Accepted Name - Basionymum / Basionym - Synonyms - Ind. loc. [Indicatio locotypica (type locality)] - Lectotypus [Lectotype] - Designated by - Host - Comments - Chromosomatic number - Ic. [Images] - Distribution - Specimens Examined - References - Authors - Cite us

ISSN: 2386-9666 - Last Updated: 19 July 2018


Accepted Name:

Orobanche cumana Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 58 (1825)

Synonyms:

Homotypic synonyms:

Orobanche arenaria M. Bieb., Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 2: 83 (1808), non Orobanche arenaria Borkh. in Neues Mag. Bot. 1: 6 (1794) (Reichenbach, 1829: 45; Steudel, 1841: 30; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev, 1958: 75[95]; Tzvelev, 1981 [2001]: 451 "The type of O. arenaria Bieb. ... is the type of O. cumana Wallr.). Ind. loc.: "Habitat in arenâ mobili deserti astracanensis atque cumani" (Marschall von Bieberstein, 1808: 83)

Orobanche comana [orthographic variant (Schultz, 1830: 495; Koch, 1849: 670)]

Orobanche cernua subsp. cumana (Wallr.) Soó in Feddes Repert. 83: 187 (1972). Syn.: = Orobanche cernua subsp. parviflora Kotov, Sov. Bot. 4: 90 (1935) (Art.11.2. A name has no priority outside the rank)

Orobanche cernua var. cumana (Wallr.) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr., Orobanchac.: 128 (1930) ["Var. δ cumana"]. Syn.: = Orobanche cernua var. bicolor (C.A. Mey.) Reut. in DC., Prodr. 11: 32 (1847) (Art.11.2. A name has no priority outside the rank)

Orobanche cernua f. cumana (Wallr.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 143 t. 2 f. 33(3) (1890) ["Formae ... 4. (Orobanche cumana Wallroth")]

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Heterotypic synonyms:

= Orobanche bicolor C.A. Mey. in Ledeb., Fl. Altaica 2: 458 (1830). Syn.: Orobanche cernua var. bicolor (C.A. Mey.) Reut. in DC., Prodr. 11: 32 (1847); = Orobanche cumana Wallr. (1825) (Beck, 1930: 128; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev, 1958: 75[95]). Ind. loc.: "Hab. in deserto soongoro - kirghisico [Dzungaria - Kashgar] occidentali hinc inde locis argillosis, nec non in locis sabulosis ad ripam rivuli Tschaganka versus radicem montis Tschingistau [Eastern Kazakhstan / Kazakstan] (M.)" (Meyer, 1830: 458); "Hab. in deserto soongoro - kirghisico occidentali hinc inde in locis argillosis atque in locis sabulosis ad ripam rivuli Tschaganka versus radicem montis Tschingistau [Eastern Kazakhstan / Kazakstan]" (Ledebour, Icon. Pl. 4: 25. 1833; "Sibiriae altaicae deserto soongoro - kirghisico! (Fl. Alt., Karel. et Kiril)"; Ledebour, Fl. Ross. 3: 321. 1841-1853). Ic.: Ledebour, Icon. Pl. 4: t. 390 (1833). Obs. Collections of S.G.Karelin from Middle Asia (LE). Herbarium Specimens: "1801. 1803. Orobanche bicolor C.A.M. / In praeruptis arenosis ad fl. Lepsa in Songoria [Dzungaria]; — in salsis inter Usunbulak et Gorkoi piket. / leg. Karelin et Kiriloff a. 1841 / Soc. Imp. Nat. Gur. Mosqu." (P 02968094; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2015); idem (CVH 10263; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2016); "Ledebour // Orobanche bicolor / C.A. Meyer / Altai" (CVH 10263; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2016)

= Orobanche nicotianae Wight, Ill. Ind. Bot. 2: 179[178-180], t. 158 (1850) (Hooker, 1884: 326). Ind. loc.: "The plant selected to illustrate the order is extensively distributed in Southern India, in those districts where Tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanaceae)] is largely cultivated, and is a most abundant injurious weed. In Coimbatore [Kovai / Koyamuttur / Koyambattur / Koimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India] it is in full perfection in March and April, when the Tobacco crops are approaching matury". "The Deccan; common in and destructive of tobacco crops, Wight." (Hooker, 1884: 326). Types: 1. "R. W. / Orobanche s. n. / nicotianae m. / Coimbatore January 1848". 2. "Bombay Herbarium of the late N.A. Dalzell. Presented by Mrs. Dalzell, April 1878". 3. "Orobanche cernua Loefl. var. desertorum Beck / Flora of Madras / Det. J.S. Gamble / 1922". 4. "See true interesting account of its / growth on Tobacco in Wight Spec. heilth [?].! / E.S.G [?]". 5. "= Wight on t. 158 / CB. Clarke" (K 000061383; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2016); 1. "Peninsula Indiae Orientalis / No. / 2408 / Orobanche / Herb. Wight / Distributed at the Royal Gardens, Kew. 1866-7". 2. "Coimbatore January / 1848". 3. "Orobanche cernua Loefl. var. desertorum Beck / Flora of Madras / Det. J.S. Gamble / 1922". 4. "Herbarium Hookerianum / 1867" (K 000061384; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2016)

? = Orobanche glaucantha Trautv. in Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 1: 26[-27] (1871) (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev, 1958: 72[67], sub O. glaucantha). Ind. loc.: "In Sibiria orientali, prope pag. Ust-Balei [near Irkutsk, Irkutsk Oblast, Russia / Россия], in declivibus ad fl. Angara (Tschekanowski)". Obs. "tota glaberrima" (see Orobanche cumana Wallr. 1825). "Note. Despite the complete absence of pubescence, this species is extremely close in every other respect to O. coerulescens Steph., although representing its glabrous variant." (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev, 1958: 73[68], sub O. glaucantha). "Glabrous" (Lee & al., 2016, sub O. coerulescens)

= Orobanche sabulosa Steven ex Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 143 (1890) ["in schedulis!"], nom. illeg. Ind. loc.: "provinciis caucasicis [pr. Stawropol (Stavropol / Stauropolis, Stavropol Krai, Russia / Rusia)] (C.A. Meyer), ad fl. Terek [Terek River, Caucasus]! (Steven pl. exs.)]..." (Ledebour, 1841-1853: 322, sub O. cumana)

= Orobanche sarmatica Kotov, Fl. URSR 10: 454, f. 8 (1961) (Tzvelev, 1981: 329[451]; view IPNI entry). Ind. loc.: "near Yevpatoriya [Yevpatoria / Eupatoria / Євпато́рія / Евпато́рия, Yevpatoria municipality], Crimea [Crimea / Krym], UA, (KW)" (Schlauer & al., 2003)

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= Orobanche cernua subsp. parviflora Kotov, Sov. Bot. 4: 90 (1935) (Tzvelev, 1981: 329[451]). Syn.: = Orobanche cernua subsp. cumana (Wallr.) Soó in Feddes Repert. 83: 187 (1972) (Art.11.2. A name has no priority outside the rank)

= Orobanche cernua subsp. rajahmundrica Teryokhin in Adv. Paras. Pl. Res.: 246 (1996) (Schlauer & al., 2003) [Weed Broomrapes: 15 (1997), without type. (view IPNI entry)] [in Novost Sist. Vysš. Rast. 33: 210 (2001) (view IPNI entry; Domina & Raab-Straube, 2010)]. Ind. loc.: "Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India, C.A. Raju s.n. (LE)" (Schlauer & al., 2003)

= Orobanche cernua subsp. cumana (Wallr.) Soó in Feddes Repert. 83(3): 187 (1972) view IPNI entry

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= Orobanche cernua var. bicolor (C.A. Mey.) Reut. in DC., Prodr. 11: 32 (1847) ["β. bicolor"]. Syn.: Orobanche bicolor C.A. Mey. in Ledeb., Fl. Altaica 2: 458 (1830) (Ledebour, 1841-1853: 321); = Orobanche cernua var. cumana (Wallr.) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr., Orobanchac.: 128 (1930) (Art.11.2. A name has no priority outside the rank)

= Orobanche cernua var. taurica (Beck) Tzvelev in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 46: 214 (2015). Syn.: Orobanche cernua var. cumana f. taurica Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr., Orobanchac.: 128 (1930)

= Orobanche cumana var. helianthi Tzvelev in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 46: 214[-215] (2015). Type: "Тип (typus varietatis): «Близ ст. Верблюд, Се-веро-Кавказской железн [North Caucasus Railway]. дороги, Ростовская селекционная станция [Rostov Oblast / Росто́вская о́бласть, Southern Federal District / Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг], на Helianthus annuus L., 26 VII 1949, № 65, И. В. Новопокровский» (LE, cum 2 iso)."

