Accepted Name - Basionymum / Basionym - Synonyms - Ind. loc. [Indicatio locotypica (type locality)] - Lectotypus [Lectotype] - Designated by - Host - Comments - Chromosomatic number - Ic. [Images] - Distribution - Specimens Examined - References - Authors - Cite us

ISSN: 2386-9666 - Last Updated: 8 March 2018


Accepted Name:

Cistanche violacea (Desf.) Hoffmanns. & Link, Fl. Pontug. 1: 320 (1813) (Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk, 2018 : 27)

Basionymum / Basionym:

Phelypaea violacea Desf., Fl. Atlant. 2: 60[-61], t. 145 (1798) ["Phelipaea"] (Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk, 2018 : 27)

Synonyms:

Homotypic synonyms:

Orobanche violacea (Desf.) Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 70 (1825) (Beck, 1930: 29; Foley, 2001: 30; Boulos, 2002: 96)

Cistanche violacea (Desf.) Beck in Biblioth. Bot. 19: 267 (1890), comb. superfl. (Beck, 1930: 29), isonym (Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk, 2018 : 27)

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Heterotypic synonyms:

= Cistanche hybrida Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 31 (1930 [30 Sep 1930]). Syn.: Phelypaea lutea × violacea Murb., Contr. Fl. Nord-Ouest Afrique 2: 29 (1898) (Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk, 2018 : 27)

= Cistanche tinctoria × violacea Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 31 (1930 [30 Sep 1930]) ["Cistanche tinctoria (lutea) × violacea"]. Syn.: Phelypaea lutea × violacea Murb., Contr. Fl. Nord-Ouest Afrique 2: 29 (1898) (Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk, 2018 : 27)

= Phelypaea lutea × violacea Murb., Contr. Fl. Nord-Ouest Afrique 2: 29[-30] (1898). Syn.: Cistanche hybrida Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 31 (1930 [30 Sep 1930]); Cistanche tinctoria × violacea Beck in Engl., Pflanzenr. 96: 31 (1930 [30 Sep 1930]) (Moreno Moral & al., 2018 : 27). Ind. loc.: "Tunisie. Un seul individu observé près du caravansérail de Bir Saad [Bou Saad Bordj / Burj Bu Sa`d, Gafsa], dans un endroit où les deux espèces génératrices se trouvèrent en abondance.". Holotype: "Tunetia meridion. [Gafsa, Tunisie / Tunisia]: S. Iter Algeriensi-Tunetanum, 1896. / Phelypaea lutea Def.× violacea Def. / Murb., Contrib. II (in Acta Soc. Phys. Lund. T. IX) / Entre El Hafay [Al Hufayy] et Bir Saad. / 17.4  leg. & det. S. Murbeck" (P 02970652; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2015) (Moreno Moral, Sánchez Pedraja & Piwowarczyk, 2018 : 27)

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= Cistanche violacea f. bicolor Pamp. in Arch. Bot. XII(1): 43 (1936) [Rend. Sem. Fac. Sc. Univ. Cagliari VIII(3): 75 (1938)]. Type: Libia, Cirenaica: Msus (7365), 20/03/1933, Leg. R. Pampanini (FI 003690) (Lectotypus designated here). Other syntypi from the original collection: C: Steppa di el-Agheila (7363), 14/03/1933, Leg. R. Pampanini (FI 003691); C.: esc-Sceleidima, a sud-est di Bengasi (7364), 20/03/1933, Leg. R. Pampanini (FI 003692); C.: Zuetina, a nord-est di Agedabia [Ajdabiya] (7366), 11/03/1934, Leg. R. Pampanini & R.E.G. Pichi Sermolli (FI 003693). Note: the specimen no. 7363 is accompanied by a strip of newspaper with the name of the new taxon handwritten by Pampanini; the specimen no. 7365 is made up of three sheets (Domina & Abuhadra in Cuccuini & al., 2016: 83)

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Misapplied names:

Orobanche phelypaea Willd., Sp. Pl. 3(1): 352 (1800) [nom. illeg.], non Orobanche phelypaea (L.) Wallr., Orobanches Gen. Diask.: 70 (1825) [nom. illeg.]. Ind. loc.: "Habitat in areneis deserti Barbariae". Syn: = Phelypaea violacea Desf., Fl. Atlant. 2: 60, t. 145 (1798) (Willdenow, 1800: 352; Hoffmanns. & Link, 1813: 320)

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Ind. loc.: "Habitat in arenis deserti prope Tozzer [Tozeur / Tawzar / (توزر‎), 33° 55’ 12’’ N  8° 8’ 24’’ E, oasis aux portes du désert du Sahara, Tozeur Governorate, Tunisie / Tunisia / Túnez]" (Desfontaines, 1798: 61); Morocco, North Africa (Beck, 1930: 30)].

