)" (P 04419059 - hb. Grenier; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2017); "O. Scabiosae / ... Citadelle de Besançon / 22 juin 1847 / Grenier" (P 04419096 - hb. Grenier; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2013 [the specimens seem to correspond to O. elatior]); "Orobanche major L. / mt. Brégille [mont de Brégille est une colline du massif du Jura] prčs Besançon / 10 juin 1858 / Grenier" (P 04243432; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2012); "Orobanche major L. / Besançon 28 mai 59 [1859] / ..." (P 04410939 - hb. L. Giraudias; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2012); "Orobanche major L. / ... la citadelle [Citadelle de Besançon] / 28 mai 1863 / Grenier" (P 04419060; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2012); 1. "Flora Galliae et Germaniae exssiccata. / 905. O. brachysepala, F. Schultz... /  ... Orobanche alsatica, F. Schultz ... / 10 juin 1845. / Sur les racines du Peucedanum cervaria! dans rochers du / calcaire corallien du Mont-Brégille, prčs Besançon / rec. C. Grenier". – 2. "Flora exsiccata de C. Billot / continué par V. Bavoux, A. et P. Guichard et J. Paillot. / 3675. Orobanche Cervaria Suard ... / O. brachysepala ... / ... / 31 mai 1863. / Rocailles calcaires au Mont-de-Bregille, prčs Besançon / (Doubs), sur les racines du Peucedanum Cervaria / Rec. par V. Bavoux, J. Bouvier et J. Paillot." (P 04384456 - hb. F.W. Schultz 905 - hb Billot 3675; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2012 [on the label 3675 there are two specimens, the biger specimen seem to correspond to O. elatior s.str. and the smaller to O. alsatica. The two specimens of label 905 are O. alsatica]); "Herbier E. G. Camus / Orobanche major / mt. Brégille prčs Besançon / 8 juin 1864 / Grenier" (P 04406393; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "Besançon! (Gren.), et tout le Jura" (Grenier 1853: 637, sub O. major L.; Nyman 1854-1855: 131, sub O. major); "Parasite sur les racines de Centaurion scabiosifolium.-- Besançon" (Saint-Lager 1883: 611, sub O. major L.); "Alsace, environs de Besançon" (Bonnier 1926[1990]: 887, sub O. major); "Besançon (Doubs - France) le 02.06.2009 sur Centaurea scabiosa" (photos by JMM (Jean-Marc Moingeon), sub O. major L., in Plantes parasites ou hémiparasites - Pharmanatur.com; accessed Jul 2012).

Centre-Val de Loire

Cher (18): "Herb. E. Ripart. / Orobanche major L. ... / ... O. elattior Sutton / Cher. Bourges dans un champ ... / ... sur Centaurea scabiosa / 6 juin 1870 / legiere E. Ripart (Plante nouvelle pour la flore du Centre)" (CLF 209730; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018).

Grand Est / Great East / Großer Osten [Alsace / Elsass / Elsaß / Alsacia-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine / Lothringen / Louréne / Lorena]

Ardennes (08): "Herbier A. Chevallier / Orobanche major / Châtelet [Le Châtelet-sur-Retourne] (Ardennes) / 23-6-1893" (P 04243431; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [stem with narrowly leaves]).

Aube (10): "Orobanche major L. / Sur centaurea scabiosa! / Villenauxe [Villenauxe-la-Grande] (Aube) / 28 Juin 46 / M. Desetangs. 1846" (P 04393952; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja July 2012 [the sheet contains a single specimen very well preserved]); idem (P 04384980; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan. 2017); idem (P 04419055; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov. 2012 [the sheet contains two specimens, the left hand specimen corresponds to O. amethytea and the right hand specimen is bad preserved and needs confirmation]); "Orobanche major Sult Mutel / Sur le centaurea scabiosa! / Villenauxe (Aube) montagne de Sézanne / 6 septembre[?] 1843 / Desetangs. 1846" (P 04419055; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2012 [only the specimen mounted in the right-hand of the herbarium sheet]); "Orobanche major L. Godron / Sur la Centaurea scabiosa ! / Villenauxe (Aube) / 28 Juin 46[1846?] / Desetangs." (P 04419056 - hb. Mérat; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2012 [cf.]); "818. Orobanche major, L., G. G. 2. 636. (Orobanche ŕ grandes fleurs.) Juin. A. R. Sur les racines de la centaurée scabieuse; Proverville! Villenauxe! des Etangs; Vermoise, commune de Saint-Bt-noît-sur-Seine [Saint-Benoît-sur-Seine], Corrard de Breban; Vallant! [Vallant-Saint-Georges] Petit-Saint-Georges! les Grandes-Chapelles! MM. Hariot; Alibaudičres! P. Hariot; ferme de Malva, commune de Montsuzain!!." (Briard, 1881: 180-181).