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= Orobanche cernua var. cumana f. densior Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr., Orobanchac.: 128 (1930) ["Forma 4. densior"]. Ind. loc.: "Hinc inde cum varietate"

= Orobanche cernua var. cumana f. holosepala Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr., Orobanchac.: 128 (1930). Ind. loc.: "Shungurei [Songaria / Soogaria / Zhungaria / Dzungaria, Kazakhstan / Kazakstan]: bei Alakulj (Bienert)"

= Orobanche cernua var. cumana f. taurica Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr., Orobanchac.: 128 (1930) ["Forma 7. taurica"]. Syn.: Orobanche cernua var. taurica (Beck) Tzvelev in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 46: 214 (2015). Ind. loc.: "In der Krim [Crimea / Krym] bei Oreanda [Yalta Municipality] (V. Golde! in Herb. Petersburg. [LE] unter O. alba)". Typus: "«In der Krim bei Oreanda [Yalta Municipality], V. Golde» — W)" (Tzvelev, 2015: 214). Herbarium Specimens: 1. "O. alba 5.". 2. "O. arenaria M.B. / Tauria litorea". 3. "O. cumana !B / mea Wallroth". 4. "208 W" (B-W 11600 200; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017, type of O. cernua var. cumana f. taurica?)

= Orobanche cernua var. cumana f. tenuisepala (Beck) Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr., Orobanchac.: 128 (1930) ["Forma 6. tenuisepala"]. Syn.: Orobanche cernua f. tenuisepala Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 143 (1890)

= Orobanche cernua f. tenuisepala Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 143 (1890) ["Formae ... 5. (Orobanche) tenuisepala"]. Ind. loc.: "Turkestania: ... in planitie Kickdan ad montes Gasi Machik et prope Gomut [Tajikistan / Tayikistán] (f. 5 leg. Regel)" (Beck, 1890: 145)

= Orobanche cernua var. cumana f. valens Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr., Orobanchac.: 128 (1930) ["Forma 4*. valens"]. Ind. loc.: "Mesopotamien: bei Tell Halaf [Tell Halaf, Al Hasakah, Syria] in der Steppe bei Haus, im Mai (Kohkl! in der Expedition Frh. v. Oppenheim)"

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Misapplied names:

Orobanche cernua auct. pl., non Orobanche cernua L. in Loefl., Iter Hispan.: 152 (1758) [e.g., "O. cérnua Pall. ind. taur." (Meyer, 1830: 458, sub O. bicolor; Don, 1838: 631; Steudel, 1841: 230, "sec. Meyer")]

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Ind. loc.: "Habitat in arenâ mobili deserti astracanensis atque cumani" (Marschall von Bieberstein, 1808: 83, sub O. arenaria); «Sands in the lower reaches of the Volga [Во́лга] and on the Kuma [Кума́] rivers ("In arena mobili deserti astracanici et cumani"). ... "O. arenaria M. In arena mobili ad Wolgam versus Astrachan [Province of Astrakhan / Astrakhan Oblast, Russia / Rusia] lecta, 1803"» (Tzvelev, 1981: 329[451]).

Typus / Type: LE. «The type of O. arenaria Bieb., preserved in Leningrad [LE] with the label "O. arenaria M. In arena mobili ad Wolgam versus Astrachan lecta, 1803" is the type of O. cumana Wallr.» (Tzvelev, 1981: 329[451]); "Lectotypus (Цвелёв, 1981: 329 = типус О. arenaria M. Bieb.): «In arena mobili ad Wolgam versus Astrachan lecta, 1803» (LE)." (Tzvelev, 2015: 214); "Orob. arenaria M. Bieb. / ad radices Xanthii strumarii / ad Wolgam / Claus // Regio Caspica. / Claus. Herb. Al. de Bunge." (P 02968103 - Hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2012 [type?])

Designated by: Tzvelev in Flora of Russia: 451 [329] (1981) (Tzvelev, 2015: 214).

Host: Parasitic on Compositae (Asteraceae) [e.g., Artemisia sp.] and Solanaceae species [e.g., Nicotiana sp.]. In Europe and other parts of the world is parasitic on various cultivated plants (e.g., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), aubergine (Solanum melongena L.) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev, 1958: 75[96]; Labrousse & al.: 2001; Annotated Checklist of Host Plants of Orobanchaceae, accessed Aug 2009).

"According to Morozov (1947), the first reports of broomrape in sunflower came from Saratov Oblast in Russia and date back to the 1890s" (Škorić & al. 2010: 64). "Helianthus annuus L. (4 [O. cernua f. cumana] s. Litwinoff)" (Beck, 1890: 143); "Helianthus annuus L. (δ [O. cernua var. cumana] s. Grintescu, Litwinoff, Alexeenko, A. Malzew in Bull. angew. Bot. St. Petersb. VI. [1913] 111-120 et Th. Sazyperow, I. c. 251-261 e literatura)" (Beck, 1930: 123).

N. B. "The wild sunflower is native to North America but commercialization of the plant took place in Russia ... Sunflower became very popular as a cultivated plant in the 18th century. Most of the credit is given to Peter the Great. The plant was initially used as an ornamental, but by 1769 literature mentions sunflower cultivated by oil production. By 1830, the manufacture of sunflower oil was done on a commercial scale" (2015 National Sunflower Association).

Comments:

Ttaxonomic and morphological observations: Orobanche cumana is a polymorphous species. It is provisionally considered by us to be an independent species very closely allied to O. cernua, although the differences between these two species can not always be easily expressed (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev, 1958: 75[95-97]; Tzvelev, 1981: 451; Pujadas & Velasco, 2000). We can easily distinguish these taxa when comparing typical specimens (e.g., when comparing specimens of O. cumana growing on cultivated plants) but this is not easy when the specimens are less typical. On the other hand, we believe the indumentum staminal (glabrous / hairy) are of no value in differentiating the two taxa (e.g., O. cernua from loc. class. has hairy stamens) as some authors think (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev, 1958: 75[95-96]; Tzvelev, 1981: 450-451). "The form of [O. cernua] subsp. cumana parasitizing sunflower ... result of anthropogenic activity, which, in any case, cannot be considered as type subspecies cumana." (Tzvelev, 1981: 451; Tzvelev, 2015: 215, type of O. cumana var. helianthi).

Phylogenetic relationships: Carlón & al. in Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 3: 61 f. 4 ["Phylogenetic relationships"], 64 (2005); Documentos Jard. Bot. Atlántico (Gijón) 6: 13 f. 2 [phylogenetic relationships] (2008).

Chromosomatic number: n = 19 (Palomeque & Sañudo, 1981, sub O. cernua [Granada]), 2n = 38 (Schneeweiss & al., 2004, sub var. cumana); 2n = 24 (Žukov, 1939, sub O. cumana; Tzvelev, 1981: 451, sub subsp. cumana).

Ic.: a, Reichenbach, 1829: 45, t. 691 f. 926 ["Caucaso: Blume, ex herb. cl.Trevirani"] f. 927 ["Specimen Wallrothianum"]; b, Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: t. 2 f. 33(3) (1890); c, Beck, 1930: 113 f. 13; d, Ledebour, Ic. Pl. Fl. Ross.: t. 390 (1833, sub O. bicolor C.A. Mey.); e, habit and corolla ["with host plant Artemisia sp." (Tzvelev in Flora of Russia: 437 t. 41 f. 4. 1981; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev. Flora SSSR 23: t. 5 f. 3. 1958; Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: t. 2 f. 33(3). 1890; Moscow State University Herbarium (MW); f, sheet (Almendros, Cuenca); g, habit (sub var. cumana on its host Artemisia meyeriana (Asteraceae); Georgia, May 2001 by G. Schneeweiss. SIUC, accessed Mar 2006); h, habit (sub O. cernua. Parasitizing sunflower. Bulgaria, by L.J. Musselman. SIUC, accessed Mar 2006).