Typus / Type: "Lectotype (designated here): [as 'Phelipaeaviolacea], Tunisia, Tozeur Governorate: in arenis deserti prope Tozzer [Tozeur / Tawzar], leg. Desfontaines (G 00014078) (Fig. 8). Isolectotype: ditto (P-DF-37/13)" (Moreno Moral & al., 2018 : 27).

Designated by: G. Moreno Moral, Ó. Sánchez Pedraja & R. Piwowarczyk in Phyton (Horn, Austria) 57(1-2): 27 (2018)

Host: Parasitic mainly on Chenopodiaceae species [e.g., Anabasis aretioides Moq. & Coss., Hammada articulata (Moq.) O. Bolòs & Vigo (H. scoparia (Pomel) Iljin; Anabasis tamariscifolia L.; Haloxylon tamariscifolium (L.) Pau)] and perhaps some species of Plumbaginaceae [e.g., Limoniastrum guyonianum Boiss.; L. monopetalum (L.) Boiss.] (Beck, 1930: 29; Annotated Checklist of Host Plants of Orobanchaceae, accessed Aug 2009), but these host-plants need to be confirmed by new investigations.

Comments:

Morphological and taxonomic observations: Cistanche violacea can be confused with C. salsa, which can be distinguished for their densely woolly bracts and bracteoles (Boulos, 2002: 94). In Europe it has been recorded from Spain, but these records refer to Cistanche lutea var. violaceoides Moreno Mor., Ó. Sánchez & Piwow. (2018), which are violaceous forms of C. lutea (Desf.) Hoffmanns. & Link (1813) (Beck, 1930: 27-29, key; Boulos, 2002: 94, key; Ozenda, 1991: 388, key).

Chromosomatic number: n = ca. 20; 2n = ca. 40c (Reese, 1957; Schneeweiss & al., 2004); n = 30 (Ataei & al., 2014). The Spanish chromosome counts are referable to violaceous forms of C. lutea (Desf.) Hoffmanns. & Link (C. lutea var. violaceoides Moreno Mor., Ó. Sánchez & Piwow.).

Ic.: a, Desfontaines, 1798: t. 145 ("Tozzer" [Tozeur, Tunisie]); b, inflorescence (Zerkine, Tunisia); c, flowers (ib.); d, habit (Tozeur, Tunisie, loc. class., François in Picasa, accessed Apr 2009); e; habit and flowers (Djelfa, Algeria; accessed Apr 2009); f, habit (Lybia, Apr 2004, S. Gardt, SIUC (Parasitic Plant Connection); accessed Feb 2006); g, habit (Ziz-Tal, Merzouga- Ziz-Tal - Midelt, Morocco in Flickr, accessed Apr 2009); h, habit (Síla buldozeru, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, accessed Apr 2009); i, habit and flowers ("Ouarzazate, Marruecos" [Quiles, accessed Sep 2010]); j, P. Ozenda (1991: 387, f. 140 g-h-j); k, "Curtis’s Botanical Magazine, vol. 129 [ser. 3, vol. 59]: t. 7911 (1903) [M. Smith]" in www.plantillustrations.org, accessed Feb 2012; l, Laghouat, Algeria (P 04410184 - hb. Faurel); m, Oued R’ir, Algeria (P 04363435 - hb. Maire); n, Bir el- Gobi, Lybia (P 02970612); o, Taguenza, Morocco (P 04363434 - hb. Maire); p, Biskra, Algeria (P 03004144).

Distribution: Mediterranean Region distribution: Algeria, Egypt, Israel / Palestine, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Spain [in error], Saudi Arabia and Tunisia.

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Specimens examined and literature records.

Algeria / الجزائر‎ / Argelia / Algérie (Beck, 1930: 30, sub C. violacea (Desf.) Beck; photo by Abderrazak Marouf in Algeria native plants, accessed Mar 2012)

Alger / Algiers: "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Hassi el Djual, sud de la province d'Alger / E. Cosson, 7 Mai 1858." (P 02985979 -hb. Drake, rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "Algier!" (Beck, 1930: 30, sub C. violacea).

Batna: "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Sidi Krelil / sud de la prov. de Constantine, Algérie / E. Cosson, 12 Avril 1858" (P 02985977; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015). 

Bayadh (El): "Herbier L. Chevallier, Précigné (Sarthe). / Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Sahara: El Maïa [Maïa (El-). - 0., Sah., K9. Alt. 945™ (Ét.-Maj.). - Ksar au SO de Tadjerouna (Cosson, 1882: 75)], vers Hassi / Menayed. / 26-4-1899 / Legi: L. Chevallier" (P 02986946; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / El Abiodh Sidi Cheikh / 3-5-1899 / L. Chevallier" (P 02986945; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015).