Bas-Rhin (67): "Herbier / Gonod d'Artemare / Ussel / Orobanche elatior Sutton / (O. major L.) / Alsace: colline de Dorlisheim / 25.6.98 [1898] / Petry" (MPU 225489 - hb. Ensam; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018); "Elsaß! (... Dorlisheim)" (Beck, 1930: 248, sub O. major L.); "06-10-2005-1: Bas Rhin, Colline de Dorlisheim" (photos 1, 2, 3, sub Orobanche in sophy.univ-cezanne.fr, accessed Feb 2012).

Haut-Rhin (68): "Glacis de Strasbourg, collines calcaires ŕ Siegolsheim [Sigolsheim] (Kirschl.)" (Mutel, 1835: 429); "Elsaß! (Mülhausen, Siegolsheim [Sigolsheim]...)" (Beck 1930: 248, sub O. major L.).

Meurthe-et-Moselle (54): "Sur les racines du Centaurea Scabiosa ... Nancy! [Meurthe-et-Moselle] (Suard) ..." (Grenier 1853: 637, sub O. major L.).

Moselle (57): "prčs Metz (Schultz et Hollandre)" (Mutel 1835: 346); Metz [Moselle] (Côtes de Lessy, de Rosérieules, des Genivaux: Holandre)" (Holandre 1842: 520, loc. class. of O. centaureae-scabiosae Holandre; Schultz 1847: 66; Godron 1843: 177; Grenier 1853: 636, sub O. major L.; Beck 1930: 247 "sec. Godron"; Zázvorka 2010: 84); "Sur les racines du Centaurea Scabiosa. Nancy [Meurthe-et-Moselle] (champsarides au-dessus de Laxou: Suard). Metz [Moselle] (Côtes de Lessy, de Rosérieules, des Genivaux: Holandre); sur le musch. ŕ Bitche [Moselle]: Schultz" (Godron 1843: 177, sub O. major L.; Nyman, 1854-1855: 131, sub O. major); "In Galliâ sept. prope Metz (Schultz Leg! in h. Boiss.)" (Reuter, 1847: 25); "Sur les racines du Centaurea Scabiosa ... Metz [Moselle] (Lčo); Bitche [Moselle] (Schultz)" (Grenier 1853: 637, sub O. major L.); "Lothringen! (Metz [Moselle]) (Beck, 1930: 248, sub O. major L.); "France: Lorraine: Chatel-Saint-Germain, 20 May 2007 (photo by Herve Brule; accessed Feb 2012).

Hauts-de-France [Nord-Pas-de-Calais-Picardie]

Pas-de-Calais (62): "Pas-de-Calais" (Bonnier, 1926[1990]: 887, sub O. major).

Île-de-France

Hauts-de-Seine (92) [unconfirmed]: "dans les environs de Paris, dans les bois de Meudon, Boulogne & Vincennes" (Poiret, 1798: 201, sub O. elatior [= Orobanche amethystea Thuill.]; "Elle se trouve dans les bois de Meudon, de Boulogne et de Vincennes prčs Paris" (Lamarck & Candolle, 1805: 490, sub "Orobanche elatior Sutt. ... — Orobanche amethystea Thuill."); 1. "Herb. Mus. Paris / Herbier des Environs de Paris" – 2. "Orobanche elatior / ... / Environs de paris [Mérat]" (P 04384352 - hb. Mérat 1851, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011, sub Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm.!); 1. "Herb. Mus. Paris / Herbier des Environs de Paris" – 2. "Orobanche elatior / v. condensata. n. / ... / Environs de paris [Mérat]" (P 04384353 - hb. Mérat 1851; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011, ut Orobanche rapum-genistae Thuill.!); Mérat, 1812: 245, sub O. elatior [= Orobanche amethystea Thuill.]).

Seine-et-Marne (77): "Orobanche major / ... / Environs de Provins / (S et M) / 7 juin 1913 ..." (P 04419066 - hb. M.R. Gaume; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2012); "Orobanche major / Butte de craie entre Grigny et Paroy (S et M) / Sur Centaurea Scabiosa? / 7 juin 1913 / ..." (P 04419068; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2012).