Distribution: "General distribution: Central Europe (southern part), Mediterranean, Balkans-Asia Minor, Armenia-Kurdistan, Iran, Dzhungaria-Kashgaria, Mongolia" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev, 1958: 80[75], sub O. cumana); Eurasian distribution (Domina & Raab-Straube, 2010, sub Orobanche cumana, accessed Jul 2010). Area and zones of severity of Sunflower Broomrape by Yakutkin & Budrevskaya, 2006 in AgroAtlas. "Cartographie des principales zones de culture de tournesol infestées par l’orobanche [France]" in http://www.lgseeds.fr, accessed Dec 2014; "Orobanche cumana Wallr. se distribuye de forma natural desde Asia Central hasta el sudeste de Europa, dónde parasita especies silvestres de la familia Asteraceae ... Esta especie, conocida como jopo del girasol (Helianthus annuus L.), es también una importante mala hierba parásita de este cultivo, dónde fue observada por primera vez parasitando girasol en Rusia en la década de 1890. Orobanche cumana está presente en los cultivos de girasol en muchos países de todo el mundo, especialmente en el centro y este de Europa, España, Turquía, Israel, Rusia, Ucrania, Irán, Kazajstán, China, Francia y Túnez." (Pineda Martos, 2014, sub O. cumana). Iberian distribution.

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Specimens examined and literature records.

Afghanistan / Afganistán

Afghanistan (Zhang & Tzvelev, 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

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Algeria / الجزائر‎ / Argelia / Algérie / Algerien [unconfirmed]

"Also in northern Africa" (Kreutz, 1995: 88, sub O. cumana).

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Armenia / Hayastan / Armenien / Армения (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev, 1958: 80[75], sub O. cumana)

"Caucas. [Caucasus]" (Steudel, 1841: 30, sub O. cumana); "Caucasi" (Reuter, 1847: 32, sub O. cumana); t. 691 f. 926 ["Caucaso: Blume, ex herb. cl.Trevirani"] (Reichenbach, 1829: 45); "in Caucaso a Blume lectae herbarii Treviraniani" (Reichenbach, 1862: 107); "Armenia-Kurdistan" (Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev, 1958: 80[75], sub O. cumana); Армения, 6.06.1931. Собр. Карягин И.И. [Karyagin I.I.] (MW 0723469; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018).

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Azerbaijan / Azerbaiyán / Azərbaycan / Азербайджан (Beck, 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana; Karjagin, 1957)

"In Tatarisch [Tatarstan, Russia]-Grusien [Georgia] und Schirwan [Shirvan, Azerbaijan] auf Beifuss [Artemisia], 500-800' hoch." (Koch, 1849: 670); "Territorium Caucasi: f. 4 (! Helenendorf [Goygol / Xanlar / Chanlar / Elenendorf] prope Jelisawetpol [Ganja / Gəncə / Yelizavetpol]...)" (Beck, 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana).

Elisabethpol Governorate / Elizavetpol Governorate / Елизаветпольская губерния: "... / 350. Orobanche cumana Wallr. / ... / Prov. Elisabethpol, distr. Araesch. In semideserto Boz, ad / radices Artemisiarum. / 16.29. V. 1908 Leg. A. Schelkownikow et G. Woronow. / Determ. G. Woronow" (MW 0723472; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014).

Şirvan / Shirvan: "Orobanche cumana Wallr. / insula Swatoi [Shirvan] m. Caspii / leg. Al. Brnhns. // Herb. Al. de Bunge" (P 02968107 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014); "Orobanche cumana Wallr. / In insula Sswätoi [Shirvan] maris Caspii / leg. Al. Brnhns." (MW 0723471; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018).

Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic / Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası (Karjagin, 1957)

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Australia / Australien [unconfirmed]

Australia (Carter & Cooke, 1994: 586 "potential agricultural weeds in southern Australia"; Kreutz, 1995: 88; Škorić & al. 2010: 64).

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Bangladesh / Bangladés / Bangladesch [East Pakistan] (Shaha & Mian, 2013, sub O. cernua, "district of Jessore, Kushtia, Pabna and Rajshahi" ... "attacked sunflower, tomato and tobacco")

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Bulgaria / България / Bulgarie / Bulgarien (Beck, 1930: 123, sub O. cernua var. cumana; Petrov, 1968; Encheva & Shindrova, 1994: 621; Pineda-Martos & al., 2014)

Burgas Province / Област Бургас / Oblast Burgas: "Figure 2: Details of population CUMBUL-1 of Orobanche cumana parasitizing Artemisia maritima in Burgas, Bulgaria." (Pineda-Martos & al., 2014: 4).

Varna Province / Област Варна / Oblast Varna: "Bulgarien: bei Varna (nach Davidoff, Prinoss za izont. fl. Varn. XXI [1905]), in der Stara Plan, bei Dragoman in 800 m Seehöhe (F.A. Novak!)." (Beck, 1930: 123, sub O. cernua var. cumana); A new physiological race of broomrape ... observed in Varna ... wild host (Artemisia maritima L. [A. maritima auct. non L. = A. santonicum L.])... (Petrov, 1968; Encheva & Shindrova, 1994: 621).

Bulgaria (Petrov, 1970; Greuter & al., 1989: 258, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana; Encheva & Shindrova, 1994: 619, "From its first appearance in 1935 ["in the norteast of Bulgaria"] the parasite has been the constant companion of sunflower ... According to Knyazkov (1950), the severest attacks were recorded in the northeast of Bulgaria (the regions of Varna, Shumen, Provadia"; Shindrova, 1994: 145 f. 1; Gagne, 1998; Shindrova, 2006); "Parasitizing sunflower in Bulgaria" (Musselman, sub O. cernua. SIUC, accessed Mar 2006); "La costa del Mar Negro en el este de Bulgaria es una de las principales áreas naturales de distribución de O. cumana, dónde esta especie se encuentra principalmente parasitando Artemisia maritima L." (Pineda Martos, 2014, sub O. cumana).

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China / Chine / 中国 (Beck, 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana; Beck, 1930: 125, sub O. cernua var. cumana; Tzvelev, 1981: 451, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana; Zhang & Tzvelev, 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana)

"Ku pei Ku (f. 4 leg. Wawra)" (Beck, 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana; Beck, 1930: 125, sub O. cernua var. cumana; Tzvelev, 1981: 451, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana), "Dzhungaria-Kashgaria" [Dzungaria - Kashgar, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region]; "Gansu, Hebei, W Jilin, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Xinjiang" (Zhang & Tzvelev, 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana); China (Fernández Escobar & al., 2009).

Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region / Nei Mongol Autonomous Region / 内蒙古自治区: "Flora of China / Field No. H. 3839 / Date Aug. 12, 1933 / Paiyennopo, Ordos [Muu-us / Bad Water Desert / 鄂尔多斯沙漠], Mongolia / Altitude 1400 m / Sand flat / ... / Flower purple ... / Collector W.Y. Hsia" (PE 01463751; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); Dengkou County / 磴口县 (HIMC 0034719; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018).

Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region / 宁夏回族自治区: Zhongwei / 中卫市 (IFP 13202002w0003; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018).

Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region / 新疆维吾尔自治区: Zhaosu County [Mongolküre County] (IBSC 0547755; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018).

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France / Francia / Frankreich (Kreutz, 1995: 88, sub O. cumana; O. cumana in http://www.agro.basf.fr, accessed Dec 2014)

"northward to southern France" (Kreutz, 1995: 88, sub O. cumana); "Orobanche cumana est spécifique du tournesol ... Un phénomène nouveau en France ... Sa présence en France est avérée depuis 2009 dans l’Ouest et le Sud-Ouest (Vendée, Poitou-Charentes, Tarn-et-Garonne, Haute-Garonne), avec des niveaux d’infestation ponctuellement forts." (O. cumana in http://www.agro.basf.fr, accessed Dec 2014).

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Georgia / Sakartvelo / Грузия

"Caucas. [Caucasus]" (Steudel, 1841: 30, sub O. cumana); "Caucasi" (Reuter, 1847: 32, sub O. cumana); "ad fl. Terek [Terek River]! (Steven pl. exs.)]..." (Ledebour, 1841-1853: 322, sub O. cumana); "In Tatarisch [Tatarstan, Russia]-Grusien [Georgia] und Schirwan [Shirvan, Azerbaijan] auf Beifuss [Artemisia], 500-800' hoch." (Koch, 1849: 670); "Territorium Caucasi: f. 4 (... Tatuni, Tiflis [Tbilisi])" (Beck, 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana); "bei Tiflis [Tbilisi], Tatuni δ" (Beck, 1930: 124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); Georgia, May 2001 by G. Schneeweiss, sub var. cumana on its host Artemisia meyeriana [Asteraceae]. SIUC, accessed Mar 2006).