Biskra: "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Biskra / sud de la prov. de Constantine, Algérie / Cosson, 4 Avril 1858" (P 02985975; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "B. Balansa, Pl. d'Algérie, 1853 / 846. Phelipaea violacea, Desf. (Coss.) / Biskra.— Parasite sur les chenopodées frutescentes. / 25 mars." (P 02985972 -hb. Drake, P 02985981 et P 03944871 - hb. Giraudias; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); idem (CLF 335546; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018); "Herbier L. Chevallier Précigné (Sarthe) / Phelippaea violacea Desf. / (fl. violet foncée) / Sahara: Biskra, la plaine de / l'oued, le long de la ligne / Avril 1890 / ..." (P 03004144; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "Cistanche violacea (Desf.) Hoffmanns. & Link, Orobanchaceae / Algerien: Biskra, 1908, gezeichnet von G. Schweinfurth [Bildtext: Phelipaea / violacea Dfs. // Biskra 15 März 1908 // auf Limoniastrum, auf Anabasis und auf Haloxylon // Kelchz. / abgerundet // n. Gr. // n. Gr. // ]" (BGBM: B_SZ_0000297 et B_SZ_0000298; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Jan 2016); "Tunis! um Biskra (Balansa, PI. Alg. n. 846)" (Beck, 1930: 30, sub C. violacea (Desf.) Beck).

Djelfa: habit and flowers (Wilaya de Djelfa, Algeria) in JLBG's Wilaya de Djelfa Travel Page; accessed Apr 2009.

Ghardaïa: "Phelipaea violacea Desf. (junior) / El Goléah [El Menia / El Ménéa / El Golea] et nuch Garden, février 1880 // M. Pascal Jourdan" (P 02985982; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015 [young specimens should be confirmed]); "Plantae Saharae algeriensis / 468. Phelipaea violacea Desf.  ... / Ghardaïa: in aridis, Salsolaceis insita. / 8 Mart. 1902 / L. Chevallier" (P 02985976 - hb. E. Cosson et P 02986948; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); idem (MPU 238424 - hb. Mouillefarine; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018); "Plantae Saharae algeriensis / Phelipaea violacea Desf.  / El Goléa [El Menia / El Ménéa / El Golea]: sables sales à / Ben-Bachur / 31 Mars 1902 / L. Chevallier / ..." (P 02986947; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "in der Sahara bei El Kouah Chardaia [Ghardaïa] (L. Chevallier in Bull. herb. Boiss. 2. sér. III. [1903] 674)" (Beck, 1930: 30, sub C. violacea).

Laghouat: "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / environs de Laghouat / province d'Alger / Dr. V. Beboud, mai 1854." (P 02985980; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Phelipaea violacea Desf. ... / Laghouat (Algéria) / vivant le 10 avril 1868." (P 02985984 - hb. Grenier; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Plantae Saharae algeriensis / 4683. Phelipaea violacea Desf.  ... / Nili [Oued Nili, Laghouat (Cosson, 1882: 89)] Ghardaïa: in aridis, Salsolaceis insita. / 8 Mart. 1902 / 12-4-1899 / L. Chevallier" (P 03944872 - hb. L. Giraudias; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Herbier L. Chevallier, Précigné (Sarthe). / Phelipaea violacea Desf. / ... / Sahara: Nili à 50 kil. ... Laghoua B) Brézina [Brezina. - 0., Sah., I9. Alt. env. 850™ (Goss. An.), 827™ et 830™ (Mar.). - Ksar et oasis sur l'Oued Seggueur. (Cosson, 1882: 38)]. 24-4-1899 / 12-4-1899 / Legi L. Chevallier" (P 02986949; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Herbier Faurel / Cistanche violacea (Desf.) G. Beck / (= Phelypaea violacea Desf.) / Près de la citerne de Djebb-Guerg, / à 50 km environ au Sud de Laghouat. / (Sud algérois). / 28 mars 1955." (P 04410184 - hb. Faurel; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011).

M'Sila: "Phelypaea violacea / Bou Saâda" (MPU 238425 - hb. Battandier - hb. Maire; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018).

Naâma [unconfirmed]: "Herb. Dr. Bonnet / Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Entre Le Glimem Ben Mouca et Aïn Sefra[?] 18 avril 88 [1888]" (P 04215472 - hb. Th. Delacour; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015). 

Oran [unconfirmed]: "Um Oran (Boissier et Reuter, Debeaux, Durieu)" (Beck, 1930: 30, sub C. violacea) [see C. mauritanica].