Normandie

Seine-Maritime (76): "Orobanche major L. / Oissel: Roche du Pignon - Sur Centaurea Scabiosa / 23 Mai 1897 /  ... / Nouvelle pour la Normandie / H. Saint-Amand" (P 04411783; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2016 [bad preserved specimen]); "Oissel Roche du Pignon oů il est surement spontané. ... Trčs Rare. 4 pieds seulement en mai-juin 1897. Sur Centaurea scabiosa seulement ... Saint-Amand s.n." (CHE 010182); "3901 ... / Orobanche major L. / 20 juin 1957 / Pelouses calcaires, Roche Fouet / prčs d'Orival (Seine-Inférieure) // ... sur Centaurea scabiosa" (P 00598715 - Hb. H. Bouby; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2012); 3901bis / idem (P 00598716 - Hb. H. Bouby; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2012).

Occitanie / Occitania [Languedoc-Roussillon-Midi-Pyrénées] [unconfirmed]

Haute-Garonne (31): "Herbarium Francavillanum / Orobanche elatior Sutt. / In pratis / Pyrénées. Superbagnčres. 800 met. Juin 1843" (P 04384975; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [O. gracilis, inflorescence lax, corolla blood-red inside]).

Pyrénées-Orientales / Eastern Pyrenees / Pirineus Orientals / Pirenčus Orientals / Pirineos Orientales (66) [unconfirmed]: Pyrénées (Lapeyrouse, 1813: 359, sub O. elatior); "En Confflent, sur Genista et les Cytisus" (Bentham, 1826: 109, sub "elatior. Sutt.?" [? = Orobanche rapum-genistae Thuill.]); "Comm. principalement sur les Genista et les Cytisus" (Bentham, 1826: 109, sub "major. L." [? = Orobanche rapum-genistae Thuill.]); "A Mont-Louis [Montlluís / el Vilar d'Ovansa], sur le Galium verum" (Bentham, 1826: 109, sub "incurva" [= Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm.]); "Pyrénées-Orientales, Mont-Louis (Benth.)" (Grenier, 1853: 637, sub O. major L.); "Orobanche major L. / Pyrénées-Orientales; Montlouis / bords de la route du Col de la Perche /  23.7.1910" (P 04394282; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2012, ut Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm.); "espčces a rechercher ou a exclure / Orobanche major L. - Sur le Centaurea Scabiosa; Montlouis (Benth.); n'a pas été revu" (Gautier, 1897: 336, sub O. major).

Tarn (81) [unconfirmed]: "aux environs de Sorrčze [Sorčze]" (Lamarck & Candolle, 1805: 490, sub "Orobanche elatior Sutt. ... — Orobanche amethystea Thuill.").

Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur [unconfirmed]

Hautes-Alpes (05) [unconfirmed]: "Herbier J. Arčnes / Nş 2182 / Orobanche major L. / Htes Alpes – Gap; Devez de Rabou [Cręte du Devčs de Rabou (La Roche des Arnauds)?] / Aoűt 1900 / Leg. H. Coste / ..." (P 04393953; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [the sheet contains three specimens: the first on the left hand corresponds to Cistanche sp. (this is no logical here), the central specimen seems to correspond to O. elatior (narrow leaves on stem and long inflorescence) and the right hand specimen is very bad preserved and is not possible its determination. Obviously, all this needs to be confirmed by future investigations [see O. kochii]).

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Germany / Deutschland / Alemania / Allemagne (Mutel 1835: 346, "Nord de l'Allemagne"; Beck 1930: 248, sub O. major L., p.p.; Kreutz 1995: 94!, 95!; Haeupler & Muer 2000: 452 f. 2495! [Orobanche elatior in FloraWeb, accessed Jun 2011]; Pusch 2009: 74 Abb. 97, sub O. elatior s.l. [incl. O. kochii (O. ritro Gren.)], Abb. 95, sub O. elatior [s.str.]; Zázvorka 2010: 85, sub O. elatior)

Baden-Württemberg: "Parasite on Centaurea scabiosa ... Kaiserstuhl [Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald], Germany. Photos 1, 2 [brownish form] and 3 [yellow flower form] June 2004 by Andreas S. Fleischmann" (www.parasiticplants.siu.edu; accessed Jun 2011); "Orobanche elatior \ Große Sommerwurz / Tall Broomrape // D Hemsbach [Rhein-Neckar-Kreis] 11.5.07" and "11.05.11 [yellow form]" (photos by Günther; accessed Jun 2011); "Orobanche elatior, Neckar-Odenwald ... 12 May 2007" [Baden-Württemberg, Germany] (photos 120507a, 120507 by Bernd Haynold; accessed Jun 2011).