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Greece / Grecia / Ελλάδα / Hellas

Crete / Creta: "Cr" (Greuter & al., 1989: 258, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana); "Kriti with Karpathos, Kasos & Gavdhos" (Domina & Raab-Straube, 2010, sub O. cumana).

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Hungary / Hungría / Magyarország

Hungary (Barina & al., 2005)

Central Hungary / Közép-Magyarország: "Hungary, Abony [Pest County] / subhalofilní trávník / 15 August 2008" (photo 169232 et det. Pavel Novák in 1999-2016 BioLib, accessed Dec 2016).

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India / Indien

Andhra Pradesh: "tobacco crop in Andhra Pradesh" (Krishnamurthy & Nagarajan, 1981: 235, sub O. cernua); "Central Tobacco Research Institute, Rajahmundry [Rajamahendravaram], Andhra Pradesh, India, C.A. Raju s.n. (LE)" (Schlauer & al., 2003, loc. class. of O. cernua subsp. rajahmundrica); "One of the worst phanerogramous parasites of crop plants known. Occurs on tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanaceae)] in many areas in India. Known by different names in different parts of India such as 'malle1 in Andhra Pradesh and 'tokra' in North India" (photo by Integrated Pest and Diseases Management Expert Advisory System, accessed Dec 2010).

Cachemire: "R. de Cachemyr / Voyage de V. Jacquemont aux Indes Orient." (P 02968095; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2015); "Orobanche indica ... / 77. Voyage de V. Jacquemont aux Indes Orient." (P 02968090; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2015 [cf.]).

Tamil Nadu: 1. "R. W. / Orobanche s. n. / nicotianae m. / Coimbatore January 1848". 2. "Bombay Herbarium of the late N.A. Dalzell. Presented by Mrs. Dalzell, April 1878". 3. "Orobanche cernua Loefl. var. desertorum Beck / Flora of Madras / Det. J.S. Gamble / 1922". 4. "See true interesting account of its / growth on Tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanaceae)] in Wight Spec. heilth [?].! / E.S.G [?]". 5. "= Wight on t. 158 / CB. Clarke" (K 000061383; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2016, type of O. nicotianae Wight); 1. "Peninsula Indiae Orientalis / No. / 2408 / Orobanche / Herb. Wight / Distributed at the Royal Gardens, Kew. 1866-7". 2. " Coimbatore January / 1848". 3. "Orobanche cernua Loefl. var. desertorum Beck / Flora of Madras / Det. J.S. Gamble / 1922". 4. "Herbarium Hookerianum / 1867" (K 000061384; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2016, type of O. nicotianae Wight); "The plant selected to illustrate the order is extensively distributed in Southern India, in those districts where Tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum L.] is largely cultivated, and is a most abundant injurious weed. In Coimbatore [Kovai / Koyamuttur / Koyambattur / Koimbatore] it is in full perfection in March and April, when the Tobacco crops are approaching matury" (cf. Wight, 1850: 178, loc. class. of O. nicotianae Wight); "The Deccan; common in and destructive of tobacco crops [Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanaceae)], Wight." (Hooker, 1884: 326).

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Iran / Irán / Persia / Persien

Hamadan / Hamedān Province: "Persia: W: Ham.: Aq Bolagh-e Aqdaq, 2000 m, Rioux & Golv. AB-392" (Gilli, 1976: 297, sub O. cernua var. cumana f. tenuisepala).

North Khorasan Province: "E: Khor.: 30 km W. Bojnurd versus Shahabad, 800 m, Rech. 55552" (Gilli, 1976: 297, sub O. cernua var. cumana f. holosepala).

West Azerbaijan Province: "bei Urumia [Urmia / Orumieh, West Azerbaijan Province] auf schotterigen Hügeln auf Sonchus und bei Dise-samek, im Juli 1884 (J.A. Knapp δ)" (Beck, 1930: 124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "Persia: W: Azerb.: Khvoy [Khoy / Khoi / Khuy, West Azerbaijan Province], Assadi in Rech. 44380" (Gilli, 1976: 297, sub O. cernua var. cumana f. holosepala).

Iran (Tzvelev, 1981: 451, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana).

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Iraq / Irak

"C. Haussknecht. Iter Syriaco-Armeniacum 1867. / Orobanche cernua L. / ad radici Artemisiae ... in deserto / Singarae [Singar] / die 6 Mai // 1870 no. 21" (P 02968091; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2015); "Syria: in deserto Singarae [Singar]..." (f. 4 leg. Haussknecht!)" (Beck, 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana); "Wüste Singara [Singar]" (Beck, 1930: 124, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

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Israel and Palestinian territories [Palestine / Palaestina]

Israel: Israel (Joel, 1988; Ish-Shalom-Gordon & al., 1993; Eizenberg & al., 2004); "Bet-Dagan Experimental Station (coastal plain) ... Kibbutz Hasolelim (lower Galilee)" (Ish-Shalom-Gordon & al., 1994); "with host (Helianthus annuus), Bet She'an, Haré Gilboa (Is), 22-5-1984" (Kreutz, 1995: 91!); photo, "Kibbutz Bet Hashita Valley of Jesrael" by R. Jacobsohn, Agricultural Research Organization, accessed Jan 2011).

Palestine / Palestina: "Hosts: ... irrigated vegetable crops in Lower Jordan Valley and Arava Valley [Arabah / HaArava / Wādī'Araba / Aravah, Great Rift Valley]" (Feinbrun-Dothan, 1978: 213, sub O. cernua).

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Italy / Italia / Italien [unconfirmed]

"southern Italy" (Kreutz, 1995: 88).

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Jordan / اَلأُرْدُنّ / Al-'Urdunn / Jordanie / Jordania / Jordanien

"Hosts: ... irrigated vegetable crops in Lower Jordan Valley and Arava Valley [Arabah / HaArava / Wādī'Araba / Aravah, Great Rift Valley]" (Feinbrun-Dothan, 1978: 213, sub O. cernua); Al-Khateeb & al., 2003.

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Kazakhstan / Қазақстан / Qazaqstan / Казахстан / Kazajistán (Ledebour, 1833: 25, t. 390, loc. class. of O. bicolor C.A. Mey.; Reuter, 1847: 32, sub O. cernua var. bicolor; Antonova, 2014, sub O. cumana)

"Hab. in deserto soongoro - kirghisico [Soongoro-Kirghisici (Dzungaria - Kashgar)] occidentali hinc inde in locis argillosis atque in locis sabulosis ad ripam rivuli Tschaganka [Tschuganka] versus radicem montis Tschingistau [Tschingistan] [Eastern Kazakhstan / Kazakstan]" (Ledebour, 1833: 25, t. 390, loc. class. of O. bicolor C.A. Mey.; Reuter, 1847: 32, sub O. cernua var. bicolor); "Sibiriae altaicae deserto soongoro - kirghisico! (Fl. Alt., Karel. et Kiril [Karel. et Kiril Enum. pl. Fl. alt. No. 675])" (Ledebour, 1841-1853: 321, sub O. bicolor); "Native of Altaia, in the Soongarian desert, in argillaceous and sandy soil, on the banks of the river Tschunganka, towards the foor of Mount Tschingistan" (Don, 1838: 631, sub O. bicolor); "Sibir. alt. [Altaic Siberia]" (Steudel, 1841: 230, sub O. bicolor); "1801. 1803. Orobanche bicolor C.A.M. / In praeruptis arenosis ad fl. Lepsa [Lepsy River] in Songoria [Dzungaria]; — in salsis inter Usunbulak et Gorkoi piket. / leg. Karelin et Kiriloff a. 1841 / Soc. Imp. Nat. Gur. Mosqu." (P 02968094; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2015); idem (CVH 10263; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja, Dec. 2016); "Ledebour // Orobanche bicolor  / C.A. Meyer / Altai" (CVH 10263; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2016); "ad flum. Lepsa [Lepsy River] in Soongaria, in salsis inter Usunbulak et Gorkoipiket (Karelin et Kiriloff!") (Reuter, 1847: 32, sub O. cernua var. bicolor); "Orobanche cumana / Alatan [Alatau / Ala-Too / Алатау / Ала-Тоо / Алатау, North East of Kazakhstan] / Schrenk // In deserto Kirghisico vel in montibus / Tarbagatai [Tarbagatai Mountains] aut Ala-Tan Cl. Schrenk, 1840 / Herb. Al. de Bunge" (P 02968108 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec. 2014); "Orobanche cumana Warrl. / Soongoria / Habui ab Annesikob [?]" (P 02968105 - hb. E. Drake; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec. 2014); "Orobanche arenaria M. Bieb. / Songaria [?] Claus. 47 // Herb. Al. de Bunge" (P 02968107 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014); "Siberia altaica: in deserto soongoro - kirghisico [Soongoro-Kirghisici, East Kazakhstan Region] m. Alatau! (Schrenk pl. exs.)" (Ledebour, 1841-1853: 322, sub O. cumana); "Songhoria: f. 4 ad fl. Lepsa [Lepsy River] inter Usunbulak et Gorkoi picket (Karelin et Kiriloff), inter Kocksu et Karatul, prope Tarba-gatai, Alakul et Saduk et prope Dschisdy-King (leg. Schrenk)" (Beck, 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana); "Shungurei: bei Alakulj (Bienert)" [Songaria / Soogaria / Zhungaria / Dzungaria]" (Beck, 1930: 128, loc. class. of O. cernua var. cumana f. holosepala); "Turkestan / Türkistan" (Beck, 1930: 125, sub O. cernua var. cumana); Kazakhstan (Zhang & Tzvelev, 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