Ouargla / Warqla: "N.º 13 / Dhanoun. Phelipaea / violacea - Orobanchacées? / Hassi-Medjira [Mjeira] // Mission d'exploraton du chemin de fer transsaharien. / Hassi-Medjira / M. le Dr. Guiard / Reçu en Aout 1880" (P 02970643; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Dr. R. Maire itenera Algerica 1933 / Herbier de l'Afrique du Nord / Cistanche violacea (Desf.) Beck / In salsuginosis ditionis Oued Rhir [Oued R’ir] / prope El Arfiane, ad radices Limo- / niastri Guyoniani [Limoniastrum guyonianum Boiss. (Plumbaginaceae Juss.)] / 19-3" (P 04363435 - hb. Maire; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011).

Oued (El): "Nº 250 Mission des Chott / El-Ba'adja [Baadja (Ogla El-). - C, Sah., T7. Alt. -22m (Par.). - Puits et lieu de station à l'extrémité NE du Chott Sellem (Cosson, 1882: 26)] / 27 dec. 1874 - 5 jaunv. 1875 / Phelipaea violacea Desf. // M. Duveyrier - Reçu le 29 décembre 1894" (P 02970644; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015 [cf., specimen bad preserved]).

Sahara / al-Kubrā / The Great Desert: "Toute la région saharienne" (Pomel, 1876: 107). "in den Dünen der Sahara (nach A. Lendner in Bull. herb. Boiss. 2. sér. III. [1903] 629)" (Beck, 1930: 30); "Sur le racines de Haloxylon tamariscifolium [Hammada articulata (Moq.) O. Bolòs & Vigo] dans les steppes désertiques ... De l'Algérie à la Cyrénaïque [Cyrenaica, Libya]" (Jahandiez & Maire, 1934: 693).

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Egypt / مصر / Egipto / Ägypten [photos by P. Pokorný, sub O. cernua, in Common Plantas of the Western Desert of Egypt, accessed Mar 2012. Obs. see Comments]

Alexandria: "Burg el-Arab, western Mediterranean district" (el-Hadidy in Boulos, 1995).

"?" (Greuter & al., 1989: 255). "I have not seen any authentic material of this species collected from Egypt" (Boulos, 2002: 96).

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Jordan / اَلأُرْدُنّ / Al-'Urdunn / Jordania / Jordanien [photos set-72157621770110871 by Tim Melling, sub C. salsa, in Jordan, accessed Mar 2012]. Obs. this species can be confused with C. salsa, which can be distinguished for their densely woolly bracts and bracteoles (see Comments).

Aqaba Governorate: "Aqaba, Jordania / Desierto arenoso. Parásita sobre Atriplex halimus" (photo 126555 by in biodiversidadvirtual.org, accessed Feb 2015).

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Israel / Palestine / Palaestina (Beautiful Israel in Green Violet Cistanche, accessed Jan 2016; Danin & Fragman-Sapir 2016+. Flora of Israel Online, sub C. salsa, accessed Mar 2012)

South: "I always thought that this species occurs is salty locations, but found it this time is a sandy area near Nizzana [Tel Nitsana / ניצנה / Nitzana, Negev desert] on the Israel-Egypt border", 2007-03-17 (photo 100672 by Ori Fragman Sapir, sub C. salsa, in TrekNature, accessed Mar 2012); "Dead Sea" (photo 100672 by Ori Fragman Sapir, sub C. salsa, in TrekNature, accessed Mar 2012); Negev (photo by Oron Peri, sub C. salsa, in Greentours, accessed Mar 2012); A Cistanche salsa blooming in purple and yellow, in Chalutza Dunes, the West Negev 2006 (photo 51-4151_e.asp by Efrat Nakash, sub C. salsa, in Flora of Israel Gallery, accessed March 2012); "West Negev, Israel, march 2011" (photo 1300818319 by 2006-2009 Limar, sub C. salsa, in Flora, accessed Mar 2012); "Western Negev, Halutza sands" (photo 27127 and 27126, sub C. salsa, in Flora of Israel Online, accessed Mar 2012); "Arava Valley, Paran / Parasite on roots of Haloxylon negevensis [Haloxylon negevensis (Iljin & Zohary) Boulos; Hammada negevensis Iljin & Zohary (Chenopodiaceae)]" (photos 31954 and 31955 by Avinoam Danin, sub C. salsa, in Flora of Israel Online, accessed Mar 2012); "Western Negev, Halutza sands" (photos 27126, 27127  by Eli Livne, sub C. salsa, in Flora of Israel Online, accessed Apr 2018); "Sands Wildcat 19:02:10 / לאורך כביש 221 [Along Route 221 Nitzana] לניצנה פרחו פרטים מ ש ג ע י ם ביופיים של יחנוק" (photo, sub C. salsa, in Flora of Israel Online, accessed Mar 2012); "מקום הצילום: מערב הנגב, חולות ניצנה [Western Negev, Nitzana Sands]" (photo by Lior Almagor, sub C. salsa, in Flora of Israel Online, accessed Mar 2012); "Flora Palaestina / mus. Bot. Turic. (Zürich) / Cistanche salsa (C.A. Meyer) G. Beck / Hab.: Israel; Sourtern Negev. Ein Zin, rocky / valley with rivulet and date-palm oasis W.N.W. / of Chatzeva. Alt. 60 m. /... Corolle pure / white exc. for two yellow welts on lower lip. / Buds pinkish. ... / Leg.: K.U. Kramer no. 7199 / d.d. 24-III 1980" (U 1469496; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018). Obs. see Comments.