Bavaria / Bayern: "Orobanche elatior and its host Centaurea scabiosa, Nördlinger Ries, [Donau-Ries, Bavaria] 12. Juni 2011" (photos 120611, 120611a, 120611 by BerndH; accessed June 2011); "Rhön [Rhön Mountains], 05.07.1997" (photo 353166469 by Marco Klüber; accessed Jun 2011).

North Rhine-Westphalia / Nordrhein-Westfalen: "bei Brilon auf Centaurea scabiosa (Foto: T. Muer Juli 1992)" (Pusch 2009: 73, Abb. 96, sub O. elatior [s.str.]); Цветущее растение, паразитирующее на Centaurea Scabiosa. ФРГ, земля Nordrhein-Westfalen, округ Euskirchen, заказник Seidenbachtal / Froschberg, луг на выходах известняков. 5 июля 2011 г. [Flowering plant, parasitizing on Centaurea Scabiosa. Germany, Land Nordrhein-Westfalen, District of Euskirchen, Reserve Seidenbachtal / Froschberg, meadow on limestone outcrops. July 5, 2011] (photos 119461, 119460, 119454, 119446, 119451 by Андрей Ковальчук [Andrey Kovalchuk], 2012 in Plantarium; accessed Dec 2012); "Цветок. ФРГ, земля North Rhine-Westphalia, округ Euskirchen, заказник Rosental, дорога заброшенная грунтовая. 4 июля 2011 г. [A flower. Germany, the land of North Rhine-Westphalia, District of Euskirchen, Reserve Rosental, an abandoned dirt road. July 4, 2011"] (photo by Андрей Ковальчук [Andrey Kovalchuk], 2012 in Plantarium; accessed Dec 2012).

Saxony-Anhalt / Sachsen-Anhalt: "Herbarfoto ... HPu-OR-226, ... kreuzberg bei Dingelstedt, leg. J. Pusch 11.07.2001" (Pusch 2009: 73, Abb. 94, sub O. elatior [s.str.]).

Thuringia / Thüringen: "Kattenburg im Kyffhäusergebirge auf Centaurea scabiosa Foto: J. Pusch 15.06.1995" (Pusch 2009: 73, Abb. 95, sub O. elatior [s.str.]).

Unknown location: 1. "O. elatior 1". – 2. "Orob. major L. / (O. elattior Sutt. non auctorum!) / det. Dr. G. Beck [m. Beck]" (B-W 11595 -01 0 - hb. Willdenow; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018).

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Hungary / Hungría / Magyarország (Pusch 2009: 74 Abb. 97, sub O. elatior s.l. [incl. O. kochii (O. ritro Gren.)]; Zázvorka 2010: 86)

Central Hungary / Közép-Magyarország

Pest County [unconfirmed]: "Ungarn/Magyarország/Hungary: Pest megye, Szénás-Hügel bei Pilisszentiván, 3 June 2011" (photos 1.jpg, 2.jpg, 3.jpg and 4.jpg by Franz Xaver, sub O. elatior, in https://commons.wikimedia.org, Wikimedia et KeytoNature - Dryades; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 et Feb 2018 [see O. alsatica]).

Northern Hungary / Észak-Magyarország: 1. "No. 3034 / Orobanche comosa Schur / in pratis montis Semmering [Semmering Pass, Northern Limestone Alps, Lower Austria, Austria] 18-7 69 / (inter Galium Mollugo!) Dr. Schur". – 2. "3036 / Orobanche comosa Schur! / Corolla ... sordide / flava inodora ... / ... / stigma / cericino-flavens...". – 3. "N. 8833 / Orobanche comosa Schur / In monte Nagy Eged [Nagy-Eged Hill] prope Agriam (Eger Erlan) — Comisas Heves [Heves County] in Hungaria [Hungary]. — / 12 Jul. 1867 / Vrabelyi // Herb. Schur" (P 04384969 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [the sheet contains three different gatherings, these seem to correspond a three different species (n. 3034 O. gracilis; 3036 O. kochii; 8833 O. elatior)]).