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Kyrgyzstan / Kirguistán / Кыргызстан / Киргизия

Kyrgyzstan (Zhang & Tzvelev, 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "Цветущее растение (форма, лишённая синего пигмента). Киргизия, Чуйская обл [Chui region], северный склон Киргизского хр. 25 июня 2009 г. / Александр Науменко, 2014; растение определил(а) Холгер Улих" (photo 225740 in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2014).

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Moldova / Moldavia / Молдавия

"Bessarabia" (Reuter, 1847: 32, sub O. cumana); "Podolia [Podilia / Podillya / Поділля / Подолье] australi a Bessero indicata" (Reichenbach, 1862: 107, sub O. cumana); Moldova (Sharova, 1968); "Ju" (Greuter & al., 1989: 258, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana); "in 1981, 230 flowers of the parasite were registered on one plant in Komrat [Conrat, Gagauzia] district of Moldova in some sunflower fields" (Yakutkin, 2003-2009).

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Mongolia / Монгол улс

"Mongolia: f. 4: Oasis Nija 1500 m, Oasis Keria, in decliv. N. Thianschan, prope Zaidam (leg. Przewalski)" (Beck, 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana; Beck, 1930: 125, sub O. cernua var. cumana; Mongolia (Tzvelev, 1981: 451, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana; Zhang & Tzvelev, 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

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Morocco / المغرب‎, / Marruecos / Marokko [unconfirmed]

"Also in northern Africa" (Kreutz, 1995: 88).

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Nepal

Nepal (Zhang & Tzvelev, 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

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Pakistan / Pakistán / Paquistán (Jafri, O. cernua [s.l.] in Flora of Pakistan Online - efloras.org, "Orobanche cumana Walk. is a smaller form, c. 6.5 mm tall ... but insertion of stamens in the middle of corolla-tube is very distinctive. A fairly common. taxon from hills to plains in our area."; accessed Jan 2017)

Punjab Province: "C-7 Campbellpur Dist. [Attock Dist.]: parasitic on tobacco and Petunia species, flowers blue, April 1934, R.R. Stewart 13788 (RAW)" (Jafri, O. cernua in Flora of Pakistan Online - efloras.org; accessed Jan 2017).

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Romania / Rumania / România

"Rumänien: δ Lacul sarat bei Braila, im August (Prodan) und in der Dobrudscha: δ bei Cerna voda, Tschirghial, im Juli (Prodan)" (Beck, 1930: 123, sub O. cernua var. cumana); Romania (Vrânceanu & al. 1980; Pacureanu-Joita & al., 1998; Gagne, 1998).

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Russia / Rusia / Россия (Ledebour, 1841-1853: 322, sub O. cumana; Novopokrovskii & Tzvelev, 1958: 80[75], sub O. cumana; Antonova, 2014, sub O. cumana)

"Hab. in Rossia australi [ad Tanain (Henning), pr. Astrachan (M. a Bieb.), in deserto caspio (Tauscher ex (M. a Bieb.)] et cumanensi (M. a Bieb.) et provinciis caucasicis [pr. Stawropol (Stavropol / Stauropolis)] (C.A. Meyer), ad fl. Terek [Terek River, loc. class. of O. sabulosa Steven]! (Steven pl. exs.)]..." (Ledebour, 1841-1853: 322, sub O. cumana); "In Tatarisch [Tatarstan, Russia]-Grusien [Georgia] und Schirwan [Shirvan, Azerbaijan] auf Beifuss [Artemisia], 500-800' hoch." (Koch, 1849: 670); "Rossia: f. 4 ... Gub. Astrachan (! Astrachan, Bogdo; Sarepta), Gub. Saratow (! Kamyschin), Gub. Simbirsk (! Syssan), Gub. Perm! in montibus Uralensibus!, Gub. Orenburg!" (Beck, 1890: 144, sub O. cernua f. cumana); " im Gub. Astrachan [Astrakhan Oblast]: bei Astrachan, Bogdo, Sarepta [now part of Volgograd, Volgograd Oblast], Dolban an der Mündung der Wolga [Astrakhan Oblast] auf Artemisia maritima, im Juni (Paczoski δ)" (Beck, 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); «Sands in the lower reaches of the Volga and on the Kuma rivers ("In arena mobili deserti astracanici et cumani"). ... "O. arenaria M. In arena mobili ad Wolgam versus Astrachan lecta, 1803"» [Astrakhan Oblast] (Tzvelev, 1981: 451, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana); Russia (Zhang & Tzvelev, 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "Растения на ракушечной косе. Ейский полуостров, коса Долгая [Yeisk Peninsula, Spit, Krasnodar Krai / Краснода́рский край / Krasnodarsky kray]. 07.06.2012. / Андрей Любченко, 2012 ... Цветущее растение, паразитирующее на дурнишнике [parasitizing Xanthium sp.]. Астраханская обл., Камызякский р-н [Astrakhan Oblast, Kamyzyaksky district], с. Чаган, берег р. Чаган. 11.08.2011. / Владимир Папченков, 2012; растение определил(а) Андрей Ковальчук ... Цветущее растение, паразитирующее на Artemisia scoparia Waldst. et Kit., на травертиновом склоне. Ставропольский край, Пятигорск, гора Машук [Stavropol / Stauropolis, Pyatigorsk, Mashuk Mount]. 27.07.2008 / Сергей Банкетов, 2011 ... Цветущее растение (паразитирует на Helianthus annuus). Север Кубани, станица шкуринская [North of Kuban, Shkurinskaya village, Krasnodar Krai / Краснода́рский край / Krasnodarsky kray], поле с подсолнечником. 22.07.2011 / Андрей Любченко 2011" (photos [137287, 123788, 113082, 98749, 98748] in Plantarium, accessed Sep 2012).

North Caucasian Federal District / Се́веро-Кавка́зский федера́льный о́круг / Severo-Kavkazsky federalny okrug

Daghestan / Republic of Dagestan / Респу́блика Дагеста́н: "Daghestan [Republic of Dagestan]: bei Tezir jurt im Mai (Lipsky δ, £); im Distr. Dargi bei Ametherk, bei 1170 m Seehöhe, im Juli (Alexeenko δ)" (Beck, 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

Kabardino-Balkar Republic / Кабардино-Балкарская Республика: Orobanche cumana Wallr., Кабардино-Балкарская АССР (Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic), 15.VII.70[1970], Собр. Н. Кириллина [Coll. N. Kirillina] (MW 0723467; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018 [the hairy specimens seem to correspond to O. coerulescens]); Orobanche cumana?, Кабардино-Балкария, 9.07.1932. Собр. Арсеньев В.А. [Arseniev V.A.] (MW 0723466; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018).