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Libya /  ‏ليبيا‎  / Libia / Lybien (Don, 1838: 633, sub P. violacea; Beck, 1930: 30, sub C. violacea; Pampanini, 1930: 410, sub C. violacea; Jahandiez & Maire, 1934: 693; Jafri, 1978: 5, 6 f. 2; Domina & Abuhadra in Cuccuini & al., 2016: 83, sub C. violacea)

Cyrenaica / Barqah / Berqa

"Phelipaea violacea Desf. / In planitia littorali Cyrenaica / inter Bengasi [Benghazi] et Schadabia / G. Rohlfs, 9 Mart, 1869" (P 02985959 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Nº 1121 Mission des Chott / Bir el- Gòbi (Bir el- Gobi) / 18 mars 1875 / en arabe: dhânoûn..." (P 02970612; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011 [bracteoles shorter than calyx and corolla with dark lobes (cf.)]); "in der Cyrenaica (nach Durand et Barratte, l.c.)" (Beck, 1930: 30, sub C. violacea); "Fra Agedabia [Ajdabiya / Agedabia / Ajdabya] e Bir Ressam (Rohlfs, 1869 [DB]). — Bengasi [Benghazi] (Haimann, 1881 [DB])." (Pampanini, 1930: 410, sub C. violacea); "Sur le racines de Haloxylon tamariscifolium [Hammada articulata (Moq.) O. Bolòs & Vigo; Haloxylon tamariscifolium (L.) Pau; Anabasis tamariscifolia L. (Chenopodiaceae)] dans les steppes désertiques ... De l'Algérie à la Cyrénaïque" (Jahandiez & Maire, 1934: 693); "Gulf of Sirte [Gulf of Sidra], Sebkha, on Atriplex halimus ... 23.3.1970, P.H. Davis 49831 (ULT) ... Ajdabiya and Benghazi by Pampanini..." (Jafri, 1978: 5); "Libia, Cirenaica: Msus (7365), 20/03/1933, Leg. R. Pampanini (FI 003690) (Lectotypus designated here). Other syntypi from the original collection: C: Steppa di el-Agheila (7363), 14/03/1933, Leg. R. Pampanini (FI 003691); C.: esc-Sceleidima, a sud-est di Bengasi (7364), 20/03/1933, Leg. R. Pampanini (FI 003692); C.: Zuetina, a nord-est di Agedabia [Ajdabiya] (7366), 11/03/1934, Leg. R. Pampanini & R.E.G. Pichi Sermolli (FI 003693). Note: the specimen no. 7363 is accompanied by a strip of newspaper with the name of the new taxon handwritten by Pampanini; the specimen no. 7365 is made up of three sheets (Domina & Abuhadra in Cuccuini & al., 2016: 83, sub C. violacea f. bicolor Pamp.).

Fezzan: "c. 70 km from Bugrain towards Hun, sandy ground, common ... parasitic on roots of Chenopod [Chenopodiaceae], 27.2.1976, S.M.H. Jafri 6415 (ULT)" (Jafri, 1978: 5).

Tripolitania / Tripolitana / Ţarābulus

Greater Tripoli: "Tripoli" (Don, 1838: 633, sub P. violacea); "an den Küsten von Tripolis (Viviani)" (Beck, 1930: 30, sub C. violacea); "A-3 Tripoli coast, parasite on Zygophyllum, 29.4.1970, I.I. Chaudhri s.n. (ULT)" (Jafri, 1978: 5).

Jabal al Gharbi: T: Gebel Nefoussa [Nafusa Mountains], 60 km S.E of Giado [Jadu], on Haloxylon articulata, 16 March 1970, Davis, Peter Hadland 49622 (E 00029736).

Misrata: "between Bougrain and Bu Ngem [Abu Njaym / Golaia], parasitic on Hommada scoparia [Hammada scoparia (Pomel) Iljin = H. articulata (Moq.) O. Bolòs & Vigo (Chenopodiaceae)], sandy ground ... , 27.2.1976, S.M.H. Jafri 6300 (ULT)" (Jafri, 1978: 5).