"To date, it has not been confirmed for Austria, Hungary, Ukraine, Russia, Belorussia and Slovakia. The occurrence of O. elatior in Slovakia, Hungary and Austria is, however, very probable" (Zázvorka 2010: 86).

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Italy / Italia / Italien (Beck 1930: 248, sub O. major [p.p.]; Pignatti 1982: 614, sub O. elatior [p.p.]; Pusch 2009: 74 Abb. 97, sub O. elatior s.l. [incl. O. kochii (O. ritro Gren.)]; Zázvorka 2010: 85; see O. kochii)

Emilia-Romagna [unconfirmed, see O. lutea]

Ferrara (FE) [unconfirmed, these specimens seem to correspond to Orobanche lutea]: Foto 7, 8 et 9 "Orobanche elatior Sutton / Orobanchaceae: Succiamele della Centaurea Reno (FE), mag 2009" (photos 11057_51494 et 11057_51493 by Maura Nosenzo in Acta Plantarum; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja June 2014. Rev. as O. lutea in Acta Plantarum; accessed Jan 2017).

Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Udine (UD): "Orobanche elatior Sutton [!] / Laghi di Fusine (Tarvisio) - luglio 2006 / Foto Gianni Dose" (photos 2184 in Acta Plantarum; accessed Jun 2011); "Orobanche elatior Sutton / Orobanchaceae: Succiamele della Centaurea / Laghi di Fusine (UD), lug 2006" (photo 1265 by Gianni Dose" in Acta Plantarum; accessed Jun 2014).

Lazio / Latium / Lacio [unconfirmed, see O. crenata]

 Latina (LT): "Herbarium Francavillanum / Orobanche elatior Sutt. / In arvis / Etats Napolitaino. Ittri [Itri]. 3 Avril 1846 (P 04384968; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [both specimens correspond to O. crenata Forssk.]).

Liguria [unconfirmed, see O. lutea and O. kochii]

"Orobanche elatior Sutton, Regione Liguria, Maggio 2008, foto di Marika. / La pianta parassita della Centaurea scabiosa L. subsp. scabiosa [mistaked host]" (photo 3243-0-12320700-1391525049 [69185] in Funghi in Italia - Fiori in Italia; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [O. lutea]).

Trentino-Alto Adige / Trentino-Südtirol

Trentino (TN): "Trent. A. Adige" (Pignatti 1982: 132, sub O. elatior); "Lungo la mulattiera tra Grigno e Cinte sulla destra idrografica del Torr. Grigno, subito oltre la rupe con il capitello (Valsugana) [9935/4], 400 m, zona erboso-sassosa (parassita su Centaurea scabiosa), 21 Jun 1996, F. Prosser; loc. Praiol in Val di Cei (Vallagarina) [0032/1], 940-950 m, prato falciabile (parassita su Centaurea scabiosa), 29 Jun 1997, leg. R. Vettori, det. F. Prosser." (Prosser 1999: 200); "Prosser 1997 ... Rovereto [Vallagarina] (ROV) und Valsugana" (Pusch 2009: 73, sub O. elatior); "Val di Fiemme [Fleimstal]" (photo 48 by F. Prosser; accessed Jun 2011 [it is not a typical form]).

Tuscany / Toscana (Pignatti 1982: 132, sub O. elatior) [unconfirmed, see O. santolinae and O. kochii (O. centaurina)]

Massa and Carrara (MS) [unconfirmed, these specimens seem to correspond to O. santolinae and O. kochii]: "O. elatior ... fotografate nelle cave di Marmo di Carrara (quota m 300 -localitá Fantiscritti) ... " (Associazione Micologica Italiana Naturalistica Telematica (AMINT); accessed et rev. G. Moreno Moral 23 Aug 2006, sub O. kochii [O. centaurina]); Spuntava nel bel mezzo di un cespuglietto di Santolina pinnata ... Apuane, Campocecina (MS) 1250 m lug 2010 (photos 133325 by Melania Marchi, sub O. elatior, in Acta Plantarum; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2012, sub O. santolinae); "Orobanche elatior Sutton / Orobanchaceae: Succiamele della Centaurea / Campocecina (MS), 1250 m, lug 2010" (Foto di Melania Marchi in Acta Plantarum; accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jun 2014, sub O. santolinae [whitish specimens]).