Republic of North Ossetia-Alania / Республика Северная Осетия-Алания / Республикӕ Цӕгат Ирыстон-Алани: O. cumana Wallr., Северо-Осетинская АССР, Алагирское ущелье, А.М. Амирханов [A.M. Amirkhanov] (MW 0723468; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018 [the sheet contains three specimens, the left specimen appears to correspond to P. arenaria and the two specimens from right to O. cumana])

Stavropol Krai / Ставропо́льский край: "Novo-Alexandrovskaia [Novoalexandrovsk] / 17 Mai 40 // Herb. Al. de Bunge" (P 02968107 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014); "prope Stauropolim" [Stavropol / Stauropolis] (Reuter, 1847: 32, sub O. cumana); "Caucasus ad Stavropol (Stawropol / Stauropolis)] (C.A. Mey!)" (Boissier, 1879: 545, sub O. cumana); "im Distrikte Stawropol [Stavropol Krai] bei Stawropol (Lipsky δ), Sergjewskoje (Akinfiew δ)" (Beck, 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

Siberian Federal District / Сиби́рский федера́льный о́круг / Sibirsky federalny okrug

Irkutsk Oblast / Ирку́тская о́бласть / Irkutskaya oblast: "Sibiria orienttali prope Ust Balei [Irkutsk Oblast]" (Trautvetter 1871: 26, loc. class. of O. glaucantha).

Southern Federal District / Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг

Astrakhan Oblast / Астраха́нская о́бласть / Astrakhanskaya oblast: "Habitat in arenâ mobili deserti astracanensis atque cumani" (Marschall von Bieberstein, 1808: 83, sub O. arenaria); "O. arenaria M. In arena mobili ad Wolgam versus Astrachan lecta, 1803" (Wallroth, 1825: 58, loc. class. of O. cumana; Tzvelev, 1981: 329[451]); "Orob. arenaria M. Bieb. / ad radices Xanthii strumarii [Xanthium strumarium L. (Compsitae)] / ad Wolgam / Claus // Regio Caspica. / Claus. Herb. Al. de Bunge." (P 02968103 - Hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2012 [type?]); "A. Becker pl. Wolga infer. [Astrakhan Oblast] Ed. R.F. Hohenacker. / 83. Orobanche cumana Wallr.-Beck / In radibus Artemisiae austriaca, fragantis / et Xanthii strumarii, Juliam" (P 02968104 - Hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2012); "Orobanche cumana Wallr. / ... Xanthium strumarium / ad ostia Wolgae [Astrakhan Oblast] ... 12 Juni // Herb. Al. de Bunge" (P 02968106 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014); t. 691 f. 926 ["Caucaso: Blume, ex herb. cl.Trevirani"] f. 927 ["Specimen Wallrothianum"] (Reichenbach, 1829: 45, sub O. cumana).

Krasnodar Krai / Краснода́рский край / Kuban: "in Ciskaukasien: im Gub. Kuban: auf der Halbinsel Taman (Lipsky δ, γ), bei Noworossisk an sandigen Stellen im Juli (Radde δ), bei Anapa (Lipsky δ)" (Beck, 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); Краснодарский край (Krasnodar Krai), 26.06.1960. Собр. Смирнова [Coll. Smirnova] (MW 0723465; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018); Краснодарский край (Krasnodar Krai), 25.06.1993. Собр. А. Щербаков [Coll. A. Scherbakov] (MW 0723464; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018 [apparently on Lactuca serriola L. (see O. grenieri)]); ibidem (MW 0723463; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jul 2018 [apparently on Lactuca serriola L. (see O. grenieri)]); "Растения на ракушечной косе. Ейский полуостров [Yeysky District], коса Долгая. 07.06.2012." (photos 457485, 457484 et 457483 by Андрей Любченко in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2016).

Rostov Oblast / Росто́вская о́бласт: "Gub. der Donschen Kosaken: am Don [Rostov Oblast] bei Butajsk auf Xanthium spinosum (Paczoski δ) und bei Taganrog [Rostov Oblast] (Schmalhausen δ) im Kreise Ustj-Medwedizkaja und Taganrog (J. Novopokrovsky n. 746!) auf Helianthus annuus" (Beck, 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); Rostov region (Antonova & al., 2012); "Тип (typus varietatis): «Близ ст. Верблюд, Се-веро-Кавказской железн [North Caucasus Railway]. дороги, Ростовская селекционная станция [Rostov Oblast / Росто́вская о́бласть], на Helianthus annuus L., 26 VII 1949, № 65, И. В. Новопокровский» (LE, cum 2 iso)." (Tzvelev, 2015: 215, type of O. cumana var. helianthi).

Volgograd Oblast / Волгогра́дская о́бласть / Volgogradskaya oblast: "A. Becker. Plantae astrachanicae / Orobanche cumana Wallr. / Sarepta [Old Sarepta / Старая Сарепта, now part of Volgograd]. Junio" (P 02968103 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb. 2012); " Orobanche cumana Wallr. / Rossia australis: Sarepta [Old Sarepta / Старая Сарепта, now part of Volgograd] Paras, supra rad. / Nicotianae rusticae [Nicotiana rustica L. (Solanaceae)]. M. Junii / 1883 leg. A. Becker // 105" (P 04410446; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2016); "Sarepta / Rieder / Orobanches // Herb. Al. de Bunge" (P 02968108 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014); "Sarepta (in Xanthio strumario) Becker!" (Reichenbach, 1862: 107, sub O. cumana); "im Gub. Astrachan [Astrakhan Oblast]: bei Astrachan, Bogdo, Sarepta, Dolban an der Mündung der Wolga [Astrakhan Oblast] auf Artemisia maritima, im Juni (Paczoski δ)" (Beck, 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

Volga (Privolzhsky) Federal District / Приво́лжский федера́льный о́круг / Privolzhsky federalny okrug

Orenburg Oblast / Оренбу́ргская о́бласть, Orenburgskaya oblast: "Gub. Orenburg [Orenburg Oblast]" (Beck, 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

Perm Krai / Пе́рмский край: "Gub. Perm [Perm Krai] und im Ural" (Beck, 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

Saratov Oblast / Сара́товская о́бласть / Saratovskaya oblast: "Gub. Saratow [Saratov Oblast]: bei Saratoff, Kamyschin, Zarizyn (Persidski δ) usw.;" (Beck, 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

Ulyanovsk Oblast / Улья́новская о́бласть / Ulyanovskaya oblast: "Gub. Simbirsk [Ulyanovsk Oblast]: bei Syssan (Kolakowsky δ)" (Beck, 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

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Serbia / Srbija / Србија

Serbia (Škorić & al. 2010: 64).

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Slovakia / Slovensko / Eslovaquia / Slowakei (Dostál, 1989; Marhold & Hindák, 1998)

Slovakia (Cagáň, 2006); "Slovakia" (Domina & Raab-Straube, 2010, sub O. cumana).

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Spain / España / Espagne / Spanien (Díaz Celayeta, 1974; Velayos, 1978; González Torres & al., 1982; Castejón Muñoz, Romero Muñoz & García Torres, 1989; Cubero, 1994: 466, "The presence of O. cernua Loefl. (syn. O. cumana Wallr.) in Spain is a rather recent phenomenon, the first reference dating back to 1958"; Gagne, 1998; Pujadas & Velasco, 2000; Pujadas & al., 2007; Fernández Escobar & al., 2009; Pineda Martos, 2014, sub O. cumana; Molinero-Ruiz & al., 2015)

Andalusia / Andalucía (López Granados & García Torres, 1992; García Torres & al., 1994: 625, f. 2).

Cádiz (Ca): Jerez ... Villamartín ... (García Torres & al., 1994: 625, f. 2); "Puerto Serrano, on cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), 3.vi.1989, J. Oliveira (COA 13524). Jerez de la Frontera, vii.1995, J. Fernández Escobar, CA195 (COA 28285)" (Pujadas & Velasco, 2000: 517).