Nalut District: "A-2 15 km after Kabaw [Kabao / Cabao], towards Mizda ... 10.4.1974, S.I. Ali 1948 (UTL); Gudain, 23.3.1968, L. Boulos 3570 (ULT); Kabau, near the bifurcation of road ... , 29.3.1976, S.M.H. Jafri 6594 (ULT)" (Jafri, 1978: 5).

Sahara / al-Kubrā / The Great Desert: "Toute la région saharienne" (Pomel, 1876: 107). "Sahara" (Battandier, 1890: 656; Durand & Barratte, 1910: 182; Jafri, 1978: 5); Lybia, April 2004, habit by S. Gardt in SIUC - Parasitic Plant Connection (accessed Feb 2006).

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Morocco / المغرب‎, / Marruecos / Marokko (Cistanche violacea, fotografiert in Marokko, 2010, accessed Mar 2012)

Drâa-Tafilalet: SE of Tazenakht 2010-05-01 (photos 8357 (64024 and 64025) by Dieter Butter and Helmut Haas in Dressler & al., 2014 +, African Plants - A Photo Guide; accessed Mar 2018).

Marrakesh-Tensift-El Haouz: Taferiate, photo by M. Velayos, 2001.

Meknès-Tafilalet

Midelt Province: "Collecteur: J. Mordant / 918 / 9.4.1969 Maroc / Ksar es Souk Gourrama / Reg / ... violet / ... / Cistanche phelypaea ... / ... Det. J.P. Lebrun" (P 04410193; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Dec 2015); Ziz-Tal, Merzouga - Ziz-Tal - Midelt, Morocco (photo in flickr, accessed Apr 2009).

Oriental / Tagmudant [unconfirmed]: "Cazaza [Nador Province]" (photo by taxdir [Manuel Tapia Claro] in Melilla entorno natural, accessed Mar 2012 [this species seems to correspond to C. mauritanica (woolly bracts and calyx)]).

Souss-Massa-Drâa: "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Agadir / Sud-Ouest du Maroc / Mardochée 1875" (P 02985974; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Foumalili et partie septentrionale / du district d'Ida Ouchemlal ["Ida-Oughemlal. - m. - District montagneux du SO du Maroc méridional indépendant, S d'Agadir, NE du district de Tazeroualt." (Cosson, 1882: 64)], Sud-Ouest du Maroc / Mardochée 1876 / herb. E. Cosson" (P 02985978; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "im Südwesten von Marokko bei Mardochée [Sud-Ouest du Maroc, Mardochée, Oudjan]..." (Beck, 1930: 30); "Dr. R. Maire iter Maroccanum XXV / Socio Dre E. Wilczek 1935 / Herbier de l'Afrique du Nord / Cistanche violacea (Desf.) Beck / In Anti-Atlantis ditione Taguenza, ad / radices Haloxyli tamariscifolii [= Haloxylon tamariscifolium Pau; = Anabasis tamariscifolia L.; = Hammada articulata (Moq.) O. Bolòs & Vigo (Chenopodiaceae Vent.)], 1300 m / corolla alba violaceo-marginata / palatato luteo / 19-4" (P 04363434 - hb. Maire; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Nov 2011); "Agadir ... um Chtouka [Chtouka-Ait-Baha] (nach Cosson!)" (Beck, 1930: 30); "...Foumalili, im Distrikte d'Ida Ouchetulal [Oued Ouchtar?]..." (Beck, 1930: 30); "Ouarzazate, Marruecos" (photos by J. Quiles Hoyo in Flora destacada de Marruecos - Flora silvestre del Mediterráneo, accessed Sep 2010).

Sahara / al-Kubrā / The Great Desert: "Toute la région saharienne" (Pomel, 1876: 107, sub P. violacea); Sahara, Morocco (photo by Nicklas Strömberg; accessed 12 Feb 2012); "Cistanche violacea, fotografiert in Marokko" by Phil41, accessed 12 Feb. 2012; Cistanche violacea by René Baud, Fouad Msanda, Jean-Claude Thiaudière, Abdelmonaim Homrani Bakali in Plant Biodiversity of South-Western Morocco - Jean-Paul Peltier, 2006-2016 (Last modified on January 18, 2016) - accessed Feb. 2012 et June 2016; photos 1, 2, 3 by Jan Koeman, Marocco in Plantillustrations.org, accessed Feb 2012; "Sahara, Morocco" (photo by Nicklas Strömberg, accessed Mar 2012); "Sur le racines de Haloxylon tamariscifolium [= Haloxylon tamariscifolium Pau; = Hammada articulata (Moq.) O. Bolòs & Vigo (Chenopodiaceae Vent.)] dans les steppes désertiques ... De l'Algérie à la Cyrénaïque [Cyrenaica, Libya]" (Jahandiez & Maire, 1934: 693; Maire, 1936: 252).