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Latvia / Latvija / Letonia / Lettonie / Lettland / Латвия

Riga Planning Region / Рижский район: "... / Orobanche elatior Sutt. / = O. major L. p.p. / HA Centaurea scabiosa L. / Латвия. Рижский район [Riga Planning Region]. Между ж-д станциями Инчукалнс / и Силциемс. / На лесной поляне. / 8 августа 1978. / [Собр. / Coll.] Н. Шведчикова [N. Shvedchikova]" (MW 0513887; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2019).

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Liechtenstein [rare] (Beck 1930: 248, sub O. major L.; Pusch 2009: 74, sub O. elatior)

"bei Nendeln [Eschen], Schaan, Balzers nach Murr" (Beck 1930: 248,  sub O. major L.); "Liechtenstein selten" (Pusch 2009: 74, sub O. elatior).

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Lietuva / Lithuania / Litauen / Lituania / Lituanie (Pusch 2009: 74 Abb. 97, sub O. elatior s.l.; Zázvorka 2010: 85, 86, sub O. elatior; O. elatior in Laukines pievos, accessed Dec 2016)

"Paplitimas Lietuvoje: Labai retas. Žinomas iš Vilniaus, Druskininkų [Druskininkai] (Snarskio duomenimis) ir Paluknio [Paluknys] (Gorskio duomenimis)." (Lietuvos TSR flora, T. 5, 1976) et "Rare in the region. In Lithuania only in the southeastern part. On the northern limit of its range." (Flora of the Baltic Countries, Vol. 2, 1996) (O. elatior in Laukines pievos, accessed Dec 2016).

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Netherlands / Nederlanden / Países Bajos (Beck 1930: 248, sub O. major L.; Kreutz 1995: 93!, 95! et in Europeana 1 et 2; Zázvorka 2010: 85, sub O. elatior)

South Limburg / Zuid-Limburg: "Zeer zeldzaam. Sinds 1973 standhoudend op de Kunderberg in Zuid-Limburg." (Orobanche elatior Sutton, 2001-2011 Klaas Dijkstra; accessed Jun 2011).

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North Macedonia / Северна Македонија / Macedonia del Norte / Macédoine du Nord / Nordmazedonien (Nikolov 2019, sub O. elatior)

Sopište: "Mk. – "Kozjak" (v. Nova Breznica), Skopje valley, 1240 m a.s.l., 18.05.2008 (Leg./Det. Z. Nikolov) ... In our case, three other species of Centaurea: C. atropurpurea [C. calocephala Willd. = C. atropurpurea Waldst. & Kit., non Olivier 1801] (Fig. 3a, 3b, 3c), C. salonitana [C. salonitana Vis. ≡ C. reflexa subsp. salonitana (Vis.) Mikheev] (Fig. 3d) and C. grbavacensis [C. grbavacensis (Rohlena) Stoj. & Acht. = C. atropurpurea var. soskae Stoj. & Acht.] (Fig. 4a, 4b) appear to be host plants, for O. elatior."  (Nikolov 2019: 14, sub O. elatior).

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Norway / Norge / Noreg / Noruega (Beck 1890: 172, sub O. major L.; Beck 1930: 248, sub O. major L.; Zázvorka 2010: 85, sub O. elatior)

Troms / Romsa: "Tromsö bei Arendal nach Blytt" (Beck 1930: 248, sub O. major L.).

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Poland / Polska / Polonia / Polen (Beck 1930: 248, sub O. major L.; Pusch 2009: 73 Abb. 97, sub O. elatior s.l. [incl. O. kochii (O. ritro Gren.)]; Zázvorka 2010: 113-114; Zázvorka 2010: 86; Piwowarczyk 2012; Piwowarczyk & Krajewski 2015: 9, "Fig. 3 Distribution of Orobanche elatior in Poland: 1 – before 1950, 2 – 1950–2000, 3 – after 2000, 4 – only literature data of O. elatior s.l., uncertain"; photos in nahuby.sk; accessed Jan 2017)

Lublin Voivodeship: "09. 06. 2011, Ostoja Natura 2000 "Żurawce" (photo 278817 by Mgr. Piotr Chmielewski in nahuby.sk; accessed Jan 2017).

Opole Voivodeship: "ad fodinas sulf calc. prope Dirschel [Dzierżysław, Gmina Kietrz, Głubczyce County] Silesiae, Centaurea scabiosae parasitica" (Reuter 1847: 26, loc. class. of O. stigmatodes Wimm.; Zázvorka 2010: 90).