Cordova / Córdoba (Co): Bujalance ... Sta. Cruz ... (García Torres & al., 1994: 625, f. 2); "Valle del Guadalquivir: de Espejo a Montemayor, c. Ermita Dos Hermanas, 30SUG5768, A. Pujadas & J. Fuertes, COA 33962" (Pujadas & al., 2007: 14); "Córdoba, Finca Ruano, on cultivated sunflower, 9.vi.1993, F. Cartujo (COA 17472). Córdoba, Parque Cruz Conde, 16.vi.1994, P. Blanco (COA 17471). Córdoba, near Airport, on cultivated sunflower, 30.vi.1996, A. Lora (COA 22078). Córdoba, Huerta de San Luis, on cultivated sunflower, 30SVG4092, 2.vii.1996, A. Lora & A. Pujadas (COA 22077). Córdoba, Cortijo del Pardito, on cultivated sunflower, 30SUG4377, 16.vii.1996, A. Moyano & A. Pujadas (COA 22115). Puente Genil, vii.1994, J. Alvarado, CO194 (COA 28286). Córdoba, vii.1996, J.M. Melero, CO196 (COA 28287)" (Pujadas & Velasco, 2000: 517); Córdoba, campos de cultivo, terrenos baldíos (photos [Orobanche sp. 3 de 3] by , accessed Oct 2013).

Granada (Gr): "1986-89: ...O. cernua heavily infested ... sunflower area ... and Huescar (Granada province)" (García Torres & al., 1994: 625); "Atarfe, on cultivated sunflower (oilseed), 14.ix.1995, A. Pujadas (COA 17629)" (Pujadas & Velasco, 2000: 517).

Huelva (H): "Campiña de Huelva y Condado-Aljarafe: Escacena, 23-VI-2005, E. Sánchez-Gullón, COA 33961" (Pujadas & al., 2007: 14).

Málaga (Ma): "1978-82: O. cernua spread ... sunflower area ... and Fuente Piedra (Malaga province; Gonzalez Torres & al., 1982)" (García Torres & al., 1994: 624); Campillos ... (García Torres & al, 1994: 625, f. 2); "Fuente de Piedra, [Los] Llanos de Antequera (E), 26-4-1994" (Kreutz, 1995: 90-91!); "Antequera, on cultivated sunflower (oilseed), 3.vi.1989, J. Oiveira (COA 13569). Campillos, on cultivated sunflower (confectionery), 13.vi.1989, J. Oliveira (COA 13525). Between Campillos and Antequera, 20 km, on cultivated sunflower (oilseed), 13.vi.1989, J. Oliveira (COA 13568). Near Laguna de Fuente de Piedra, on cultivated sunflower, 8.vi.1995, A. Lora & A. Pujadas (COA 17628)." (Pujadas & Velasco, 2000: 517-518).

Seville / Sevilla (Se): "1986-89: ...O. cernua heavily infested ... sunflower area ... at El Coronil (Seville province)" (García Torres & al., 1994: 625); Lebrija ... Utrera ... Marchena ... Écija ... (García Torres & al., 1994: 625, f. 2); "El Coronil, on cultivated sunflower, 16.vi.1986, L. García Torres (COA 13636). Morón to El Coronil, 9 km, on cultivated sunflower (oilseed), 2.vii.1987, J. Oliveira (COA 13624). El Coronil to Morón, 7 km, on cultivated sunflower (oilseed), 2.vii.1987, J. Oliveira (COA 13633). El Coronil to Utrera, 15 km, on cultivated sunflower (confectionery), 2.vii.1987, J. Oliveira (COA 13645). Osuna, 1.vii.1988, J. Oliveira, COA 28295. El Coronil to Montellano, 10 km, on cultivated sunflower (oilseed), 1.vii.1988, J. Oliveira (COA 13533). El Coronil to El Arahal, 12 km, on cultivated sunflower (confectionery), 1.vii.1988, J. Oliveira (COA 13629). El Coronil to Acabalas, 10 km, on cultivated sunflower (oilseed), 1.vii.1988, J. Oliveira (COA 13643). Montellano, on cultivated sunflower (confectionery), 13.vi.1989, J. Oliveira (COA 13618). Osuna, vii.1989, J. Oliveira (COA 28296). Écija, Sotillo Gallego, vii.1993, J.M. Melero, SE193 (COA 28290). Écija, Finca Pavía, vii.1994, J. Fernández, SE194 (COA 28293). Écija to Herrera, 24 km, on cultivated sunflower, 18.v.1995, A. Pujadas (COA 17460). Écija, Finca Mencáa, vii.1996, J.M. Melero, SE296 (COA 28292). Écija to Estepa, 3 km, 1.vii.1996, A. Pujadas, A. Lora & A. Jiménez (COA 22079). Herrera to Écija, 3 km, 1.vii.1996, A. Pujadas, A. Lora & A. Jiménez (COA 22080). Aznalcázar, near Guadiamar river, on cultivated sunflower, 29SQB4232, 22.xii.1998, A. Pujadas & M. del Río (COA 27749). Cañada del Rosal, vii.1998, J.A. Sainz de Tejada (COA 28291). Écija, viii.1998, J.A. Sainz de Tejada (COA 28294)" (Pujadas & Velasco, 2000: 519-519).

Castile and León / Castilla y León (Fernández Escobar & al., 2009).

Valladolid (Va): "Medina del Campo" (Fernández Escobar & al., 2009).

Castile-La Mancha / Castilla-La Mancha (Díaz Celayeta, 1974; Sobrino Vesperinas & Martínez Abad, 1980; García Torres & al, 1994)

Cuenca (Cu): Cuenca (Sobrino Vesperinas & Martínez Abad, 1980); "1978-82: O. cernua spread ... sunflower area of Cuenca ..." (García Torres & al., 1994: 624); "Villarejo de Penesteban, viii.1992, J.M. Melero, CU192 (COA 28288). Alcázar del Rey, ix.1994, J.M. Melero, CU494, (COA 28289). Km. 17,800 of Cuenca road, 2.viii.1978, M. Velayos (MACB 47083)" (Pujadas & Velasco, 2000: 517); Cuenca, Barajas de Melo, M. Velayos (Flora iberica, sub O. cernua [on Helianthus annuus L.], accessed Dec 2010); Cuenca (Fernández Escobar & al., 2009); Municipality of Almendros, between la Noria and Saleguillas (at km 5, CM-3011, Almendros-Casas Luján), parasitic on Scorzonera laciniata L. in an ancient terrace-cultivation, G. Gómez Casares & G. Moreno Moral MM0047/2007, 12 May 2007 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 12840) [N.B. this is the first record of O. cumana parasitizing a wild plant in the Iberian Peninsula]; Barajas de Melo, Barranco del Robledal (al comienzo del camino que va hacia la Tinada del Picazo de Valverde, pr. Barajas de Melo [La Alcarria]), 30TWK0538, 725 m, sobre (!) Artemisia herba-alba, en talud herboso, yesoso, soleado, bajo el camino, G. Moreno Moral MM0057/2013, 19-V-2013 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 13855 [N.B. new wild host-plant in the Iberian Peninsula]); Barajas de Melo, Barranco del Robledal (al comienzo del camino que va hacia la Tinada del Picazo de Valverde, después del cruce con el del Barranco de Valhondo, pr. Barajas de Melo), 30TWK0638, 740 m, sobre (!) Artemisia herba-alba, en talud herboso, yesoso, soleado, bajo el camino, G. Moreno Moral MM0058/2013, 19-V-2013 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 13856); Barajas de Melo, vertiente sur del Cerro de la Grajera (pr. Barajas de Melo), 30TWK0640, 740 m, parásita de Artemisia herba-alba en rellano soleado al pie de la serrezuela, G. Moreno Moral MM0059/2013, 19-V-2013 (herb. Sánchez Pedraja 13857); Barajas de Melo, vertiente sur del Cerro de la Grajera (pr. Barajas de Melo), 30TWK0640, 740 m, parásita de A. herba-alba en rellano soleado al pie de la serrezuela, L. Carlón & G. Moreno Moral, 14-VI-2013 (obs.); Barajas de Melo, Barranco del Robledal (al comienzo del camino que va hacia la Tinada del Picazo de Valverde, pr. Barajas de Melo [La Alcarria]), 30TWK0538, 725 m, parásita de A. herba-alba, en talud herboso, yesoso, soleado, bajo el camino, L. Carlón & G. Moreno Moral, 14-VI-2013 (obs. [muy pocos ejemplares]).

Toledo (To): Díaz Celayeta, 1974; Gonzalez Torres & al., 1982; García Torres & al, 1994: 624, "1958: O. cernua was first observed in Toledo ... (Díaz Celayeta, 1974)"; Fernández Escobar & al., 2009.