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Saudi Arabia / as-Su‘ūdiyyah / Arabia Saudita / Saudi-Arabien (Parasitic flora of Saudi Arabia [Site maintained by Jacob Thomas, Herbarium, Dept. of Botany & Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA, accessed Mar 2012]).

Al-Jawf Region / Al-Jouf: "Thaniyat Camp, 24 March 1982, a root parasite either on Atriplex leucocladus or Astragalus spinosus Leg. I.S. Collenette 3469 // Cistanche tubulosa (Schrenk) R. Wight  Det. A. Gilli // Cistanche violaceae (Desf.) Hoffmanns. & Link Det. Najibeh Ataei" (E 00029712 - Gbif 574750566; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018, sub C. violacea!); "Thaniyat Camp [Thanīyat Ţurayf], near Turayf, perhaps parasitic on either Atriplex leucoclada or Astragalus spinosus[?]. 2.725 ft." (Collenette, 1999: 587; Foley, 2004: 236).

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Spain / España / Espagne / Spanien [uncorfimed]

C. violacea has been recorded from Spain, but these records are referable to violaceous forms of  C. lutea (Desf.) Hoffmanns. & Link (C. lutea var. violaceoides Moreno Mor., Ó. Sánchez & Piwow.).

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Tunisia / تونس / Tunisie / Túnez (Desfontaines, 1798: 61, sub P. violacea; Pomel, 1876: 107, sub P. violacea; Beck, 1930: 30; Jahandiez & Maire, 1934: 693; Moreno Moral & al., 2018 : 27, lectotype of P. violacea)

Bizerte [unconfirmed]: "Nº 1070 Mission des Chott / Bîr Bôu Râs / 17 mars 1875 / ... / en arabe: dhânoûn. / Phelipaea violacea Desf. // M. Duveyrier - Reçu le 29 décembre 1894" (P 02970645; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015).

Djerba / Jerba / Jarbah / Gelves: "Cistanche violacea / 17 février 2013 - Djerba Tunisie" (photos in Flore de Djerba, accessed Feb 2015).

Gabès: "L. Kralik, Plant. Tunetanae, n. 291. / Phelipaea violacea Desf. / In arenosis maritimis,  Gabes 25 mars 1854 / In Statice monopetala [L. = Limoniastrum monopetalum (L.) Boiss. (Plumbaginaceae)] parasita. / ..." (P 04608139, P 02985969 et P 02985973; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / sur le Gypsophila compressa [?] / ... / Gabes / Leg. Kralik  25 mars 1854" (P 04409250; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2016); "Phelipaea violacea / bords du Chott Fejej / Mars 79 // Phelipaea violacea Desf. (Coss.)" (P 02970646; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Gabes in arenosis / 5 febr. 1886 / A. Letourneux" (P 02985970 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015 [only one specimen close to its label]); 1. "Plantes de Tunisie / 220 Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Gabès: in arenosis maritimes / III-1907.  C.J. Pitard". 2. "Herb. Musei Hist. Natur. Vindob. / Cistanche violacea (Desf.) G. Beck / 1966 rev. A. Gilli"  (E 00029738; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Mar 2018); "Gabès. In arenosis maritimes, Pitard, III-1907 (MA 114698)" (Morales Abad & Fernández Casas, 1994: 369, mapa 590); "Orobanchées / Phelippaea violacea Desf. / Gabès, sables maritimes -- 11 Avril 1909 / A. Letourneux [?] // Herbier G. Hibon" (P 02986944; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); "Gabes (Kralik, PI. Tunet. n. 291; Pitard, PI. Tunet. n. 220!" (Beck, 1930: 30); Gabès Governorate [Wilyat Qbis], pr. Zerkine [Wd az Zarkn], N 33º 44' 50''  E 10º 16' 52'', parasitic on Chenopodiaceae, C. Aedo & al. CA16302_2 (herb. MA [inflorescence, flowers]). 