Pomeranian Voivodeship / Pomorskie Region [unconfirmed]: "No 10521 / Orobanche / Auf ... bei Karthaus [Kartuzy / Kartuzë?] / Juli 1870 / Dr. Schur" (P 04384979 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017).

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Romania / Rumania / România (Schur 1866: 505, sub O. elatior, "Vielleicht mit der vorigen identisch?"; Pusch 2009: 73 Abb. 97, sub O. elatior s.l. [incl. O. kochii (O. ritro Gren.)]; Piwowarczyk 2012; Piwowarczyk & Krajewski 2015: 2, sub O. elatior, "Romania [13,21,23] (also Piwowarczyk unpublished data, and nahuby.sk])"

Transylvania / Siebenbürgen

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Russia / Rusia / Россия [need be confirmed]

Central Federal District / Центра́льный федера́льный о́круг

Восточная Европа, Центральный лесостепной район (Россия) [Eastern Europe, Central Forest-Steppe District (Russia)], "N.8 Orobanche elatior Sutt. / (G. Beck) / ... / 3 Abr. 83" (MW 0513903; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018).

Kaliningrad Oblast / Калинингра́дская о́бласть (Pusch 2009: 73 Abb. 97, 74 sub O. elatior s.l.)

"Region Königsberg (nördliches Ostpreußen...)"

North Caucasian Federal District / Се́веро-Кавка́зский (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev [Cvelev] 1958: 102[132], sub O. major L.)

Karachay-Cherkess Republic / Карача́ево-Черке́сская Респу́блика: "Цветущие растения, паразитирующие на Cirsium pugnax [new/mistaken host?]. Карачаево-Черкесия, верховья Кубани, ущелье р. Даут, луг. 07.07.2015." (photo 417080 et 417077 by Сергей Банкетов, 2016; растение определил(а) Андрей Ковальчук in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2016 [need to be confirmed, dorsal line is evenly curved (see Orobanche schelkovnikovii Tzvelev)]).

Krim / Crimea / Кры́мский полуо́стров / Кри́мський піво́стрів

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Slovenia / Slovenija / Eslovenia / Slowenien (Frajman & al. 2011: 60)

Slovenian Littoral / Litorale / Küstenland: "9849/4 (UTM 33TVM10) Slovenija: Primorska, Cerkljansko, Ravne pri Cerknem, Dolenje Ravne, Na Župnici, dolomit, suh travnik (Scabioso hladnikianae-Caricetum humilis), ki se z roba zarašča (tabela 1), 580 m n. m., visoki pojalnik zajeda takson Centaurea scabiosa subsp. fritschii. Leg. & det. I. Dakskobler, 8. 6. 2010 in 8. 10. 2010, conf. J. Zázvorka, 10. 3. 2011. Herbarij ZRC SAZU 11621 (duplikat v LJU) in avtorjevi fotografski posnetki." (Frajman & al. 2011: 60).

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Spain / Espańa / Espagne / Spanien (Pusch 2009: 73 Abb. 97, sub O. elatior s.l. [incl. O. kochii; O. leptantha (O. icterica) and O. loscosii (O. ritro auct. hisp.)]; Carlón & al. 2011: 97, sub O. elatior)

Catalonia / Cataluńa / Catalunya

Lérida / Lleida (L / Ll): municipality of Naut Aran, Solan de Salardú e Tredňs (near Tredňs village) [comarca of the Aran Valley], parasitic on (!) Centaurea scabiosa L. (Compositae [Asteraceae]) in a sunny meadow, 31TCH2930, 1450 m, 22 Jun 2004, L. Carlón, G. Gómez Casares & G. Moreno Moral MM0163/2004 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 11943); ibidem, 16 Jun 2005, L. Carlón, G. Gómez Casares & G. Moreno Moral MM0071/2005 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12267); ibidem, 1400 m, 16 Jun 2005, L. Carlón, G. Gómez Casares & G. Moreno Moral (obs.) (Carlón & al. 2011: 97, sub O. elatior); Naut Aran, sobre el Marrčc de Sobervia (Solan de Salardú e Tredňs, pr. Tredňs, Aran Valley), 31TCH2930, 1425 m, cerca de hojas de Centaurea sp. en prado soleado, G. Moreno Moral, 16-VI-2019 (obs., había dos ejemplares brotando, que serán de escasa talla, 60 m por encima de la curva de la carretera, y otro aún más pequeńo 20 m por encima del borde de la curva. Por el color general de los brotes y el de sus estigmas, que parece serán amarillos, parece tratarse de O. elatior. La ladera en el presente ańo está siendo muy pastada por los rebańos de ovejas, a diferencia de las otras veces que se ha visitado; no se ven orobanques prácticamente (solo algunos ejemplares de O. caryophyllacea y O. gracilis, se detectaron también). Quizás tenga que ver este aprovechamiento con la falta de nieve en el pasado invierno y primavera).