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Syria / Sūriyya / Sūryā / Siria / Syrien

"Professor C. Haussknecht. Iter orientale 1867 / Orobanche cernua L. / in desrto fl. Chabur. [Khabur / Habur, Mesopotamia Mars - Juin 1867] dieb. Mai" (P 02968091; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Sep 2015); "Syria: ... et fl. Chabur [Khabur River] (f. 4 leg. Haussknecht!)" (Beck, 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana); "in der Wüste Singara und am Flusse Chabur (Haussknecht δ)." (Beck, 1930: 124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "Mesopotamien: bei Tell Halaf in der Steppe bei Haus, im Mai (Kohkl! in der Expedition Frh. v. Oppenheim) [Tell Halaf, Al Hasakah]" (Beck, 1930: 128, loc. class. of O. cernua var. cumana f. valens).

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Tajikistan / Таджикистан / Tadzhikistan / Tayikistán / Tadschikistan (Beck, 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana)

"Turkestania: prope Suidan et Pamil [Pamir] (f. 4 leg. Kuschalkewicz) ... pr. Kuldja (4 leg. Schrenk)" (Beck, 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana); "in planitie Kickdan ad montes Gasi Machik et prope Gomut (f. 5 leg. Regel)" (Beck, 1890: 145, loc. class. of O. cernua f. tenuisepala); "Turkestan: bei Suidan umd Pamil [Pamir] (Kuschalkewicz δ!), auf der Ebene Kickdan am Gasi Machik Gebirge und bei Gomut (Regel f. 6!), bei Kuldja (Schrenk δ!)" (Beck, 1930: 125, sub O. cernua var. cumana); Tajikistan (Zhang & Tzvelev, 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

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Tunisia / تونس / Tunisie / Túnez (Pineda Martos, 2014, sub O. cumana)

"Also in northern Africa" (Kreutz, 1995: 88).

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Turkmenistan / Turkmenistán / Turkmenia / Туркмения (Ledebour, 1841-1853: 322, sub O. cumana)

"Orobanche cumana Wallr. / Turcoman. / Karelin // Herb. Al. de Bunge" (P 02968106 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014); "Siberia uralensi: in Turkomania! (Eichw., Karelin pl. exs.)..." (Ledebour, 1841-1853: 322, sub O. cumana); "Turkomania (Eichw.)" (Boissier, 1879: 545, sub O. cumana); "Transcaspia: prope Krasnowok f. 4" (Beck, 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana); "Transkaspien: bei Krasnowodsk" (Beck, 1930: 125, sub O. cernua var. cumana); Turkmenistan (Zhang & Tzvelev, 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "Herb. Mus. Paris / 802 bis Orobanche cernua Loefl. / Arkabai [Turkestan]. 16 Juni 96 / Plantes de l'Asie Centrale. / M. Chaffanjon, 1895-1896" (P 02968099; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2014).

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Turkey / Türkiye / Turquía (Beck, 1930: 124, sub O. cumana; Pineda Martos, 2014, sub O. cumana)

"Phrygien [Phrygia]" (Beck, 1930: 124, sub O. cumana); "In 1983/85 more than 50% of the Thracia [Eastern Thrace] sunflowers in northern Turkey was infested" (Petzoldt & Sneyd, 1986); Turkey (Bulbul & al., 1991; Gagne, 1998; Kaya & al., 2004); SW Asia (Zhang & Tzvelev, 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

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Ukraine / Ucrania / Україна / Украи́н (Reuter, 1847: 32, sub O. cernua var. bicolor; Reichenbach, 1862: 107, sub O. cumana; Beck, 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana; Pineda Martos, 2014, sub O. cumana)

"In arenosis Podoliae [Podilia / Podillya / Поділля / Подолье]" (Reuter, 1847: 32, sub O. cernua var. bicolor); "Podolia australi a Bessero indicata" (Reichenbach, 1862: 107, sub O. cumana); "Ukraine" (Domina & Raab-Straube, 2010, sub O. cumana).

Dnipropetrovsk Oblast / Дніпропетровська область / Днепропетровская область: "Gub. Jekaterinoslaw [Dnipropetrovsk]: um Jekaterinoslaw, im Sept. (Alexeenko δ)" (Beck, 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

Kherson Oblast / Херсонська область / Херсонска област: "Cherson [Kherson] (Paczoski δ)" (Beck, 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

Odessa Oblast / Одеська область / Одесская область: "Orobanche / coerulea / Juin 1828 / Odessa" (MW 0514110; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja May 2018); "Russische Länder: Ukraine: in Bessarabien bei Tatar-Bunar [Tatarbunary / Татарбунари] (Zelenetzky δ) um Reni (Herb. Besser δ), Pandaclia (Grintescu δ) ... Gub. Gherson: bei Odessa (Schmalhausen, Engler (δ)" (Beck, 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

Zaporizhia Oblast / Запорізька область / Запорожская область: "im Distrikte Alexandrowsk bei Nowohupolowka, im August-November auf Helianthus und Lycopersicum (Alexeenko δ); im Distrikte Nowomoskowa, im Juli (Alexeenko δ)" (Beck, 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "Цветок. Украина, Запорожская обл., Запорожский р-н [Zaporozhye region, Zaporozhye district], напротив авиагородка Широкое, на поле подсолнечника. 13.07.2010. Сергей Одинец, 2013" (photos 174348, 174347, 174346 in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2014).

Crimea / Krym / Крим / Крым: 1. "O. alba 5.". 2. "O. arenaria M.B. / Tauria litorea". 3. "O. cumana !B / mea Wallroth". 4. "208 W" (B-W 11600 200; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2017, type of O. cernua var. cumana f. taurica?); "Tauria [Crimea / Krym]" (Reuter, 1847: 32, sub O. cumana); "Rossia mer. (Tauria)" (Nyman, 1854-1855); "Sudak [Sudaq / Судак] Steven! ..." (Reichenbach, 1862: 107, sub O. cumana); "Tauria (M.B.)" (Boissier, 1879: 545, sub O. cumana); "Rossia: f. 4 in Gubernia Tauria (! desertum Nogaiorum, Jalta etc.)" (Beck, 1890: 144, sub O. cernua f. cumana); "in der Krim und Taurien: bei Aleschki (Paczoski β, δ) ... Jalta [Yalta], Nikita und Kertsch, im April bis Juni (Paczoski δ), um Kopsel (A. Callier δ), um Simeiis (Golde δ! auch f. 4), bei Balaklava, Inkermann, Sudak (Fedtschenko δ!) auf der Halbinsel Kercz (Klopotow δ) im Mai-Juli" (Beck, 1930: 123-124, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "In der Krim [Crimea / Krym] bei Oreanda [Yalta Municipality] (V. Golde! in Herb. Petersburg. [LE] unter O. alba)" (Beck, 1930: 1283, loc. class. of O. cernua var. cumana f. taurica); " «In der Krim bei Oreanda [Yalta Municipality], V. Golde» — W)" (Tzvelev, 2015: 214, type of O. cernua var. taurica); "RK" (Greuter & al., 1989: 258, sub O. cernua subsp. cumana); "near Yevpatoriya [Yevpatoria / Eupatoria / Євпато́рія / Евпато́рия, Yevpatoria municipality], Crimea [Crimea / Krym], UA, (KW)" (Tzvelev, 1981: 451; view IPNI entry; Schlauer & al., 2003, loc. class. of O. sarmatica); "Crimea" (Domina & Raab-Straube, 2010, sub O. cumana); "Цветущие растения, паразитирующие на Artemisia sp. Крым, окр. Феодосии [Feodosia], Курортное, обочина грунтовой дороги, идущей вдоль пляжа. 21 мая 2014 г. / Валентина Фатерыга, 2014" (photos 242108 and 242107 in Plantarium, accessed Dec 2014).

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Uzbekistan / Uzbekistán / O‘zbekiston / Ўзбекистон

"Ex herbario horti Petropolitani. 2000 3/80[?] / Orobanche cernua L. / Chiwa 1873  Korolkow et Krause" (CVH 10262; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2016); "Chiwa [Xiva / Хива, Choresmien / Xorazm / Choresm Province]: (4 leg. Korolkow et Krause)" (Beck, 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana; Beck, 1930: 125, sub O. cernua var. cumana); "Bokhara [Bukhara]: in monte Taschbulak district. Hissar (f. 4 leg. Regel)" (Beck, 1890: 145, sub O. cernua f. cumana); Uzbekistan (Zhang & Tzvelev, 1998, sub O. cernua var. cumana).

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