Gafsa: "Tunisie. Un seul individu observé près du caravansérail de Bir Saad, dans un endroit où les deux espèces génératrices se trouvèrent en abondance." (Murbeck, 1898: 30 et Beck, 1930: 32, loc. class. of Phelypaea lutea × violacea, Cistanche hybrida Beck, C. tinctoria × violacea Beck); "Tunetia meridion.: S. Iter Algeriensi-Tunetanum, 1896. / Phelypaea lutea Def.× violacea Def. / Murb., Contrib. II (in Acta Soc. Phys. Lund. T. IX) / Entre El Hafay [Al Hufayy] et Bir Saad [Bou Saad Bordj / Burj Bu Sa`d]. / 17.4  leg. & det. S. Murbeck" (P 02970652, holotype of Phelypaea lutea × violacea; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Apr 2015 (Moreno Moral & al., 2018 : 27)); "um Gafsa bei Leila (С.J. Pitard, Pl. de Tunisie, III. [1910], 724!" (Beck, 1930: 30, sub C. violacea); "bei Bir Saad nächst Tunis (Murbeck)" (Beck, 1930: 30, sub C. violacea); "Phelypaea violacea Desf. / Gafsa / 16-3-1950 / Legit  A. Labre" (P 04608138; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015).

Kebili / قبلي / Qibillī / Kébili: "Plantae tunetanae / Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Inter Biz Serira et Douz in arenis / 19 april 1887 / A. Letourneux // Mission scientifique de Tunisie / M. Letourneux, 1886-87" (P 02985968; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015); idem (P 02985970 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015 [only one specimen close to its label]); Bir Bou-Nab / Trés abondant d'El-Oued au Chott el Djerid / avec le P. lutea. / M Sedillot  1887." (P 02985970 - hb. E. Cosson; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Feb 2015 [the left specimen on the sheet]); "très probab. le 13.03.1970 / Tunisie / Phelypaea / violacea / ... / El-Oued au Chott el Djerid / Douz" (P 04409249; rev. Ó. Sánchez Pedraja Oct 2016); photos in "Voyage botanique en Tunisie meridionale du 28 mars au 3 avril 2008» Dimanche 30 mars 2008: Tataouine - campement d'Aïn Sebat [near Ksar Ghilane / Qaşr Ghīlān]" (accessed Feb 2012); "Douz ["gateway to the Sahara"] - Tunisie le 04.03.2009" (photos by Jean-Marc Moingeon in Plantes parasites - Pharmanatur, accessed Aug 2012); "Stations 15 et 16 - Dunes à Ephedra elata, El Faouar à 7 et 4 km au sud de Douz ... Station 18 - Bord du chott El Djerid [Chott el Djerid], à 32 km de Douz" (Guittonneau & al., 2011: 329, 339 photos[!], 342).

Médenine: "17 février 2013 - Djerba - Tunisie" et "14 février 2016 - Djerba - Tunisie" (photos in Flore de Djerba - Flore de France (SFO - Section Nord), accessed Jun 2016).

Sfax: "Cistanche violacea (Desf.) Hoffmanns. & Link; Tunisie-Sfax; num.coll.: cc2404; photo: Chatelain" (photo 149355 in Apd; accessed Mar 2018).

Tataouine: "Dimanche 30 mars 2008: Tataouine - campement d'Aïn Sebat" (photo 1 et 2 by in Voyage botanique en Tunisie meridionale du 28 Mars au 3 Avril 2008, accessed Feb 2015).

Tozeur: "R.-L. Desfontaines / Herbier de Barbarie / Phelipaea violacea Desf. / Loc.: in arenis deserti prope Tozzer. / Desf. Fl. atl. II, p. 60, t. 145. / Série de 600 nos ... // Phelipaea violacea // Typus" (G 00014078, lectotype of P. violacea (Moreno Moral & al., 2018 : 27)); "Habitat in arenis deserti prope Tozzer [Tozeur / Tawzar / (توزر‎), 33° 55’ 12’’ N  8° 8’ 24’’ E, oasis aux portes du désert du Sahara]" (Desfontaines, 1798: 61, loc. class. of P. violacea); "Habitat in areneis deserti Barbariae" (Willdenow, 1800: 353, sub O. foetida Desf.); "Hab. in deserto prope Tozzer" (Persoon, 1806: 181, sub P. violacea); "a sandy desert near Tozzer" (Don, 1838: 633, sub P. violacea); "Crescit in deserto Barbariae" (Walpers, 1842: 462, sub P. violacea); "bei Tozzer (Desfontaines)" (Beck, 1930: 30); Tozeur (photo 111280652609280922906 by François Munoz in Picasa, accessed Apr 2009).

Sahara / al-Kubrā / The Great Desert: "Toute la région saharienne" (Pomel, 1876: 107, sub P. violacea); "Sur le racines de Haloxylon tamariscifolium [Hammada articulata (Moq.) O. Bolòs & Vigo (Chenopodiaceae Vent.)] dans les steppes désertiques ... De l'Algérie à la Cyrénaïque [Cyrenaica, Libya]" (Jahandiez & Maire, 1934: 693); "South of the country", Tunisia , 2007-02-25, photo by Georges Olioso (accessed Feb 2012).

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