N.B. Other images under this name are wrong, e.g.: "Frare (Orobanche elatior). Presa al pas de les Eugues del Montsec de Rúbies (Noguera-Catalunya). A 1.210 m. d'alçada" et "Frare (Orobanche elatior). Presa al Tossal, Ponts (Noguera-Catalunya). A 450 m. d'altitud" (photos IB-909 et IB-230 by Isidre Blanc in Wikimedia Commons accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [O. gracilis]); "Frare (Orobanche elatior). Presa a l'Aguda de Torŕ (Segarra -Catalunya). A 600 m. d'alçada" (photos IB-746 et IB-753 by Isidre Blanc in Wikimedia Commons accessed et rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017 [O. leptantha (O. icterica)]).

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Sweden / Suecia / Sučde / Schweden (Mutel 1835: 346, "Sučde"; Beck 1930: 248; Magnusson 2008: 164 f. 2; Zázvorka 2010: 85, sub O. elatior)

Skĺne / Scania: Orobanche major L. / Skĺne: Scania [Solander scripsit] (S 09-25806); "Plantae Scandinavicae / Orobanche major L. / Skĺne, Kampinga / Juli 1908 / leg. Valentin Norlind" (P 04410445; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2012 [cf., two specimens bad preserved]); "Flora Suecica / Orobanche major L. / Hven [Ven], Norreborg / Skĺne / 20.VII.1923 leg. F.H. Ander" (PE 01476040; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2013); "Schweden (Halland ? und Skĺne, bei Bälteberga [J. Lundberg], Oeland?" (Beck 1930: 248, sub O. major L.); Klagshamn, Skĺne, Sweden / Suecia, 17 June 2009 (photo 3669450318 by Kristian Svensson; accessed Jun 2011); Lunds reningsverk, Skĺne, 2010-07-23 (photos 48074 by Calle Ljungberg; accessed Jun 2011).

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Switzerland / Schweiz / Suisse / Svizzera / Suiza (Bonnier 1926[1990]: 887, sub O. major, "Suisse: rare; cantons du Valais, de Fribourg, de Berne, de Saint-Gall, de Schaffhouse, d' Argovie et des Grisons"); Beck 1930: 248, sub O. major L., "Schweiz!: Wallis!, Bern! (Rochefort, Schwarzematt, Martinsberg), Schaffhausen (Rorschach), Schwyz!, Graubünden! (St. Luzienberg, Balzers), Chur (Ponte), im Juni, Juli"; Aeschimann & al. 2004: 292, p.p., 293 photo 1!; Info Flora 2004 -2019, Karte); accessed Jun 2011).

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Ukraine / Ucrania / Україна / Украи́н (see O. kochii) [needs be confirmed]

Khmelnytskyi Oblast / Хмельницька область: "Цветущее растение. Украина, Хмельницкая обл., НПП Подольские Товтры [Podil's'ki Tovtry National Park / Podilian Tovtry / Подільські Товтри]. 05.06.2014." (photo 242092 by Михаил Дребет, 2014, растение определил(а) Андрей Ковальчук, in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2016 [needs be confirmed, dorsal line is evenly curved]).

Krim / Crimea / Кры́мский полуо́стров / Кри́мський піво́стрів

Chornomorske Raion / Чорноморський район / Черноморский район: "Herbarium Universitatis Mosquensis (MW) / Orobanche elatior Sutt. / Крым, окрестности пос. Фарос, обочина дороги [Crimea, the neighborhood of the village. Pharos (Eski-Faros / Esfi-Soros / Tarkhankut Lighthouse, Tarkhankut Peninsula / Тарханкутський півострів / Тарханкутский полуостров), roadside road] / N 44ş 24' 54'' / E 33ş 50' 5'' / 4.06.2015. Собр. Заика М. [Coll. Zaika M.] / 7791" (MW 0631560; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2018 [the sheet contains three specimens that seem to correspond to O. minor aggr. (probably O. hederae, see MW 0631561)]).

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